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ࡱ> [ /bjbj 4ΐΐ  mGmGmGGGG8GLIG KK"KKKRRR{}}}}}}$8T9mG ]QR ] ]KKCyyy ]"KmGK{y ]{yyS9t K$i GfLg0 _.j ..mG| RxUzyXZRRR:wRRR ] ] ] ].RRRRRRRRR : Perceived ICT facilitation, employee competences and perfomance of MFIs in Uganda Musa Moya, Robert David Wanda and Robinah Akodo Abstract Ugandan populace of over 30% continue to leave under abject poverty despite having MFIs to help alleviate the situation. This study therefore focuses on the relationship between Perceived ICT Facilitation, Employee competences and Performance Microfinance Institutions in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a sample of 164 selected from a population of 197. Zero order correlations and regression results showed positive relationships between the study variables implying that performance of MFIs would be enhanced with improved perception ICT facilitation, and improved employee competences because these independent variables were positively correlated with the dependent variable, performance It was specifically noted that of all the independent variables monitoring ,controlling and evaluating skill sub- variables or sub-constructs most critical and contributed in fostering performance of MFIs than the remaining sub constructs in employee competences and all the sub variables in perceived ICT facilitation credited for giving a positive but low relationship with performance. Therefore Microfinance firms should endeavor and rely more in developing and nurturing and exploiting optimally employee and skills and also improve on the perception about the value of ICT if they are to continuously improve performance in terms of portfolio quality loan recovery and outreach. They should specifically according to this study harness planning, monitoring, control and evaluation skills of their employees. Keywords: ICT, Competences, performance INTRODUCTION The spark for microfinance is the story of Grameen (village bank) of Bangladesh founded in 1976 Since then, all over the world MFIs have caught fire permeating Grameen transplants to operate in the United States and Europe (Cohlin,1998, Rogaly et.al,1999), as well as Africa, other parts of Asia and Latin America (Hulne,1990;Thomas,1995;Taub, 1998;Wall street journal,1998) and Kasigazi,2004. The micro finance industry has been gaining prominence world over since mid 1970s when it was first introduced in the Asian and Latin American countries. For the case of Africa, the MFI model of poverty reduction and social transformation has largely been in place for only about 15 years now. Relatively, whereas in the Asian countries and many Latin American countries, the model has been fully institutionalized, nascent nature of the industry in Africa means the systems and processes of managing microfinance are still evolving and it is only fair to say that in Africa, such institutionalization is not strong enough. In the last ten or so years however, there has been tremendous effort to ensure proper and professional operation of these MFIs. Specifically, it is has been noted that there has been dynamic growth in the sector in terms of outreach to the client population to about 70% per annum (Nanyonjo & Nsubuga, 2004). Asset growth in the industry has also widened and currently stands at about UGX 53 billion worth of loan portfolio with an estimated 1500 MFIs in Uganda operating in about 52 out of 80 districts (The New Vision august, 2008) mostly concentrated in urban areas; according to reports by the Association of Microfinance Institutions in Uganda (AMFIU, 2005) and Bank of Uganda working paper (2004). By the end of 2003, about 1,500 MFIs, were serving more than 935,000 small savers and close to 400,000 borrowers in the country, of which about 1300 were SACCOS, with a turnover of 30bn shillings (CGAP, 2004). Despite these developments, reports also indicate that several gaps still exist thereby undermining the performance of these MFIs (Mwonda, E, 2005);(CGAP, 2004).This gaps are reflected in the fact that although MFIs are expected to contribute to the alleviation of poverty, there is empirical evidence on how MFIs have not reached and served the poorest of the poor (Rosenberg, 2006; Fraser and Kazi,(006). According to Hashemi and Rosenberg (2006) argument, MFIs, aim at a trade-off. They cannot be in position of serving the ultra poor at the expense of losing profits; hence their fundamental target remains largely unattained i.e. self sustenance and outreach, as the poor are targeted clientele at a high cost that reduces significantly the profitability. The gap is even wider in rural areas (Gaamaa Hishigsuren, 2006). The other gap is there is poor perception by some MFIs and their employees who view ICT as an expensive facility that may not help to yield the desired performance given the low employee computer skills (Whelan, 2003).This is more pronounced in SACCOS which are associations of farmers and other less economically well to do groups, according to Muhumuza, 2007; Chairman Kyebando SACCO (FSA) and can therefore not afford procuring modern ICT facility. Further evidence suggests that, data collected about clients is manually done and entered into computers later, leading to wastage of time and resources due to double entry (CGAP, 2004). This notably reduces on the time available for the loan officers to focus on core tasks such as portfolio management. Unfortunately, this manual entry does not enable quick retrieval incase a decision is to be made about a given client. Most MFIs are still piloting ICT application and are reluctant to fully invest in it expecting low returns and other benefits (Hirschland, 2003). Performance in MFIs may be gauged from the arrears levels. Profitability, loan recovery and outreach to clients and geographical coverage of the services (Gaamaa Hishigsuren, 2006).Portfolio At Risk (PAR) forms the most vital measure of performance (CGAP, 2002).Whereas loan recovery has been recently reported to have improved, this is mainly among the so called Micro Finance Deposit Taking Institutions (MDI) which came into effect after operationalising the transformation act of 2003 (CGAP, 2004). The rest of MFIs in other categories are still struggling with loan recovery and client drop out rate, which is estimated at about 30% per annum. At the same time, most MFIs are registering low new members (Mwandha, 2005) as echoed by Christen &Pearce, 2005 and Silva, 2002. For example, NEDA is one of the providers of microfinance services, whose operations are characterized by low loan recovery rate and high incidence of borrower default cases. One of the most serious risks pertains to loan delinquency; that is late loan payment. Measures undertaken to reduce loan default and delinquency rates including reminders, court action, collateral attachment, renegotiation of loan terms and write-offs, have however not been able to precipitate or prevent loan delinquency incidence and default. For instance, between 2002 and 2003 annual loan recovery rate at NEDA stood at 67%; a situation, which compares unfavorably with world best recovery practices of 98% (Alan, 2004); Nicolas Myrette Diybylock (2005). According to http:\\  HYPERLINK "http://www.mixmarket.org" www.mixmarket.org, loan recovery rates for nearly all MFIs is between 90% and 100% which means NEDA situation is below the international best loan recovery practices. During the same period, 44% of the NEDA loan clients were inactive as shown in the table below. Table 1: Loan Portfolio Activity Indicators for the period 2002 to 2004 in UGSHS Portfolio Activity200220032004 2007Value of loans disbursed363,700,000401,700,000587,150,000125,000,000Value of loans outs standing103,368,246136,726,647197,767,771139,000,000Number of loans disbursed 292 209 197250Number of active loans 133 116 130125 Internal source: National Enterprises Development Association & AMFIU 2006 and 2007. The situation described above is not helped by the fact that most MFIs have weak employee competences which further weakens their ability to manage loan portfolio and so as to deliver superior performance (Nanyonjo & Nsubuga, 2004). Such competencies include skills acquired thorough formal levels of education training, and learning attitudes, job experience, and planning, monitoring, evaluation and control of loan portfolio. Most employees seem to lack critical competencies and skills necessary to enable the organizations learn and adopt its self to the changing circumstances. (Dawa, 2003) Further evidence suggests that there has not been significant investment in ICT infrastructure both soft and hardware that is necessary to harness maximum productivity (Whelan,2003). Most ICT investments seem to have been basic but not critical enough to enable MFI gain competitive advantage Gaamaa Hishigsuren (2006); Gibson &Meehan (2000); Reille &Ivatury (2003). Information on how many users are serving rural areas and how many of them reach the rural poor is not available, Ivatury (2005) Waterfield (2004) Statement of the Problem Most MFIS have advanced to appreciable performance levels in terms of portfolio, growth and outreach over the years. However, the low levels of perceived ICT facilitation and the apparent lack of employee competences among MFIS in Uganda appear to be responsible for the reduced productivity among loan officers, loan portfolio, client growth, loan recovery rates, and out reach and therefore rendering low service delivery to the intended clients. This situation puts performance of MFIS at stake. (Gibbons & Meehan, 2000). Information on how many users of ICT are serving rural areas and how many of them actually reach rural poor people is not available. (Ivatury, 2005 and Waterfied, 2004). For example, although there are over 1000 MFIs in Uganda focusing on economic development and poverty eradication, still over 30% of Ugandans are living below poverty levels with only an estimated 10% of rural population having access to financial services (CGAP, 2004). This limited outreach and other performance constraints could be explained by low levels of ICT facilitation and lack of employee competences, other factors held constant (Tumusiime,2005; Dawa, 2004). This is evidenced in the low monitoring & evaluation which may lead to higher client dropout rates in Ugandan MFIs (Mutesasira et.al, 1999). Purpose of the Study To establish the relationship between perceived ICT facilitation, employee competences, and performance among MFIs in Uganda. Study Objectives The study seeks to achieve the following objectives: To establish the relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation and Employee Competencies. ii) To establish the relationship between Employee Competences and Performance iii) To establish the relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation and Performance Scope of the study Geographical Scope The study was conducted in Kampala city, where the headquarters of FINCA Uganda (MDI) Ltd, FAULU Uganda Ltd, FSA (splinter SACCOS) and NEDA, are found and with the highest number of branches. A total of 17 microfinance institutions namely MFIS, SACCOS, limited companies and NGOS were studied to arrive at a more conclusive research. Conceptual Scope The study focused on the relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation, Employee competences and Performance. Under perceived ICT facilitation the study considered aspects of ICT speed, information security, convenience, accuracy and systems reliability. Under employee competencies the study focused on skills acquired from: level of education and training, job experience, mobilizing recruiting and training clients. It also assessed employee abilities in: planning, monitoring evaluation and control of loan portfolio. Under performance of MFIs, the study focused on establishing portfolio at risk; client growth loan recovery and outreach levels as dependent variables, among selected MFIs in Kampala, where Content scope The study was limited to establishing the relationships between; perceived ICT facilitation, Employee competences and performance of MFIs in Uganda- a case of selected MFIs. The other factors that may influence performance such as financial support, population characteristics, management, unpublished interest rates and others are outside the scope of this study and were assumed constant. The Conceptual Framework        Source: Adapted from Gaamaa Hishigsuren (2006) and Literature review. It is conceptualized that perceived ICT facilitation at the work place and nurturing employee competencies, Wood ruffle (2003), Schuffman & Kanuk (2001) positions the organization to embrace new changes from within and without the organization. This perceived ICT facilitation together with employee competencies enable the organization to improve its performance. (Ann Luke et.al 2003). Possible intervening factors are assumed ineffective to enable conclusive observations. These may include corporate culture, organizational policies and systems failure among others. