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Bawa, Ahmed; Mouton, Johann

South Africa's bold steps into a new democracy depended fundamentally on a national, broad-based intellectual culture which combined vibrant, intense discussion and debate with high levels of mature social and political tolerance. Over the years this intellectual culture has permeated the various social formations that constitute South African society. It was sharpened in the cauldron of the struggle for democracy, in the international isolation of South Africa during the deep, dark apartheid years and in the challenge of finding new strategies for development.  The impact of the higher education institutions on the development of this intellectual base is difficult to measure - largely because of the often ambivalent and inconsistent relationship between the institutions and the leadership of social and political organisations. Nevertheless, there can be no question about their role in producing intellectuals of different kinds who were central to the broad projects of national development - with, it must be said, both positive and negative results.  The ability of a nation to claim as its own a substantial body of natural, human and social scientists helps enormously to build the confidence of that nation state. The creation and development and maintenance of this intellectual culture depends fundamentally on the research culture of its higher education institutions.  This chapter describes the new policy framework for a national research system which was put in place after 1994. It provides a statistical overview of research expenditure and outputs, looks at the new role players, sketches out the emergence of a new research landscape and assesses some of the changes that have occurred since 1994.

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Chapter Title: Research
Book Title: Transformation in higher education: global pressures and local realities in South Africa
Edited by: Nico Cloete, Richard Fehnal, Peter Maassen, Teboho Moja, Helene Perold, Trish Gibbon
City: Lansdowne, Cape Town
Publisher: Juta and Company (Pty), Ltd.
No. of Pages: 296-337

Document Type:Chapter in Book (Peer Reviewed)
Subject Area:Research
Country:South Africa
Keywords:Research, Research and Development R&D, Higher Education Research, South African Universities, Policy, Research Funding, Statistics

File Size:752 KB
Rights:Permission to reproduce this chapter was granted by the editor.
Date Added:23 April 2007

Bawa, Ahmed; Mouton, Johann (2002). Research, In Nico Cloete et al ( eds), Transformation in higher education: global pressures and local realities in South Africa, Lansdowne, Cape Town: Juta and Company (Pty) Ltd., 296-337