Warning: session_start(): open(/tmp/sess_a03d9025da01ee6ba25868c8c7a0f396, O_RDWR) failed: Read-only file system (30) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 675

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 676

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 677

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 678

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 679

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/filestore/classes/fileupload_class_inc.php on line 329

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/filestore/classes/fileupload_class_inc.php on line 334
ࡱ>  βbjbj OhhШ_K!a!!!!!!!8!d;"t!Z"#^ $ $ $$%<% $ܩ~^ӣ!J@$$J@J@ӣu! ! $ $FRJRJRJJ@|! $! $RJJ@RJRJ y $Z$!Fb.TwܭFܭ ܭ! & $/RJ54:r & & &ӣӣRI & & &J@J@J@J@ܭ & & & & & & & & &  : Linking Students from the University of Ghana and Kwantlen University College: Challenges Confronted and Lessons (Un)Learned: By Charles Quist-Adade, PhD, Kwantlen University College, Surrey, BC, Canada for the cultures of the Global Village to flourish in a tolerant, mutually beneficial fashion, it is imperative that there be real sharing of ideas, knowledge, and values. Charles Quist-Adade (2008) Abstract the course was conceived on the basis of two ideasClassroom without Walls and Global Village. -Charles Quist-Adade (2008) This paper presents preliminary overview and findings of a pilot course webconferencing course on Globalization involving largely students and instructors in Canada and Ghana. The overview will focus more on the planning and implementation stages of the course than on the delivery and content. It will highlight the challenges confronted, lessons learned and lessons unlearned throughout the more than two years planning and implementation of the project, whose principal objective was to create geographically distributed collaborative learning and teaching between students and faculty in developed and developing countries. The undergraduate and graduate course on Globalization (Sociology of Global Inequalities), which was implemented in the Spring of 2008 (from January 7 to April 21), was conceived on the basis of two ideasClassroom without Walls and Global Village. It was designed, using a unique interactive multimedia approach to link students and faculty in two international locationsGhana and Canada. The course, through the integrative information and educational technologies, aimed to break the boundaries of time, space and distance thereby facilitating the sharing of knowledge between the students at the three sites. What is more, it sought to create a networked collaborative learning environment for students and instructors at the University of Ghana and Kwantlen University College in British Columbia, Canada. The partially on-line course used a mixed mode delivery approach, combining synchronous video-audio streaming (videoconferencing), real chat, online materials, pre-packaged online materials, as well as asynchronous chat sessions. The course had a classroom component at each of the host sites that was supported by a course web site. Interaction between learner and lecturer was primarily through text messaging and online chats during synchronous lecture sessions. Students also had to use online chat sessions and discussion forums with teaching assistants. The course had a mix of synchronous and asynchronous activities (i.e., some activities took place at the same time, same place; some at the same time, different place; and some at a different time, different place). The course provided continuous feedback, high levels of interaction and an emphasis on student work and group projects. In all 31 undergraduate students from Kwantlen University College (KUC) and six graduate students from the University of Ghana, Legon (UGL) took the course. The preliminary study showed that while the preparatory stage was quite daunting and the project leader had some harrowing experiences in finding collaborators, accessing funding, the overall benefits of the project to both students and instructors were quite substantial, making the efforts and sacrifices worthwhile. Introduction While Canadian Communications scholar Marshall McLuhan put us all in a Global Village, the benefits of the village appear to elude a sizeable number of the villagers as the digital divide between the technology-haves and technology-have-nots has been growing ever wider and wider Charles Quist-Adade (2008) While Canadian Communications scholar Marshall McLuhan put us all in a Global Village, the benefits of the village appear to elude a sizeable number of the villagers as the digital divide between the technology-haves and technology-have-nots has been growing ever wider and wider. Knowledge and ideas flow in a uni-directional, North-to-South (from the Developed World to the Developing World) fashion with little going in the opposite direction. A lopsided flow of knowledge, values and ideas creates an atmosphere of mutual suspicion and recrimination, with some of the villagers complaining of cultural imperialism and others fending off such charges by saying they are only promoting the ideas of democracy. But for the cultures of the Global Village to flourish in a tolerant, mutually beneficial fashion, it is imperative that there be real sharing of ideas, knowledge, and values. Globalization has been described as an ideology and practice of corporate expansion across borders and a structure of cross-border facilities and economic linkages, which focus on the imperialistic ambitions of nations, corporations, organizationsand their desire to impose themselves on various geographic areas.