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design The study used a cross-sectional correlation survey design to evaluate the perceived ICT facilitation with the objective of establishing whether this facilitation together with employee competences enhance performance of MFIs. It was a qualitative and quantitative study. The design was used because data about the variables could be obtained at a given period of time by analyzing the events as they occurred at a given point in time. A correlation approach was used to establish relationships between variables. The design was in such a way as to provide answers to the four research questions posed. Study population and size The study focused on 197 employees in the four MFIs namely: FINCA (62), FAULU (54), FSA (Splitter SACCOS) (43) and NEDA (38), to assess their job competencies in using ICT to improve performance of MFIs. To obtain better and reliable results and due to restrictions in obtaining data in some targeted MFIs like FAULU and FSA, data gathering was extended to other MFIs like UGAFODE, Astor Finance PLC, Strome Ltd and others as shown in table 4.5. For example, FSA (Financial Services Association) was a group of SACCOS operating as a Limited Company but was abolished by the MDI ACT 2003, splitting it into independent but related individual cooperatives operating in Mulago, Kyebando and Kawempe zones as SACCOS.In reference to AMFIU 2006 and 2007, its performance reports with a personal initiative and in consultation with the supervisors, the researcher selected some additional but viable MFIs and SACCOS for study othr than th e proposed. Sample size determination Basing on the table of Morgan & Kreijer (1970) in Sekaran (2000), the researcher proportionately and randomly selected 164 respondents including managers (12), supervisors (25), loan officers (116) and IT staff (11) to respond to the questions. This was supported by Baileys (1994) assertion that a sample size of 100 was adequate. These officers were selected because branch managers, supervisors, loan officers and ICT staff are at the forefront of MFI operations, are thought to have a good understanding and use of ICT, knowledge of organizational policy implementation and could give reliable data for analysis thereby permitting a better research report. However, as reported in tables 4.1 to 4.8, only valid percentages based on responses were analyzed. Non responses were not reported but inferred from the valid percentages columns. Table 2 Population and sample size StrataPopulation in MFIsTargeted No. of Respondents in MFIsFINCAFAULFSANEDAFINCAFAULFSANEDAManagers54334332Supervisors107659664Loan Officers4239312738312522IT staff54334322Total G.Total.62 197 54433855 164433630Source: primary data Sampling Method The researcher used stratified sampling to choose managers, supervisors, loan officers and IT staffs that were thought to have a good understanding of the variables under study. Judgmental sampling was used to select respondents for the study. Stratified random sampling was adopted because the population under study did not constitute a homogeneous group and random sampling had least bias with the most generalisability (Sekaran, 2000). Four strata were formed basing on their characteristics and numbers. Random sampling was then employed to the four strata to select 12 managers, 25 supervisors, 116 loan officers and 11 IT staff; as respondents. The numbers were arrived at using proportional sampling and design since the purpose was not to determine the differences among the strata. Data Collection Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources Primary data A pre- tested structured questionnaire designed by the researcher was used to obtain primary data from the respondents. The questionnaire was self administered The researcher with the help of two research assistants visited sampled microfinance institutions, introduced himself with the aid of the letter from MUBS and requested respondents with the help of customer service staff to fill the questionnaires. These could be collected after they were completed. Secondary data Secondary data was collected from several sources including: journals and articles; internet sources, AMFIU and Institute of Bankers library journals and reports as well as MFIs documented statements and management reports. Intelligence interviews were carried out with friendly employees to confidentially obtain primary and secondary data where managers could not provide it, for fear of being victimized or violating corporate ethics. Some were just lazy, too busy and malice and wanted to avoid being bothered, or fatigued by students This was also a useful tool for gathering data in other MFIs like FAULU which had stopped giving data to research students due to then on going restructuring/ impending merger and the researcher had been told to go back the following year after the organization has completed its restructuring. The required data was collected after strenuously over time. Procedure The researcher with the help of two research assistants visited sampled microfinance institutions introduced himself with the aid of the letter from MUBS and requested respondents with the help of customer service staff to fill the questionnaires. These could be collected after they were completed. A total of 95 out of100 of the valid respondents fully filled instruments were received from the field, representing about 90% response rate as shown in table 4.1 to 4.8 of valid response percentages. Data Quality Control Ethical considerations For emphasis, to ensure high quality of findings, the researcher obtained an introductory letter from Makerere University Business School to assure management in the MFIs about the intention of the research. The intention was purely academic and this was made clear to all respondents with responses being completely confidential. The data collected was self-checked, pre-coded, pre- tested for validity and reliability before the analysis stage and to exclude questionnaires with inconsistent information and responses. Generally, CVI of 0.5 and above and Cronbachs values of 0.5 and above are acceptable a (Field, 2000).These are explained below. Content Validity Index (CVI) Validity of the Instruments was obtained using the content validity index (CVI) The pre-tested questionnaire were distributed to five experts to rate the relevancy of the questions using a 4-point scale of: very relevant, relevant, quite relevant and not relevant. Content Validity Index (CVI) for all experts was above 0.5; this indicated that the research questions were relevant and valid. Expert one CVI was 0.7325 while expert two CVI was 0.7934. Reliability of the instruments Reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha () The internal consistence of scales used to measure the variables on the instrument was measured using Cronbach Alpha () coefficient. The instrument was reliable since all the alpha coefficients were above 0.5 as shown in table 3.2 below. Table 3.2: Reliability Test Variable Cronbachs Alpha CoefficientSpeed0.8632Information Security0.7889Convenience0.7647Accuracy0.7237Reliability0.8472Mobilizing and recruitment0.7107Training0.7842Planning0.7231Monitoring0.7832Evaluation0.8902Control0.7543Source: Primary data Measurement of Variables Perceived ICT facilitation The independent variables were: Perceived ICT Facilitation and employee competences while the dependent variable was performance Perceived ICT facilitation was examined and related to performance using a standard questionnaire. A set of questions were asked to establish perceived accuracy, information security, speed, reliability and convenience due to embracing ICT. The questions were constructed on a scale of 1-5 so that respondents could give their Views on how they perceived ICT facilitation to have helped them to improve Performance Employee competency Employee competency profiles(Appendix 11) were developed by modifying the profiles given in the work done by Ninsiima,2003.These competences were reflected in skills acquired in terms of level of education and on job training, job experience, mobilizing & recruiting loan clients and training them, planning for loan giving ,monitoring, evaluation and control of the loan portfolio. They were developed for loan officers, supervisors managers and ICT staff, by the researcher, and from these, self administered questionnaires were designed in line with the constructs identified. The competencies were tested via a 1-5 point likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree to obtain primary data on how the officers, given their competences, viewed ICT as facilitating their effort to improve performance of MFIs. Performance of MFIs Performance of MFIs was measured in respect of the following indicators: Portfolio at risk, client growth, loan recovery/ and out reach. Portfolio at risk was viewed in terms of the value of loans remaining unpaid past the due date- say 1 day, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days and 180 days. While loan recovery was viewed from how many and value of the loans have been recovered as required, before or on the due date. Client outreach was reflected in the number and quality of clients served by the MFIs while outreach has been viewed as the capacity to reach the financially excluded, whoever and whenever they are; entailing serving the ultra-poor and the locationally disadvantaged population including accessing rural and remote areas of the economy Beatrice Sabana, (2005). Data Analysis The principal independent variables considered for the study were perceived ICT and employee competency while the dependent variable was performance of MFIs. After data had been collected from the field, the questionnaires were coded and entered in the computer using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS).Version 10 of SPSS was used. Missing responses in the data were filled using the transform option of the software for clean up and consistence before running the actual analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Under descriptive statistics, frequencies were run to gain a view of how data had been dispersed. Pearsons Correlation Coefficient using a two-tailed test and regression analysis and graphs constructed were used to gauge the existence and strength of relationships between the Perceived ICT Facilitation Employee Competence and Performance variables given in the conceptual framework. Regression analysis was appropriate here because it is a predictive model used to predict values of independent variable from one or more independent variables (Andy Field, 2000; Mfitundinda, H. 2006). Pearsons correlation coefficient was used because of the comparatively small size of the sample in relation to the entire Kampala and or Uganda MFIs and parametric nature of the data, (normally distributed data, homogeneity of variance, interval data and independence), while a two-tailed test was used because the relationship between the variables was expected, but the direction of the relationship was unpredictable. (Andy Field, 2000; Mfitundinda, H.2006) FINDINGS Demographic Data The demographic data included gender, marital status, age, job designation, and name of institution, type of institution, department and number of clients. Most of the respondents were male constituting55% and females were 45%. Single respondents were 55% followed by 38% married and 8% others. The most predominant age group was 20-35 years constituting 74%,22% was 36-50 years and only 4% over 50 years. Majority of the respondents were loan officers 44%, followed by supervisor 40%, manager 12% and IT Officers 3%. Majority of the respondents were from FINCA 58%, followed by UG UGAFODE 8% and others constituted 34%. As far as the department in which correspondent works is concerned, the study findings revealed that majority worked in operations 40%,loan recovery 31%,finance and accounts 18%, IT 8% while Internal Audit 3% and Human Resource 1%. Over 60 clients are served per week as indicated by 58% of the respondents, 16% were 41- 60, 14% 1 20 and 12% 21-40 clients as indicated in tale 4.8 and chart 4.8 above. Inferential Analysis Correlation analysis using spearman rank order correlation was used to determine the degree of relationships between Perceived ICT Facilitation, Employee Competences and performance of MFIs as shown in correlation matrices below. Multiple regressions using step wise method was used to predict the level of performance. Relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation and Employee Competences (objective 1) Table 4.11. Correlation matrix for Perceived ICT facilitation and Employee Competences  Source: Primary data There was a positive relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation and employee competences ( r= 0.237*, 0.197, 0.067, 0.031, 0.025, 0.127, 0.140) respectively for level of education, job experience, planning, training, monitoring, control and evaluation as shown in table 4.11 above. Relationship between employee competence and performance ( objective 2) Table 4.12: Correlation matrix for employee competence and performance  Source; Primary data: There was a positive relationship between employee competences and performance of MFIs (r= 0.161, 0.262**, 0.650**, 0.117, 0.632**, 0.624** 0.671**) respectively for level of education, job experience, planning, training, monitoring, control and evaluation. Relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation and Performance (objective 3) Table 4.13: Correlation matrix for Perceived ICT facilitation and Performance SpeedSecurityConvenienceReliabilityAccuracyPerceived ICT FacilitationPortfolio at riskClient GrowthLoan RecoveryOutreachPerformance Speed1.000 Security.5851.000 Convenience.189.3011.000 Reliability.303.244.6051.000 Accuracy.457.432.487.5071.000 Perceived ICT Facilitation.696.651.621.636.6921.000 Portfolio at risk-.134-.252.125.252.120.0381.000 Client Growth.006-.133.082.144.054.073.4781.000 Loan Recovery.218-.006.192.371.248.273.480.6211.000 Outreach.056.093.236.352.292.260.276.415.5621.000 Performance.018-.086.150.273.156.167.588.766.809.6991.000  Source: primary data. There was a positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and performance (r= 0.167, p-value > 0.05). This implied that ICT facilitation contributed positively to performance of MFIs. Regression Analysis of Perceived ICT facilitation, Employee Competence and Performance (objective 4) Using stepwise regression method employee competences were significantly linearly related to performance of MFIs (F= 69.953, SIG = 0.000) as shown in table below. Table 4.14: Regression Model Unstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig. lBStd. ErrorBeta 1(Constant)1.248.2564.870.000 Evaluation.745.061.78312.136.000 2(Constant)1.075.2414.465.000 Evaluation.448.092.4714.859.000 Monitoring.356.087.3964.082.000 3(Constant).793.2543.120.002 Evaluation.245.116.2572.117.037 Monitoring.292.087.3243.336.001 Control.321.116.3162.754.007 R- Squared = 0.698, Adjusted R- Squared = 0.688, F = 69.953, SIG = 0.000 Dependent Variable: Performance Source: Primary data. Evaluation, Monitoring and Control explained 68.8 % of the total variance of performance of MFIs. Monitoring (Beta= 0.324, sig. =0.001 contributing more on performance followed by, Control (Beta = 0.316, sig. = 0.007 and Evaluation (beta= 0.257, sig. =.0.037. All perceived ICT facilitation variables were eliminated by step wise regression. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS General discussion . Relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and employee competence There was a positive low relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and employee competence in MFIs. This means with increased in perception in the value and use of ICT, employee competences will be enhanced. The positive but low relationship can be attributed to the fact that employees attitude and perception about the value of ICT in MFIs is still low. This is because employees were used to the manual systems of work and organizations like miffs are still piloting on the use and value of ICT, thereby rendering investments in this area low The employees and firms expect low benefits overall. This is more so with the majority of mfis in tier 4, the so called SACCOS. However, with the passing of the MDI Bill in 2003, many mfis especially NGOS and companies like FINCA ,U LTD have taken up this challenge and are have ,using some modern ICT, networked their operations where clients can use debit cards ATMS and other POS devises to increase out reach ,though in a cost effective manner. This is supported by Gaamaa, H.2006, pp13 a case study of Mongolian mfis, where it was discovered and inferred that many ICT applications are highly innovative, but face barriers that limit provision of services to rural areas. These barriers include institutional capacity and lack of requisite human resource competences to maximally harness the ICT to foster performance especially so in developing countries. As a result most mfis investments in ICT are not critical enough to make them competitive (Gaamaa, 2006).MFIs perceive low benefits from ICT and are reluctant to invest in it .The low investments and outreach in ICT is due to very poor connectivity in rural areas, poor infrastructure, low density, remoteness and dependence on agriculture .75% of the Ugandan population live in rural areas and only 8% have been served by mfis , all of which lead to higher transaction costs making it less profitable. Nevertheless the rapidity with which advancement in positive perception and implementation of ICT in mfis and other firms is taking place presents many unique opportunities in expanding access of financial services to the poor Relationship between employee competence and performance There was a significant positive relationship between employee competences and performance of MFIs. This implies that higher levels of employee competences in an mfi will lead to a significantly higher level of performance of the mfi in terms of portfolio quality indicated by portfolio at risk, loan recovery, client growth and outreach; when intervening factors like corporate culture, workers attitude and environmental impact held constant. The findings are supported by Lado and Wilson (1994) as highlighted by Mfitundinda,2006 Pp 53, who reaffirmed that managerial competences had a positive relationship with business performance, The findings are also supported by Cracknell(2004) ,who reaffirms the importance of enabling environment . he asserts that good employee competences will foster performance in mfis as long as environment like: well developed banking and retail sectors, a supportive central bank, good communications and generally positive policy environment are friendly(Gaama,H.2006,pp 8).Dawa,2004, says highlights the effect of employee behavior attitude and impliedly competences on performance. Without requisite competences and skills in managing loan portfolio, performance of mfis and its survival will be threatened. These competences are reflected in skills planning, monitoring control and evaluation of loan portfolio among others and are important in keeping truck on recovery of loans disbursed at lower costs making mfis avoid high operation costs and therefore operate profitably. This was observed by Gaama,2006,pp4, where he asserted that the main constraint related to rural outreach by mfis is high transaction and supervisory costs and that there should be a trade- off between minimizing loan default and supervisory costs .The nature of lending especially in agriculture , makes transaction costs and supervisory costs disproportionately high relative to urban lending Relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and performance There was a low positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and performance of MFIs as seen in Piersons correlation Coefficient. This implies that an increase in perceived ICT facilitation will lead to a lower increase in performance of mfis. The positive but low relationship can be attributed to the fact that perception by the organization and staff without physical, tangible effort to invest in ICT and implement an aggressive strategy to apply ICT in mfi operations cost effectively, cannot bring forth high benefits. The rate at which ICT investments is being applied to foster mfi performance is still low. Most mfis and are reluctant to t This implies that higher levels of employee competences in an mfi will lead to a significantly higher levl of performance of the mfi in terms of portfolio quality indicated by portfolio at risk, loan recovery, client growth and outreach; when intervening factors like corporate culture, workers attitude and environmental impact held constant. The findings are supported by Cracknell(2004) ,who reaffirms the importance of enabling environment . he asserts that good employee competences will foster performance in mfis as long as environment like: well developed banking and retail sectors, a supportive central bank, good communications and generally positive policy environment are friendly(Gaama,H.2006,pp 8).Dawa,2004, says highlights the effect of employee behavior attitude and impliedly competences on performance. Without requisite competences and skills in managing loan portfolio, performance of mfis and its survival will be threatened. These competences are reflected in skills planning, monitoring control and evaluation of loan portfolio among others and are important in keeping truck on recovery of loans disbursed at lower costs making mfis avoid high operation costs and therefore operate profitably. This was observed by Gaama,2006,pp4, where he asserted that the main constraint related to rural outreach by mfis is high transaction and supervisory costs and that there should be a trade- off between minimizing loan default and supervisory costs .The nature of lending especially in agriculture , makes transaction costs and supervisory costs disproportionately high relative to urban lending. They are reluctant to invest in it because they expect low returns yet at higher costs of ICT at branch networking, thereby pushing for a trade-off between costs and benefits These findings have been supported several authors, namely Silva, 2002, who observed that the ICT hardware like pocket computers allow loan officers to fill out forms containing customer information and provide and indication of whether loans can be approved or not in the field, thereby automating information gathering and outreach performance therefore, thus a positive relationship between ICT and outreach performance. According to Mathison,s,2004,mfis should use MIS or ICT to monitor quality, sustainability efficiency of portfolio and this will lead to expansion of outreach.Siu,P,2004 observes that a mix if MIS, such as PDAs and ATMS reduce paperwork and allow loan officers at head offices to serve I field clients at branches.Ivatury,2005 and Gaamaa,2006 have asserted that its expensive and un desirable to invest in branch ICT which may reduce profitability ,hence the low perception. However they argue that setting up branches conveniently located in rural areas near clients is better even if the ICT investment level is low, performance will improve. it will be a while until mfis will be able to fully utilize all the potential of ICT(Gaama,2006). The Coefficient also showed a positive relationship in terms of outreach and client growth in terms of breadth and depth and quality as well. This means with a good ICT policy MFIs will achieve quality service delivery which will attract more clients hence outreach and client growth will improve. The results are in agreement with Ivatury, 2005, who asserts that ICT have emerged as a powerful tool to reduce operation costs making it viable for financial institutions to expand into rural areas of low income people. He urges that ICT innovations such as a will improve. The results are in agreement with Ivatury, 2005, who asserts that ICT have emerged as a powerful tool to reduce operation costs making it viable for financial institutions to expand into rural areas of low income people. He argues that ICT innovations such as a personal computer connected to the internet, a mobile phone, an ATM and other POS devises located at retail or postal outlet may be less expensive to establish than branches located in rural areas. Unlike real cash transactions, ICT