(Ritzer, G. (2003) While this description may sound cynical, and points to the vulnerabilities of the concept, it is imperative to extend and expand the intellectual realm of Globalization on the crest wave of the ever-evolving information revolution to the benefit of students and countries world wide. There is no better forum to address the ever-increasing need for mutual understanding and mutual respect across cultures and national borders than via collaborative learning. Formal education systems, in the developing world in general and Africa in particular, are taxed by minimal resources and extensive responsibilities. A conspiracy of factorslimited financial resources, the brain drain which has affected tertiary institutions the most, the dearth of information communication technological (ICT) facilities, among many othersmakes clear the need for new and alternative approaches. While the use of ICT may increase the likelihood of improved learning only so much, its capacity to alter the status quo is unparalleled. Using technology to attract and facilitate connections and interaction among communities, regardless of where they are located or who they are, can promote flows of information and knowledge, creation of ideas and initiatives, and ultimately a healthier society (African Universities Initiative, 2005). This project will offer Canada a fine opportunity to play its part in bridging the digital gap between a developing country and a developed one, while facilitating mutual enrichment of the life experiences of Canadian and Ghanaian students, improving and innovating pedagogical methods of educators in Canada and Ghana. The course will be guided by the more benign conceptualization of globalization as the worldwide nexus of practices, expansion of relations across continents, organization of social life on a global scale, and growth of a shared global consciousness.(Lechner, F, 2003, p.72) It will be a cost-effective and innovative way to exchange knowledge across continents, allowing for the interpenetration of the global and the local, which will bring about unique outcomes in different geographic areas. (Ritzer, G., 2003, p.73) As a micro academia in the global academic world, it will offer the best opportunity for both students and faculty to contribute to the global "stock of knowledge" through an active cross-fertilization of cross-cultural ideas. Already, increasing numbers of institutions of higher learning and non-profit organizations in collaboration with ICT companies have developed free resusable online resources which allow for the sharing of academic knowledge, pedagogical practices, course resources not only between institutions, but also between students and educators in different countries. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has perhaps one of the leading global collaborative learning projects. MITs Open Courseware (OCW) provides free, searchable access to MIT's course materials for educators, students, and self-learners around the world. The Singapore-MIT (SMA) is a classic example of how collaborative learning and teaching can revolutionize the global exchange of knowledge and help train innovative leaders of the world. In the words of Professor Schmalensee, SMA joins students at the National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, and MIT in a virtual classroom taught--via Internet2--by professors from all three universities. SMA was founded in 1998 to promote global engineering education and research while providing students with unlimited access to exceptional faculty expertise and superior research facilities. While students may sit in classrooms at different sites, they share course lectures, online materials, and research opportunities with over 90 faculty--half from MIT. MIT has expanded its project to include Korea and Mexico and its now eyeing Africa, precisely Ghana ( HYPERLINK "http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtml" http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtml ). In Canada, BCcampus has developed a leading edge technology that allows the free searchable access to courses across the Province. Through BCcampus, students, educators and self-learners can access services, resources, and online courses from several participating institutions. In addition, users have access to the Online Learner Community, an online community that provides users opportunities for collaboration, general interest, and special event use. Through its SOL*R, BC public post-secondary educators can license, contribute, and access free online learning resources. As a repository portal, SOL*R facilitates the sharing, discovery, reuse, and remixing of course materialincluding course outlines, lecture notes, best teaching practices, etc. from a wide variety of disciplines and subject areas. 