based transactions can take place with time or with no time required on a letter. Stephen Whelan of the CGAP also supports this view giving various technologies used such as ATMs, PDAs and IVRs. Gibson and Meehan claim, use of ICT will improve efficiency and increase outreach performance, thus the positive relationship. Relationship between perceived ICT facilitation, employee competence and Performance. Using stepwise regression method, employee competences showed the highest and significant linear positive relationship with performance of mfis. at F=69.95.5, Significant at 0.000. Monitoring, control and evaluation as constructs of employee competences predicted positively the performance of MFIs. in Uganda. Evaluation, monitoring and control alone explained 68% of the total variance of performance of MFIs as seen in regression analysis table 4.14. This means employee competences more so in monitoring B= .324 contributed most to performance, followed by controlling skill B= 0.316 and evaluation B=0.257, contributed most to performance. All perceived ICT facilitation variables were eliminated by stepwise regression. The positive significant relationship can be attributed to the fact that increased performance in terms of portfolio quality, credit management and outreach can only be registered if the mfi has in place the requisite employees with the right competence to deliver the required service or else the firms survival will be at stake. ICT supplements staff capabilities to improve performance but cannot substitute it entirely. The findings show low but positive relationship between perceived ICT and performance but a stronger relationship between employee competences with performance. This is expected and is because before one appreciates the use and role of ICT, he or she should already be having the basic knowledge, training and competences to apply the ICT in a situation at hand. To perceive an idea or something in itself is a competence because some folks do not perceive but just exist by following others. This is not in consonance with Nanyonjo & Nsubuga, 2004 observation that most mfis have weak employee competences like job experience and learning attitude and team work, which further weakens their ability to manage loan portfolio and hence deliver superior performance. They assert that most employees seem to lack critical competences and skills necessary to enable the organizations learn and adopt themselves to changes. On the contrary where as this study findings show that competences are a necessary condition to have superior performance, information is not readily available as to how many mfis actually have these staff competences and can these alone given the environmental and other intervening factors of performance promote , as supported by Gaamaa,H.2006 and Cracknell,2004. It should be noted that some employee competences like: education and training levels, job experience mobilizing ,training and recruiting clients and the perception of by employees on the value of ICT as a tool to foster performance of mfis have contributed less to performance, than the monitoring ,evaluation and control, hence the low and significantly high relationship scenario given above. Conclusion The study focused on the relationship between perceived ICT facilitation, Employee competence and performance of MFIs in Uganda. Correlation analysis using spearmans rank correlation was used to determine the degree of relationships between the variables. Multiple regression analysis using stepwise method was used to predict the level of performance. There was a positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and employee competences table 4.7. This meant that when mfis and their employees view ICT as a credible facility that can support work effort, their competences will improve increase, which leads to higher labor productivity. Therefore all mfis should embrace ICT application if they are to improve their staff performance. Employee competences also positively influence perceived ICT facilitation. This means when staff is competent they will appreciate the value of ICT better than when they are illiterate and un- skilled at their work placements. Thus improved perception of employees on value and application of ICT will improve employee competences. There was a positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and performance (table4.13) r=0.167, p-value >0.05. Perceived ICT facilitation positively enhanced the performance of MFIs. This implies that the higher the perception and application of ICT in MFIs the higher the performance of mfis will be .MFIs should therefore encourage a positive perception and application of ICT if they are to expand performance. There was a positive relationship between employee competences and performance of MFIs as shown in table 4.12.This means employee competencies significantly contributed to performance of MFI therefore when employee competences are natured and improved, performance in mfis and elsewhere will be enhanced. Employers of MFIs should promote and develop skills of their employees in order to promote performance. When multiple regression analysis was done to determine the performance of mfis, the observed predictors which were perceived ICT facilitation and employee competences, employee competences was seen to emerge as the principal predictor of performance. Among the principal predictor factor, monitoring (32. %), controlling (31.6%) and evaluation (25.7%) contributed most to 68.8%, combined (Adjusted R-Squared =0.6888.)The regression model was significant at 0.000 and F change =69.9563. As mentioned earlier in text other factors such as corporate culture political and environmental effect and employee attitude that could influence performance exist but these have been assumed constant to enable the researcher arrive at logical conclusions. Recommendations The study focused on the Perceived ICT facilitation, Employee competences and Performance of MFIs in Uganda. This study showed that three were positive relationships between perceived ICT facilitation, Employee competences and performance of mfis Based on these findings findings, the following recommendations are made so as to improve on the performance. In respect to positive but low relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and employee competences the mfis especially those in tier four, mostly SACCOS should work towards transforming into regulated financial institutions, so that they can establish standardized policies and procedures related to ICT, employees competences requirements and performance and capital financing so that they can truly promote their dual mission of serving the ultra poor(social mission) at economic costs (profitability). The mfis should train and improve on the workers operational and portfolio management skills using the best ICT facilities and should be counseled to appreciate he role of ICT in fostering labor efficiency. On the significantly positive relationship between employee competences and performance, MFIs should especially the SACCOS AND NGOs should work hard towards increasing their outreach in all ways broadly, deeply and in partnerships or linkages using the available human, financial and modern ICT and economically so as to survive in the competitive environment. They should peruse the policy of continuous improvement and workers retention through better motivation so that performance is enhanced continually. On the low but positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and performance MFIs should embrace ICT core activities such as market research and financial management as way of winning marketability of their products and therefore delivering superior performance. They should for example train in modern ICT all their productive staff in marketing and operations continuously advising them on the value of embracing ICT in all their operations. This will lower costs of operations, increase output and attract a better and sustainable market. The mfis should lobby government to help them improve communication infrastructure and and avoid donor dependence in case of NGOs 5they can support government programs of managing Bona Bagagawale at a fee, though cautiously as politics can kill their intended dual mission. The central bank can help in acquiring the necessary standards needed for transformation and monitoring performance. Mfis should maintain and improve this by delivering at convenient terms loan and savings products to clients As regards the combined positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation, employee competency and performance, the establish better incentives for employees and clients that promote loan recoveries for example interest rebates or disincentives like penalties for late payments and no more loans for clients who delay beyond agreed terms mfis should maintain and improve this by delivering at convenient terms on loan and savings products to clients. Collateral and legal action can be sought where the client fails totally and intentionally MFIs should develop a portfolio information system that enables management to conduct timely and useful analysis of portfolio quality and trends such as aging the arrears so as to determine and minimize the causes of loan delinquency. 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ࡱ> [ /bjbj 4ΐΐ  mGmGmGGGG8GLIG KK"KKKRRR{}}}}}}$8T9mG ]QR ] ]KKCyyy ]"KmGK{y ]{yyS9t K$i GfLg0 _.j ..mG| RxUzyXZRRR:wRRR ] ] ] ].RRRRRRRRR : Perceived ICT facilitation, employee competences and perfomance of MFIs in Uganda Musa Moya, Robert David Wanda and Robinah Akodo Abstract Ugandan populace of over 30% continue to leave under abject poverty despite having MFIs to help alleviate the situation. This study therefore focuses on the relationship between Perceived ICT Facilitation, Employee competences and Performance Microfinance Institutions in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey design was used with a sample of 164 selected from a population of 197. Zero order correlations and regression results showed positive relationships between the study variables implying that performance of MFIs would be enhanced with improved perception ICT facilitation, and improved employee competences because these independent variables were positively correlated with the dependent variable, performance It was specifically noted that of all the independent variables monitoring ,controlling and evaluating skill sub- variables or sub-constructs most critical and contributed in fostering performance of MFIs than the remaining sub constructs in employee competences and all the sub variables in perceived ICT facilitation credited for giving a positive but low relationship with performance. Therefore Microfinance firms should endeavor and rely more in developing and nurturing and exploiting optimally employee and skills and also improve on the perception about the value of ICT if they are to continuously improve performance in terms of portfolio quality loan recovery and outreach. They should specifically according to this study harness planning, monitoring, control and evaluation skills of their employees. Keywords: ICT, Competences, performance INTRODUCTION The spark for microfinance is the story of Grameen (village bank) of Bangladesh founded in 1976 Since then, all over the world MFIs have caught fire permeating Grameen transplants to operate in the United States and Europe (Cohlin,1998, Rogaly et.al,1999), as well as Africa, other parts of Asia and Latin America (Hulne,1990;Thomas,1995;Taub, 1998;Wall street journal,1998) and Kasigazi,2004. The micro finance industry has been gaining prominence world over since mid 1970s when it was first introduced in the Asian and Latin American countries. For the case of Africa, the MFI model of poverty reduction and social transformation has largely been in place for only about 15 years now. Relatively, whereas in the Asian countries and many Latin American countries, the model has been fully institutionalized, nascent nature of the industry in Africa means the systems and processes of managing microfinance are still evolving and it is only fair to say that in Africa, such institutionalization is not strong enough. In the last ten or so years however, there has been tremendous effort to ensure proper and professional operation of these MFIs. Specifically, it is has been noted that there has been dynamic growth in the sector in terms of outreach to the client population