3.1 Connexions: Connexions is an environment for collaboratively developing, freely sharing, and rapidly publishing scholarly content on the Web. Its Content Commons contains educational materials for a variety of users, including children to college students to professionals, which is organized in small modules that are easily connected into larger courses. All content is free to use and reuse under what it calls Creative Commons attributable license. Connexions philosophy is Sharing is good. Guided by this philosophical principle and informed by the logic that people need not re-invent the wheel, the creators of Connexions have made it possible for people to share their knowledge, so they can select from the best ideas to create the most effective learning materials. 3.2 Carnegie Mellon Another online learning project with a huge potential for shared global learning and instruction is the Carnegie Mellon Online Learning Initiative (OLI) project. The project which grew out of collaboration among cognitive scientists, experts in human computer interaction and seasoned faculty aims to increase access to education, enhancing the quality of instruction and providing a model for a new generation of online courses and course materials that teach more effectively and appeal to students more powerfully than anything in existence today. The project is unique in that it adds to online education the crucial elements of instructional design grounded in cognitive theory, formative evaluation for students and faculty, and iterative course improvement based on empirical evidence. OLI courses include a number of innovative online instructional components such as: cognitive tutors, virtual laboratories, group experiments, and simulations 3.3 Open University The United Kingdoms Open University is one of leaders in the field of online learning. In fact, OU is the pioneer in the field, having been making learning materials freely available as early as 1969 through its partnership with the British Broadcasting Corporation. The OUs OpenLearn was launched in 2006 to open access to education for all and it is designed for distance and elearning. It now boasts of 700,000 users globally. It incorporates video conferencing technology, FlashMeeting for seminars and collaboration, Compendium (knowledge maps), MSG (instant messaging) as well as self-assessments tools. 3.4 Open Source Software and Operating Systems in Africa According to a recent survey of ICT and education in Africa commissioned by the World Bank, there is a growing interest in free open source software (FLOSS) in Africa. The Free and Open Source Software Foundation for Africa (FOSSFA), Bokjang Bokjef in Senegal, and LinuxChix Africa are examples of organizations promoting the use and development of FLOSS in Africa. At the same time, the report noted substantial drawbacks with regard to the dearth of skilled personnel available to support such systems. As a recent Elluminate report  HYPERLINK "http://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdf" The Impact of Synchronous Online Learning in Academic Institutions ... noted that distance learning can be an isolating experience. Consequently, transitioning from simply delivering courses to providing a total experience is a central to distance learning. Creating online communities will help foster a sense of connectedness. The report also notes hat increasing numbers of institutions of higher learning and governments have concluded that its time for academia to blend pedagogical structure with sound business decision-making. Its also time to change mindsets and approaches to move online education from current trend into the mainstream. This explains why all over Canada and the rest of the world, institutions of higher learning are introducing elearning as a supplement or a complement to traditional teaching modes. 3.5 Course Description and Objectives The course examined different types of inequality and the historical, as well as contemporary roots of these inequalities throughout the world. It focused on the relationship between globalization, inequality and poverty; the fate of cultural diversity in a globalizing world; and issues of gender, ethnicity, the environment, social justice, and human rights. It also discussed several development patterns and trends that influence peoples of various countries in the global system from a comparative and cross-cultural perspective. Different regions of the world, including Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas were examined from both a substantive and theoretical perspective. The course was based on the premise that globalization is dialectical process with local and global interests colliding, coalescing, negotiating, and negating each other. In other words, globalization was perceived as the master trend reshaping social life everywhere, while social outcomes were shaped through interaction with other processes as well. The course was interdisciplinary, combining perspectives from sociology, anthropology, political science, economics and philosophy to explore the meanings of globalization and its central processes and institutional structures. The course sought to develop a conceptually grounded understanding of the various aspects of globalization, particularly, economic, political, social, and cultural. The main objectives were to introduce students to: (a) the main topics and debates related to globalization; (b) the conceptual and empirical tools available to frame discussions of globalization topics; and (c) the multifaceted ways in which globalization manifests itself and its complex impacts on individuals and collectives and multiple ways individuals and collectives are challenging and shaping globalization in the contemporary world. 