to about 70% per annum (Nanyonjo & Nsubuga, 2004). Asset growth in the industry has also widened and currently stands at about UGX 53 billion worth of loan portfolio with an estimated 1500 MFIs in Uganda operating in about 52 out of 80 districts (The New Vision august, 2008) mostly concentrated in urban areas; according to reports by the Association of Microfinance Institutions in Uganda (AMFIU, 2005) and Bank of Uganda working paper (2004). By the end of 2003, about 1,500 MFIs, were serving more than 935,000 small savers and close to 400,000 borrowers in the country, of which about 1300 were SACCOS, with a turnover of 30bn shillings (CGAP, 2004). Despite these developments, reports also indicate that several gaps still exist thereby undermining the performance of these MFIs (Mwonda, E, 2005);(CGAP, 2004).This gaps are reflected in the fact that although MFIs are expected to contribute to the alleviation of poverty, there is empirical evidence on how MFIs have not reached and served the poorest of the poor (Rosenberg, 2006; Fraser and Kazi,(006). According to Hashemi and Rosenberg (2006) argument, MFIs, aim at a trade-off. They cannot be in position of serving the ultra poor at the expense of losing profits; hence their fundamental target remains largely unattained i.e. self sustenance and outreach, as the poor are targeted clientele at a high cost that reduces significantly the profitability. The gap is even wider in rural areas (Gaamaa Hishigsuren, 2006). The other gap is there is poor perception by some MFIs and their employees who view ICT as an expensive facility that may not help to yield the desired performance given the low employee computer skills (Whelan, 2003).This is more pronounced in SACCOS which are associations of farmers and other less economically well to do groups, according to Muhumuza, 2007; Chairman Kyebando SACCO (FSA) and can therefore not afford procuring modern ICT facility. Further evidence suggests that, data collected about clients is manually done and entered into computers later, leading to wastage of time and resources due to double entry (CGAP, 2004). This notably reduces on the time available for the loan officers to focus on core tasks such as portfolio management. Unfortunately, this manual entry does not enable quick retrieval incase a decision is to be made about a given client. Most MFIs are still piloting ICT application and are reluctant to fully invest in it expecting low returns and other benefits (Hirschland, 2003). Performance in MFIs may be gauged from the arrears levels. Profitability, loan recovery and outreach to clients and geographical coverage of the services (Gaamaa Hishigsuren, 2006).Portfolio At Risk (PAR) forms the most vital measure of performance (CGAP, 2002).Whereas loan recovery has been recently reported to have improved, this is mainly among the so called Micro Finance Deposit Taking Institutions (MDI) which came into effect after operationalising the transformation act of 2003 (CGAP, 2004). The rest of MFIs in other categories are still struggling with loan recovery and client drop out rate, which is estimated at about 30% per annum. At the same time, most MFIs are registering low new members (Mwandha, 2005) as echoed by Christen &Pearce, 2005 and Silva, 2002. For example, NEDA is one of the providers of microfinance services, whose operations are characterized by low loan recovery rate and high incidence of borrower default cases. One of the most serious risks pertains to loan delinquency; that is late loan payment. Measures undertaken to reduce loan default and delinquency rates including reminders, court action, collateral attachment, renegotiation of loan terms and write-offs, have however not been able to precipitate or prevent loan delinquency incidence and default. For instance, between 2002 and 2003 annual loan recovery rate at NEDA stood at 67%; a situation, which compares unfavorably with world best recovery practices of 98% (Alan, 2004); Nicolas Myrette Diybylock (2005). According to http:\\  HYPERLINK "http://www.mixmarket.org" www.mixmarket.org, loan recovery rates for nearly all MFIs is between 90% and 100% which means NEDA situation is below the international best loan recovery practices. During the same period, 44% of the NEDA loan clients were inactive as shown in the table below. Table 1: Loan Portfolio Activity Indicators for the period 2002 to 2004 in UGSHS Portfolio Activity200220032004 2007Value of loans disbursed363,700,000401,700,000587,150,000125,000,000Value of loans outs standing103,368,246136,726,647197,767,771139,000,000Number of loans disbursed 292 209 197250Number of active loans 133 116 130125 Internal source: National Enterprises Development Association & AMFIU 2006 and 2007. The situation described above is not helped by the fact that most MFIs have weak employee competences which further weakens their ability to manage loan portfolio and so as to deliver superior performance (Nanyonjo & Nsubuga, 2004). Such competencies include skills acquired thorough formal levels of education training, and learning attitudes, job experience, and planning, monitoring, evaluation and control of loan portfolio. Most employees seem to lack critical competencies and skills necessary to enable the organizations learn and adopt its self to the changing circumstances. (Dawa, 2003) Further evidence suggests that there has not been significant investment in ICT infrastructure both soft and hardware that is necessary to harness maximum productivity (Whelan,2003). Most ICT investments seem to have been basic but not critical enough to enable MFI gain competitive advantage Gaamaa Hishigsuren (2006); Gibson &Meehan (2000); Reille &Ivatury (2003). Information on how many users are serving rural areas and how many of them reach the rural poor is not available, Ivatury (2005) Waterfield (2004) Statement of the Problem Most MFIS have advanced to appreciable performance levels in terms of portfolio, growth and outreach over the years. However, the low levels of perceived ICT facilitation and the apparent lack of employee competences among MFIS in Uganda appear to be responsible for the reduced productivity among loan officers, loan portfolio, client growth, loan recovery rates, and out reach and therefore rendering low service delivery to the intended clients. This situation puts performance of MFIS at stake. (Gibbons & Meehan, 2000). Information on how many users of ICT are serving rural areas and how many of them actually reach rural poor people is not available. (Ivatury, 2005 and Waterfied, 2004). For example, although there are over 1000 MFIs in Uganda focusing on economic development and poverty eradication, still over 30% of Ugandans are living below poverty levels with only an estimated 10% of rural population having access to financial services (CGAP, 2004). This limited outreach and other performance constraints could be explained by low levels of ICT facilitation and lack of employee competences, other factors held constant (Tumusiime,2005; Dawa, 2004). This is evidenced in the low monitoring & evaluation which may lead to higher client dropout rates in Ugandan MFIs (Mutesasira et.al, 1999). Purpose of the Study To establish the relationship between perceived ICT facilitation, employee competences, and performance among MFIs in Uganda. Study Objectives The study seeks to achieve the following objectives: To establish the relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation and Employee Competencies. ii) To establish the relationship between Employee Competences and Performance iii) To establish the relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation and Performance Scope of the study Geographical Scope The study was conducted in Kampala city, where the headquarters of FINCA Uganda (MDI) Ltd, FAULU Uganda Ltd, FSA (splinter SACCOS) and NEDA, are found and with the highest number of branches. A total of 17 microfinance institutions namely MFIS, SACCOS, limited companies and NGOS were studied to arrive at a more conclusive research. Conceptual Scope The study focused on the relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation, Employee competences and Performance. Under perceived ICT facilitation the study considered aspects of ICT speed, information security, convenience, accuracy and systems reliability. Under employee competencies the study focused on skills acquired from: level of education and training, job experience, mobilizing recruiting and training clients. It also assessed employee abilities in: planning, monitoring evaluation and control of loan portfolio. Under performance of MFIs, the study focused on establishing portfolio at risk; client growth loan recovery and outreach levels as dependent variables, among selected MFIs in Kampala, where Content scope The study was limited to establishing the relationships between; perceived ICT facilitation, Employee competences and performance of MFIs in Uganda- a case of selected MFIs. The other factors that may influence performance such as financial support, population characteristics, management, unpublished interest rates and others are outside the scope of this study and were assumed constant. The Conceptual Framework        Source: Adapted from Gaamaa Hishigsuren (2006) and Literature review. It is conceptualized that perceived ICT facilitation at the work place and nurturing employee competencies, Wood ruffle (2003), Schuffman & Kanuk (2001) positions the organization to embrace new changes from within and without the organization. This perceived ICT facilitation together with employee competencies enable the organization to improve its performance. (Ann Luke et.al 2003). Possible intervening factors are assumed ineffective to enable conclusive observations. These may include corporate culture, organizational policies and systems failure among others. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design The study used a cross-sectional correlation survey design to evaluate the perceived ICT facilitation with the objective of establishing whether this facilitation together with employee competences enhance performance of MFIs. It was a qualitative and quantitative study. The design was used because data about the variables could be obtained at a given period of time by analyzing the events as they occurred at a given point in time. A correlation approach was used to establish relationships between variables. The design was in such a way as to provide answers to the four research questions posed. Study population and size The study focused on 197 employees in the four MFIs namely: FINCA (62), FAULU (54), FSA (Splitter SACCOS) (43) and NEDA (38), to assess their job competencies in using ICT to improve performance of MFIs. To obtain better and reliable results and due to restrictions in obtaining data in some targeted MFIs like FAULU and FSA, data gathering was extended to other MFIs like UGAFODE, Astor Finance PLC, Strome Ltd and others as shown in table 4.5. For example, FSA (Financial Services Association) was a group of SACCOS operating as a Limited Company but was abolished by the MDI ACT 2003, splitting it into independent but related individual cooperatives operating in Mulago, Kyebando and Kawempe zones as SACCOS.In reference to AMFIU 2006 and 2007, its performance reports with a personal initiative and in consultation with the supervisors, the researcher selected some additional but viable MFIs and SACCOS for study othr than th e proposed. Sample size determination Basing on the table of Morgan & Kreijer (1970) in Sekaran (2000), the researcher proportionately and randomly selected 164 respondents including managers (12), supervisors (25), loan officers (116) and IT staff (11) to respond to the questions. This was supported by Baileys (1994) assertion that a sample size of 100 was adequate. These officers were selected because branch managers, supervisors, loan officers and ICT staff are at the forefront of MFI operations, are thought to have a good understanding and use of ICT, knowledge of organizational policy implementation and could give reliable data for analysis thereby permitting a better research report. However, as reported in tables 4.1 to 4.8, only valid percentages based on responses were analyzed. Non responses were not reported but inferred from the valid percentages columns. Table 2 Population and sample size StrataPopulation in MFIsTargeted No. of Respondents in MFIsFINCAFAULFSANEDAFINCAFAULFSANEDAManagers54334332Supervisors107659664Loan Officers4239312738312522IT staff54334322Total G.Total.62 197 54433855 164433630Source: primary data Sampling Method The researcher used stratified sampling to choose managers, supervisors, loan officers and IT staffs that were thought to have a good understanding of the variables under study. Judgmental sampling was used to select respondents for the study. Stratified random sampling was adopted because the population under study did not constitute a homogeneous group and random sampling had least bias with the most generalisability (Sekaran, 2000). Four strata were formed basing on their characteristics and numbers. Random sampling was then employed to the four strata to select 12 managers, 25 supervisors, 116 loan officers and 11 IT staff; as respondents. The numbers were arrived at using proportional sampling and design since the purpose was not to determine the differences among the strata. Data Collection Data was collected from both primary and secondary sources Primary data A pre- tested structured questionnaire designed by the researcher was used to obtain primary data from the respondents. The questionnaire was self administered The researcher with the help of two research assistants visited sampled microfinance institutions, introduced himself with the aid of the letter from MUBS and requested respondents with the help of customer service staff to fill the questionnaires. These could be collected after they were completed. Secondary data Secondary data was collected from several sources including: journals and articles; internet sources, AMFIU and Institute of Bankers library journals and reports as well as MFIs documented statements and management reports. Intelligence interviews were carried out with friendly employees to confidentially obtain primary and secondary data where managers could not provide it, for fear of being victimized or violating corporate ethics. Some were just lazy, too busy and malice and wanted to avoid being bothered, or fatigued by students This was also a useful tool for gathering data in other MFIs like FAULU which had stopped giving data to research students due to then on going restructuring/ impending merger and the researcher had been told to go back the following year after the organization has completed its restructuring. The required data was collected after strenuously over time. Procedure The researcher with the help of two research assistants visited sampled microfinance institutions introduced himself with the aid of the letter from MUBS and requested respondents with the help of customer service staff to fill the questionnaires. These could be collected after they were completed. A total of 95 out of100 of the valid respondents fully filled instruments were received from the field, representing about 90% response rate as shown in table 4.1 to 4.8 of valid response percentages. Data Quality Control Ethical considerations For emphasis, to ensure high quality of findings, the researcher obtained an introductory letter from Makerere University Business School to assure management in the MFIs about the intention of the research. The intention was purely academic and this was made clear to all respondents with responses being completely confidential. The data collected was self-checked, pre-coded, pre- tested for validity and reliability before the analysis stage and to exclude questionnaires with inconsistent information and responses. Generally, CVI of 0.5 and above and Cronbachs values of 0.5 and above are acceptable a (Field, 2000).These are explained below. Content Validity Index (CVI) Validity of the Instruments was obtained using the content validity index (CVI) The pre-tested questionnaire were distributed to five experts to rate the relevancy of the questions using a 4-point scale of: very relevant, relevant, quite relevant and not relevant. Content Validity Index (CVI) for all experts was above 0.5; this indicated that the research questions were relevant and valid. Expert one CVI was 0.7325 while expert two CVI was 0.7934. Reliability of the instruments Reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha () The internal consistence of scales used to measure the variables on the instrument was measured using Cronbach Alpha () coefficient. The instrument was reliable since all the alpha coefficients were above 0.5 as shown in table 3.2 below. Table 3.2: Reliability Test Variable Cronbachs Alpha CoefficientSpeed0.8632Information Security0.7889Convenience0.7647Accuracy0.7237Reliability0.8472Mobilizing and recruitment0.7107Training0.7842Planning0.7231Monitoring0.7832Evaluation0.8902Control0.7543Source: Primary data Measurement of Variables Perceived ICT facilitation The independent variables were: Perceived ICT Facilitation and employee competences while the dependent variable was performance Perceived ICT facilitation was examined and related to performance using a standard questionnaire. A set of questions were asked to establish perceived accuracy, information security, speed, reliability and convenience due to embracing ICT. The questions were constructed on a scale of 1-5 so that respondents could give their Views on how they perceived ICT facilitation to have helped them to improve Performance Employee competency Employee competency profiles(Appendix 11) were developed by modifying the profiles given in the work done by Ninsiima,2003.These competences were reflected in skills acquired in terms of level of education and on job training, job experience, mobilizing & recruiting loan clients and training them, planning for loan giving ,monitoring, evaluation and control of the loan portfolio. They were developed for loan officers, supervisors managers and ICT staff, by the researcher, and from these, self administered questionnaires were designed in line with the constructs identified. The competencies were tested via a 1-5 point likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree to obtain primary data on how the officers, given their competences, viewed ICT as facilitating their effort to improve performance of MFIs. Performance of MFIs Performance of MFIs was measured in respect of the following indicators: Portfolio at risk, client growth, loan recovery/ and out reach. Portfolio at risk was viewed in terms of the value of loans remaining unpaid past the due date- say 1 day, 30 days, 60 days, 90 days and 180 days. While loan recovery was viewed from how many and value of the loans have been recovered as required, before or on the due date. Client outreach was reflected in the number and quality of clients served by the MFIs while outreach has been viewed as the capacity to reach the financially excluded, whoever and whenever they are; entailing serving the ultra-poor and the locationally disadvantaged population including accessing rural and remote areas of the economy Beatrice Sabana, (2005). Data Analysis The principal independent variables considered for the study were perceived ICT and employee competency while the dependent variable was performance of MFIs. After data had been collected from the field, the questionnaires were coded and entered in the computer using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS).Version 10 of SPSS was used. Missing responses in the data were filled using the transform option of the software for clean up and consistence before running the actual analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. Under descriptive statistics, frequencies were run to gain a view of how data had been dispersed. Pearsons Correlation Coefficient using a two-tailed test and regression analysis and graphs constructed were used to gauge the existence and strength of relationships between the Perceived ICT Facilitation Employee Competence and Performance variables given in the conceptual framework. Regression analysis was appropriate here because it is a predictive model used to predict values of independent variable from one or more independent variables (Andy Field, 2000; Mfitundinda, H. 2006). Pearsons correlation coefficient was used because of the comparatively small size of the sample in relation to the entire Kampala and or Uganda MFIs and parametric nature of the data, (normally distributed data, homogeneity of variance, interval data and independence), while a two-tailed test was used because the relationship between the variables was expected, but the direction of the relationship was unpredictable. (Andy Field, 2000; Mfitundinda, H.2006) FINDINGS Demographic Data The demographic data included gender, marital status, age, job designation, and name of institution, type of institution, department and number of clients. Most of the respondents were male constituting55% and females were 45%. Single respondents were 55% followed by 38% married and 8% others. The most predominant age group was 20-35 years constituting 74%,22% was 36-50 years and only 4% over 50 years. Majority of the respondents were loan officers 44%, followed by supervisor 40%, manager 12% and IT Officers 3%. Majority of the respondents were from FINCA 58%, followed by UG UGAFODE 8% and others constituted 34%. As far as the department in which correspondent works is concerned, the study findings revealed that majority worked in operations 40%,loan recovery 31%,finance and accounts 18%, IT 8% while Internal Audit 3% and Human Resource 1%. Over 60 clients are served per week as indicated by 58% of the respondents, 16% were 41- 60, 14% 1 20 and 12% 21-40 clients as indicated in tale 4.8 and chart 4.8 above. Inferential Analysis Correlation analysis using spearman rank order correlation was used to determine the degree of relationships between Perceived ICT Facilitation, Employee Competences and performance of MFIs as shown in correlation matrices below. Multiple regressions using step wise method was used to predict the level of performance. Relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation and Employee Competences (objective 1) Table 4.11. Correlation matrix for Perceived ICT facilitation and Employee Competences  Source: Primary data There was a positive relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation and employee competences ( r= 0.237*, 0.197, 0.067, 0.031, 0.025, 0.127, 0.140) respectively for level of education, job experience, planning, training, monitoring, control and evaluation as shown in table 4.11 above. Relationship between employee competence and performance ( objective 2) Table 4.12: Correlation matrix for employee competence and performance  Source; Primary data: There was a positive relationship between employee competences and performance of MFIs (r= 0.161, 0.262**, 0.650**, 0.117, 0.632**, 0.624** 0.671**) respectively for level of education, job experience, planning, training, monitoring, control and evaluation. Relationship between Perceived ICT facilitation and Performance (objective 3) Table 4.13: Correlation matrix for Perceived ICT facilitation and Performance SpeedSecurityConvenienceReliabilityAccuracyPerceived ICT FacilitationPortfolio at riskClient GrowthLoan RecoveryOutreachPerformance Speed1.000 Security.5851.000 Convenience.189.3011.000 Reliability.303.244.6051.000 Accuracy.457.432.487.5071.000 Perceived ICT Facilitation.696.651.621.636.6921.000 Portfolio at risk-.134-.252.125.252.120.0381.000 Client Growth.006-.133.082.144.054.073.4781.000 Loan Recovery.218-.006.192.371.248.273.480.6211.000 Outreach.056.093.236.352.292.260.276.415.5621.000 Performance.018-.086.150.273.156.167.588.766.809.6991.000  Source: primary data. There was a positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and performance (r= 0.167, p-value > 0.05). This implied that ICT facilitation contributed positively to performance of MFIs. Regression Analysis of Perceived ICT facilitation, Employee Competence and Performance (objective 4) Using stepwise regression method employee competences were significantly linearly related to performance of MFIs (F= 69.953, SIG = 0.000) as shown in table below. Table 4.14: Regression Model Unstandardized CoefficientsStandardized CoefficientstSig. lBStd. ErrorBeta 1(Constant)1.248.2564.870.000 Evaluation.745.061.78312.136.000 2(Constant)1.075.2414.465.000 Evaluation.448.092.4714.859.000 Monitoring.356.087.3964.082.000 3(Constant).793.2543.120.002 Evaluation.245.116.2572.117.037 Monitoring.292.087.3243.336.001 Control.321.116.3162.754.007 R- Squared = 0.698, Adjusted R- Squared = 0.688, F = 69.953, SIG = 0.000 Dependent Variable: Performance Source: Primary data. Evaluation, Monitoring and Control explained 