3.6 The Beginnings The course was conceived in the Fall of 1998 when I was a lecturer at Wayne State University. I received a School of Liberal Arts innovative Global Curriculum research grant. The aim of the grant was to encourage faculty to design courses with an eye to linking students and faculty of Wayne State with students and faculty in different parts of the world. With a modest seed grant I began an intensive research into long distance learning. Also, began to look for collaborators in Ghana, South Africa and Kenya. I continued my research when I moved to Central Michigan University in the Fall of 2003. Looking for collaborators was quite daunting. After several blind emails and phone calls I was able to get in touch with a couple interested ones but lost contact with them somewhere along the line. Many of those who I maintained more or less longer links with preferred the traditional methods and eventually lost interest in my proposal. Their greatest fear, I gathered, was change. They appeared comfortable with what they have, i.e., the hassle-free traditional mode of pedagogy. Many of these referred me to colleagues who they suggested might be interested. These in turn suggested others who might be. Two constant questions I was asked were How is the technology going to work? We do not have even one computer in our entire department, how are we going to train our students to take a course that is computer-based? The electronic aspect was quite intimidating to most of them, even to me at first. Just thinking about how to link technology-savvy students in ICT-rich Canada with their technology deprived counterparts in Ghana was mind-boggling, to say the least. In spite of the challenges, I decided against giving up. Thus, when I moved back to Canada and to Kwantlen University College in the Fall of 2005, I decided to pursue the project. Looking for funding for the project proved even more daunting. After applying to several external funding agencies with no success, I had to settle for a modest internal funding. In the Spring of 2006, I received a $500 Technology Innovation grant from Kwantlen University College Information and Education department grant to purchase two webcams and a pair of headsets. In the same year, I received Kwantlen University Colleges Office for Research and Scholarship travel grant. In the Summer of 2006 I traveled to Ghana where I met several potential collaborators at the University of Ghana and to assess the level of technological readiness of the countrys premier university. Professor Kojo Senah, who is the current chair of the Sociology Department signed onto my proposal, cautiously. While I was aware of the yawning digital divide between the Global North and Global South, I was not prepared for what I saw. For example, the entire Department of Sociology had only two computersone for the secretary and the other for the head of the department. On my return, I teamed up with Afretech, a Delta, BC-based NGO which supplies used computers to various African countries to collect and ship 40 used computers from Kwantlen University College to the Sociology Department of the University of Ghana. In 2007, I went back to Ghana to follow up on the project. I met with the Director of the Information Technology Directorate, Mr. Emmanuel Owusu-Oware, who enthusiastically also signed on to the project. He immediately assigned his deputy, Ms Ama Dadson and Mr. Patrick Kuti, the directorates web-developer to work with on the project. He has made available UGLs a well-equipped lab for students. It is pertinent to mention that the University of Ghana, Legon has had internet connectivity some time now. In fact, UGL is one of the participant institutions taking part in the African Virtual University (AVU) project. The AVU was set up In 1995 under the auspices of the World Bank as a satellite based distance education project whose objectives are to deliver to countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), university education in the discipline of science and engineering, non-credit/ continuing education programs and remedial instruction (http://www.etw.org/2003/case_studies/soc_inc_african_VU.htm) . From August, 2007 to October 2007, Patrick and I tried a number of course delivery systems, notably Adobe Connect, Elluminate, and Yugma. We tried Adobe Connect first, because Kwantlen University College has just purchased a license for it. Unfortunately, we had a hell of time with it. In fact, about half of the trial period was spent on Adobe Connect. Most of the time, I could hear and see Patrick. However, he could hear and see me some times, but other times he could not. There was constant feedback and delays in the audio transmission. At this stage, I decided to hit the internet, sending blind messages asking for suggestions. It was through one such blind messages that I got in touch with Sandy Hirtz of BCCampus, who offered not only to be my course assistant gratis, but also offered her Elluminate virtual meeting room for the course. Prior to that, LearningTimes.org had given awarded me its Global Collaboration Grant, which consisted of one Member Office with a capacity of 25 users. In addition, Elluminate, a web-conferencing company offered me a four-month free trial and training beginning in May, 2007. 