68.8 % of the total variance of performance of MFIs. Monitoring (Beta= 0.324, sig. =0.001 contributing more on performance followed by, Control (Beta = 0.316, sig. = 0.007 and Evaluation (beta= 0.257, sig. =.0.037. All perceived ICT facilitation variables were eliminated by step wise regression. DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS General discussion . Relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and employee competence There was a positive low relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and employee competence in MFIs. This means with increased in perception in the value and use of ICT, employee competences will be enhanced. The positive but low relationship can be attributed to the fact that employees attitude and perception about the value of ICT in MFIs is still low. This is because employees were used to the manual systems of work and organizations like miffs are still piloting on the use and value of ICT, thereby rendering investments in this area low The employees and firms expect low benefits overall. This is more so with the majority of mfis in tier 4, the so called SACCOS. However, with the passing of the MDI Bill in 2003, many mfis especially NGOS and companies like FINCA ,U LTD have taken up this challenge and are have ,using some modern ICT, networked their operations where clients can use debit cards ATMS and other POS devises to increase out reach ,though in a cost effective manner. This is supported by Gaamaa, H.2006, pp13 a case study of Mongolian mfis, where it was discovered and inferred that many ICT applications are highly innovative, but face barriers that limit provision of services to rural areas. These barriers include institutional capacity and lack of requisite human resource competences to maximally harness the ICT to foster performance especially so in developing countries. As a result most mfis investments in ICT are not critical enough to make them competitive (Gaamaa, 2006).MFIs perceive low benefits from ICT and are reluctant to invest in it .The low investments and outreach in ICT is due to very poor connectivity in rural areas, poor infrastructure, low density, remoteness and dependence on agriculture .75% of the Ugandan population live in rural areas and only 8% have been served by mfis , all of which lead to higher transaction costs making it less profitable. Nevertheless the rapidity with which advancement in positive perception and implementation of ICT in mfis and other firms is taking place presents many unique opportunities in expanding access of financial services to the poor Relationship between employee competence and performance There was a significant positive relationship between employee competences and performance of MFIs. This implies that higher levels of employee competences in an mfi will lead to a significantly higher level of performance of the mfi in terms of portfolio quality indicated by portfolio at risk, loan recovery, client growth and outreach; when intervening factors like corporate culture, workers attitude and environmental impact held constant. The findings are supported by Lado and Wilson (1994) as highlighted by Mfitundinda,2006 Pp 53, who reaffirmed that managerial competences had a positive relationship with business performance, The findings are also supported by Cracknell(2004) ,who reaffirms the importance of enabling environment . he asserts that good employee competences will foster performance in mfis as long as environment like: well developed banking and retail sectors, a supportive central bank, good communications and generally positive policy environment are friendly(Gaama,H.2006,pp 8).Dawa,2004, says highlights the effect of employee behavior attitude and impliedly competences on performance. Without requisite competences and skills in managing loan portfolio, performance of mfis and its survival will be threatened. These competences are reflected in skills planning, monitoring control and evaluation of loan portfolio among others and are important in keeping truck on recovery of loans disbursed at lower costs making mfis avoid high operation costs and therefore operate profitably. This was observed by Gaama,2006,pp4, where he asserted that the main constraint related to rural outreach by mfis is high transaction and supervisory costs and that there should be a trade- off between minimizing loan default and supervisory costs .The nature of lending especially in agriculture , makes transaction costs and supervisory costs disproportionately high relative to urban lending Relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and performance There was a low positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and performance of MFIs as seen in Piersons correlation Coefficient. This implies that an increase in perceived ICT facilitation will lead to a lower increase in performance of mfis. The positive but low relationship can be attributed to the fact that perception by the organization and staff without physical, tangible effort to invest in ICT and implement an aggressive strategy to apply ICT in mfi operations cost effectively, cannot bring forth high benefits. The rate at which ICT investments is being applied to foster mfi performance is still low. Most mfis and are reluctant to t This implies that higher levels of employee competences in an mfi will lead to a significantly higher levl of performance of the mfi in terms of portfolio quality indicated by portfolio at risk, loan recovery, client growth and outreach; when intervening factors like corporate culture, workers attitude and environmental impact held constant. The findings are supported by Cracknell(2004) ,who reaffirms the importance of enabling environment . he asserts that good employee competences will foster performance in mfis as long as environment like: well developed banking and retail sectors, a supportive central bank, good communications and generally positive policy environment are friendly(Gaama,H.2006,pp 8).Dawa,2004, says highlights the effect of employee behavior attitude and impliedly competences on performance. Without requisite competences and skills in managing loan portfolio, performance of mfis and its survival will be threatened. These competences are reflected in skills planning, monitoring control and evaluation of loan portfolio among others and are important in keeping truck on recovery of loans disbursed at lower costs making mfis avoid high operation costs and therefore operate profitably. This was observed by Gaama,2006,pp4, where he asserted that the main constraint related to rural outreach by mfis is high transaction and supervisory costs and that there should be a trade- off between minimizing loan default and supervisory costs .The nature of lending especially in agriculture , makes transaction costs and supervisory costs disproportionately high relative to urban lending. They are reluctant to invest in it because they expect low returns yet at higher costs of ICT at branch networking, thereby pushing for a trade-off between costs and benefits These findings have been supported several authors, namely Silva, 2002, who observed that the ICT hardware like pocket computers allow loan officers to fill out forms containing customer information and provide and indication of whether loans can be approved or not in the field, thereby automating information gathering and outreach performance therefore, thus a positive relationship between ICT and outreach performance. According to Mathison,s,2004,mfis should use MIS or ICT to monitor quality, sustainability efficiency of portfolio and this will lead to expansion of outreach.Siu,P,2004 observes that a mix if MIS, such as PDAs and ATMS reduce paperwork and allow loan officers at head offices to serve I field clients at branches.Ivatury,2005 and Gaamaa,2006 have asserted that its expensive and un desirable to invest in branch ICT which may reduce profitability ,hence the low perception. However they argue that setting up branches conveniently located in rural areas near clients is better even if the ICT investment level is low, performance will improve. it will be a while until mfis will be able to fully utilize all the potential of ICT(Gaama,2006). The Coefficient also showed a positive relationship in terms of outreach and client growth in terms of breadth and depth and quality as well. This means with a good ICT policy MFIs will achieve quality service delivery which will attract more clients hence outreach and client growth will improve. The results are in agreement with Ivatury, 2005, who asserts that ICT have emerged as a powerful tool to reduce operation costs making it viable for financial institutions to expand into rural areas of low income people. He urges that ICT innovations such as a will improve. The results are in agreement with Ivatury, 2005, who asserts that ICT have emerged as a powerful tool to reduce operation costs making it viable for financial institutions to expand into rural areas of low income people. He argues that ICT innovations such as a personal computer connected to the internet, a mobile phone, an ATM and other POS devises located at retail or postal outlet may be less expensive to establish than branches located in rural areas. Unlike real cash transactions, ICT based transactions can take place with time or with no time required on a letter. Stephen Whelan of the CGAP also supports this view giving various technologies used such as ATMs, PDAs and IVRs. Gibson and Meehan claim, use of ICT will improve efficiency and increase outreach performance, thus the positive relationship. Relationship between perceived ICT facilitation, employee competence and Performance. Using stepwise regression method, employee competences showed the highest and significant linear positive relationship with performance of mfis. at F=69.95.5, Significant at 0.000. Monitoring, control and evaluation as constructs of employee competences predicted positively the performance of MFIs. in Uganda. Evaluation, monitoring and control alone explained 68% of the total variance of performance of MFIs as seen in regression analysis table 4.14. This means employee competences more so in monitoring B= .324 contributed most to performance, followed by controlling skill B= 0.316 and evaluation B=0.257, contributed most to performance. All perceived ICT facilitation variables were eliminated by stepwise regression. The positive significant relationship can be attributed to the fact that increased performance in terms of portfolio quality, credit management and outreach can only be registered if the mfi has in place the requisite employees with the right competence to deliver the required service or else the firms survival will be at stake. ICT supplements staff capabilities to improve performance but cannot substitute it entirely. The findings show low but positive relationship between perceived ICT and performance but a stronger relationship between employee competences with performance. This is expected and is because before one appreciates the use and role of ICT, he or she should already be having the basic knowledge, training and competences to apply the ICT in a situation at hand. To perceive an idea or something in itself is a competence because some folks do not perceive but just exist by following others. This is not in consonance with Nanyonjo & Nsubuga, 2004 observation that most mfis have weak employee competences like job experience and learning attitude and team work, which further weakens their ability to manage loan portfolio and hence deliver superior performance. They assert that most employees seem to lack critical competences and skills necessary to enable the organizations learn and adopt themselves to changes. On the contrary where as this study findings show that competences are a necessary condition to have superior performance, information is not readily available as to how many mfis actually have these staff competences and can these alone given the environmental and other intervening factors of performance promote , as supported by Gaamaa,H.2006 and Cracknell,2004. It should be noted that some employee competences like: education and training levels, job experience mobilizing ,training and recruiting clients and the perception of by employees on the value of ICT as a tool to foster performance of mfis have contributed less to performance, than the monitoring ,evaluation and control, hence the low and significantly high relationship scenario given above. Conclusion The study focused on the relationship between perceived ICT facilitation, Employee competence and performance of MFIs in Uganda. Correlation analysis using spearmans rank correlation was used to determine the degree of relationships between the variables. Multiple regression analysis using stepwise method was used to predict the level of performance. There was a positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and employee competences table 4.7. This meant that when mfis and their employees view ICT as a credible facility that can support work effort, their competences will improve increase, which leads to higher labor productivity. Therefore all mfis should embrace ICT application if they are to improve their staff performance. Employee competences also positively influence perceived ICT facilitation. This means when staff is competent they will appreciate the value of ICT better than when they are illiterate and un- skilled at their work placements. Thus improved perception of employees on value and application of ICT will improve employee competences. There was a positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and performance (table4.13) r=0.167, p-value >0.05. Perceived ICT facilitation positively enhanced the performance of MFIs. This implies that the higher the perception and application of ICT in MFIs the higher the performance of mfis will be .MFIs should therefore encourage a positive perception and application of ICT if they are to expand performance. There was a positive relationship between employee competences and performance of MFIs as shown in table 4.12.This means employee competencies significantly contributed to performance of MFI therefore when employee competences are natured and improved, performance in mfis and elsewhere will be enhanced. Employers of MFIs should promote and develop skills of their employees in order to promote performance. When multiple regression analysis was done to determine the performance of mfis, the observed predictors which were perceived ICT facilitation and employee competences, employee competences was seen to emerge as the principal predictor of performance. Among the principal predictor factor, monitoring (32. %), controlling (31.6%) and evaluation (25.7%) contributed most to 68.8%, combined (Adjusted R-Squared =0.6888.)The regression model was significant at 0.000 and F change =69.9563. As mentioned earlier in text other factors such as corporate culture political and environmental effect and employee attitude that could influence performance exist but these have been assumed constant to enable the researcher arrive at logical conclusions. Recommendations The study focused on the Perceived ICT facilitation, Employee competences and Performance of MFIs in Uganda. This study showed that three were positive relationships between perceived ICT facilitation, Employee competences and performance of mfis Based on these findings findings, the following recommendations are made so as to improve on the performance. In respect to positive but low relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and employee competences the mfis especially those in tier four, mostly SACCOS should work towards transforming into regulated financial institutions, so that they can establish standardized policies and procedures related to ICT, employees competences requirements and performance and capital financing so that they can truly promote their dual mission of serving the ultra poor(social mission) at economic costs (profitability). The mfis should train and improve on the workers operational and portfolio management skills using the best ICT facilities and should be counseled to appreciate he role of ICT in fostering labor efficiency. On the significantly positive relationship between employee competences and performance, MFIs should especially the SACCOS AND NGOs should work hard towards increasing their outreach in all ways broadly, deeply and in partnerships or linkages using the available human, financial and modern ICT and economically so as to survive in the competitive environment. They should peruse the policy of continuous improvement and workers retention through better motivation so that performance is enhanced continually. On the low but positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation and performance MFIs should embrace ICT core activities such as market research and financial management as way of winning marketability of their products and therefore delivering superior performance. They should for example train in modern ICT all their productive staff in marketing and operations continuously advising them on the value of embracing ICT in all their operations. This will lower costs of operations, increase output and attract a better and sustainable market. The mfis should lobby government to help them improve communication infrastructure and and avoid donor dependence in case of NGOs 5they can support government programs of managing Bona Bagagawale at a fee, though cautiously as politics can kill their intended dual mission. The central bank can help in acquiring the necessary standards needed for transformation and monitoring performance. Mfis should maintain and improve this by delivering at convenient terms loan and savings products to clients As regards the combined positive relationship between perceived ICT facilitation, employee competency and performance, the establish better incentives for employees and clients that promote loan recoveries for example interest rebates or disincentives like penalties for late payments and no more loans for clients who delay beyond agreed terms mfis should maintain and improve this by delivering at convenient terms on loan and savings products to clients. Collateral and legal action can be sought where the client fails totally and intentionally MFIs should develop a portfolio information system that enables management to conduct timely and useful analysis of portfolio quality and trends such as aging the arrears so as to determine and minimize the causes of loan delinquency. It is paramount that delinquency follows up procedures and policies that list steps taken when a loan is past due are put in place. This should include follow up, visiting clients and holding regular loan problems and quality meetings. The mfis could emphasize lending more to clients who are in limited liability companies than soles and partnerships because the former tend to settle their loans faster. References Association of Microfinance Institutions of Uganda: Microfinance Directory, 2007, Vol, 3 Association of Microfinance Institutions of Uganda: Microfinance Directory, 2006 A MFIU, 2005, Members Directory -2005 Balunywa W (1998), Creating competitiveness in the Ugandan Business: Discussion Paper on the world Trade Seminar, Makerere University Business School Bazageza, A., (2007) the relationship between Governance, Outreach and Financial sustainability of Microfinance Institutions in Uganda; Dissertation Submitted, May 2007, Makerere University Daley, H., S.(2005). 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(Final report) Waterfield, C., & Ramsing N.,(1998). Management Information Systems for Microfinance Institutions, Technical Tools Series No1.pp 1-6. Whelan,S.(2003).CGAP. IT Innovations series;Smartcards.Retrieved August,2005 Woller Garry (2004), measuring the outreach of Microfinance Institutions ,AMAP- Financial services knowledge generation, Microfinance Consortium.Washington,D.C. Wright, G., (1999). Client Exits (Drop outs) From Uganda Microfinance Institutions; Special Unit for Microfinance, UNDP-UNCDF, Kampala, pp 1-8. ACRONYMS MFIs Microfinance Institutions AMFIU Association of Microfinance Institutions of Uganda CGAP Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest ICT Information and Communication Technology MDI Microfinance Deposit Taking Institutions. NEDAL National Enterprises Development Associations Limited FINCA Finance for International and Capital Assistance FAULU Not defined FSA Financial Services Association PDA Pocket Digital Assistants UNDP United Nations Programmed MIS Management Information Systems ATM Automatic Teller Machine CVI Content Validity Index NGO Non Government Organization UMU Uganda Microfinance Union SACCO Savings and Credit cooperative Society FOCCAS Finance for Capital and corporate Assistance UGAFODE Uganda Agency for Development LTD Limited CMF Commercial Microfinance SPSS Statistical Package for Social Scientist NEDA National Enterprises Development Association MFPED Ministry of Finance Planning and Economic Development BOU Bank of Uganda MDI Microfinance-Deposit Taking Institution USAID United States Agency FOR International Development IVR Interactive voice Response     Moya et. al (2010), Percieved ICT Facilitation, Employee Competences and Performance of MFIs in Uganda PAGE  Moya et. al (2010), Percieved ICT Facilitation, Employee Competences and Performance of MFIs in Uganda Page  PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1 PERCEIVED ICT FACILITATION Speed Information security Convenience Accuracy Reliability PERFORMANCE OF MFIS Portfolio at risk Client growth Loan recovery Out reach EMPLOYEE COMPETENCES Level of education &training Job Experience Mobilizing & recruiting clients Training clients Planning, Monitoring, evaluating &control 01QRS\^_qv    . = UiǿumhE36h.6hE36h~056hE36h&+56hE36h.56hE36hna56hE36h{A56hE36hu6hE36hna6hE36h{A6hE36hE366h~0hKhUZhmhE36hDRoh "ZhUZ5hE36hUZ5CJaJhE36hE365CJaJ(1RS  i cdgdh$a$gdh$a$gdna$a$gdE36$a$gdE36gdE36^gd3 $a$gdv0$a$gd "Z56<OY_`klMbcde0KPmqvԬ̨̠ԜԘԜԔ̔ԜԠhqLhshH]/h+;hB'h &h&+hY h zQ5 h zQh zQhhhhZ*h|>h50h.h zQh3Il h; (h zQh; (h zQ5 h.5 hhh zQhE36hR68[aghjlm7U*89>T_ PghijCf},.1hqh3khmhq/h&+h(hJ%hH]/h+;hqLh zQh3Ilh@Hh#7hsh7JhB'Jlho #$$3%F%K%P%a%f% $$Ifa$gdhgdE36$a$gdh$a$gdh1238Ynop"#$(*w ,=GY_`'F| "# #侸 h|>CJ hhLvCJ hUCJ h!YCJ h zQCJ h3IlCJh|>hJhUhKuh hJ%hqLhh zQhB'h3Ilhq/hmh#7h3k? #W#w#x#y##############,$-$$$$$$)%2%3%a%e%f%%%%%N&Q&&&&&&&&&&&&''J'^''輶֮֮֮֮֘hT'h-*W h6 hT'6h. h zQ6 he 5\ h P5\he h zQ h|>CJ h_CJh-h P0Jjh PUh Pjh PU h3IlCJ h PCJ hCJ hCJ h zQCJ4f%g%%%%%%PDDDDD $$Ifa$gdhkd$$IflrOW^!OTT_0^!64 lalyt.%%%%%%%PDDDDD $$Ifa$gdhkd$$IflrOW^!OTT_0^!64 lalyt.%%&*&<&N&R&PDDDDD $$Ifa$gdhkdu$$IflrOW^!OTT_0^!64 lalyt.R&S&j&{&&&&PDDDDD $$Ifa$gdhkdI$$IflrOW^!OTT_0^!64 lalyt.&&&P)*T+m+PHH>>9gdE36 $a$gdh$a$gdhkd$$IflrOW^!OTT_0^!64 lalyt.'''''1(2(:(R(W(X(g((A)D)H)K)N)O)P)Q)a)*********++;+<+@+N+R+S+T+]+^+`+a+d+m+n+++&,H,g,,,,,,,,-(-X-a-ƿƿƺ hz\ h"\hh"hk` h zQ\ h\ h3khb h3kh zQ h3kh;Ahzhbhuh-*WhshO7&hT'h}hh zQh|>>m++}-(. 000-1>1s11'22224445266gdh $ a$gdh $h^ha$gdh$ & F#`a$gdhgdE36 $ pa$gdh$a$gdha-d-k-l-t-z-|-}-~-----... ...%.&.(.4.8.O.......,/4/5/:/@/B/G/c/n////////////0!0%000000001111ܾܾ׹״h(ohQh;Ah zQ hKK\ hO7&\ h_\ h\ hZY\ h\ h}\ h;A\ h \ hk`\ h zQ\ h"\ h]\ hz\ h@H\@11222'2*2,2q2r2|222222222!3@3k3v3}333334444S44#5%5V5m5555555556(6/616267696?6i6w66666666667Źععh|oh|o5hPh#0hf@hIh` hQh zQhb5heh19hqL:hg7h-*Wh3lhh(ohkVh zQhVQA6788888888888888888 9:$a$gdM $da$gdM$ ( da$gdM$ ( da$gdMgdE36 $ a$gdh $ z a$gda77 7g7o77777788*8.8K8Q8z8888888888888888888888 9 9v9999v:x:::::ϾϰϾϢϰϰϾۛϓϏϋh3l h!h zQhhIhh]X h=h zQjhMUmHnHujh zQUmHnHu jh zQ5U\mHnHuh zQh0!hh3khb5h=zhQheh|ohc=h|oh1951:::;E;F;G;l;m;;;;;;<<&<F<G<O<}<<<<<< ="=e====== >9>>>>>>>>?(?i?j?|?}????????????@ @ @@@@B@D@J@V@z@hh,E6hhPhSR h zQ5\h^Zh|hMh0u&h zQh?2 h zQ5h &hY.[ h!h zQh9hT*F:F;\;l;~<"===?AAACPDE)E*E1EDEhE $$Ifa$gdhdgdh d@&gdh $ @&a$gdh$a$gdh $ a$gdh$a$gd &$a$gdMz@@@@@@@@@@@@@cAAAAAAACCqCCCCCD7DODEEEEEEEEEE FFFF F#F$F%F1F2F6F?F@FTFmG}G~GG½› h6)h zQ h6)h6) hK!hK! h5hK!hK!5 hK!h zQ hK!5 h zQ5 h &5 h5h6)h uh?2 h zQ5\h zQhSRhb+hh,E6hh9hEiEjEpEuEyE~EEEEEnbbbbbbbbb $$Ifa$gdhkd$$IflFV(#   t0#    44 layt & EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEFf7 Ff $$Ifa$gdhFfEEEEEEEEEFFFF F F FFFFF F%F(F+F.F1F2F6FFfFfg $$Ifa$gdh6F9FhWE#hJ>5h(-Uhhz h zQhxdh`{=?Z@ZFZMZxx $$Ifa$gdh{kd$$Ifl0? 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" Oh+'0p   , 8 DPX`h CHAPTER ONEguestNormalhod 23Microsoft Office Word@vA@Po@dT r"X՜.+,D՜.+,@ hp   MLIB-MUKuU  CHAPTER ONE Title 8@ _PID_HLINKSAlHhttp://www.mixmarket.org/K   !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~      !"#$%&'()*+,-./012456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~Root Entry Fs5i Data {1Table3WordDocument4SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjy  F'Microsoft Office Word 97-2003 Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q
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