3.7 The Near Miss: After frantic efforts throughout the Summer, after my return from Ghana, to link up with my collaborator, Dr. Senah, Dr. Akosua Darkwah also of the Sociology Department of UGL was suggested as a replacement. Dr. Senah had been quite busy, teaching and also attending conferences in Europe. My several emails and phone calls were not returned. My attempt to seek my colleagues input in crafting the course syllabus proved futile. When all seemed to be lost, I managed to reach Dr. Senah, eventually. He then suggested I contacted Dr. Darkwah, who he said teaches a graduate course in Globalization. This was mid-December, 2007. Thankfully, Dr. Darkwah readily accepted the challenge. Her biggest headache was how to get in touch with her 12 graduate students, who because of the closure of the UGL due to the African Cup of Nations Soccer Tournament, were scattered all over the country. In the end, with dodged determination, she managed to get six of the students to enroll in the course. Had Dr. Darkwah not agreed at the last moment to team up with me, the project would have been a non-starter, and for this I am deeply indebted to her. The Course Website and Bells and Whistles Concurrently, Information and Educational Technology (I.E.T) Department was building course website on Moodle for the project. Meg Goodine of IET was a consultant for the project. She assigned Sue Birthwell of IET to assist the University of Ghana Online Collaborative Learning Project in the following ways: Production of course (i.e. identifying and engineering course content for digital delivery format); Administration of tech support for faculty, students; Maintenance of course (content management); Administration of delivery of course from KUC to Ghana using course management system (Elluminate); Consulting, training: faculty preparation for online teaching and course facilitation 3.8 COURSE FORMAT Lectures and Labs The class met twice a week on Mondays and Thursdays. The instructors lectured on Thursday and devote Monday to laboratory work, where students complete assignments, held discussions and conducted collaborative research for their group projects. The labs were supervised by the course assistantsKaelan Wong at the KUC site, Patrick Kuti at UGL and Sandy Hirtz, at virtual site. 3.9 COURSE REQUIREMENTS AND EVALUATION: EXAMS: Exams covered class lectures and discussions, assigned readings, and audio-visual presentations. There were two take-home examsa mid-term and a final. 3.10 QUIZZES: Three quizzes were given over the course of the semester. The quizzes were short tests that primarily evaluated students retention of readings. Students took the quizzes online in the course of the day, in their free time. The quizzes were activated from 08 A.M. until 23:55 P.M. (PT). The quizzes, which comprised multiple-choice and true-or-false questions and short questions, were for only the Kwantlen University College students. Dr. Darkwah gave her graduate students replacement assignments, commensurate with their level. 3.11 ASSIGNMENTS: WEEKLY ELECTRONIC (E-) ESSAYS AND CHAPTER SUMMARIES: Each student was required to provide a summary/synopsis of a chapter from the course main text, (G &L) in no more than 300 words and write a 200-word reaction essay of the weeks assigned reading/chapter, 500 words or roughly one-and-a-half single-spaced page. Each essay was to begin with a brief synopsis (summary) of the central assumptions and premises of the reading followed by the students answer to the chapter issue question. For example, the issue question for chapter five is To what extent did early globalization affect peoples of the world? Students were encouraged to react to the lectures, class discussions, the readings, videos, other students essays, and the course as a whole. Meaningful reactions could be used as bonus points. I examined each students reaction to determine whether or not it merited a bonus point. Students earned up to 10 bonus points, i.e., 10 reaction submissions. All reactions were posted at OUR GLBAL VILLAGE. 3.12 INTRODUCTORY PRESENTATION: On the first day of class, each student was asked to post a brief background and a photo at the course website. This was to give instructors an opportunity to know the students and indeed also for the students to know one another, particular students in the remote sites. 3.13 GROUP PROJECTS The group project was made of two partsResearch and Presentation 1) Research: By the third week of the semester, participants in the course were assigned to a global collaborative research team called Global Virtual Teams. Each Global Virtual Team consisted of 5 persons (4 from KUC and 1 from UGL.) Each Virtual Team was assigned one of five stakeholder perspectives: (1) global private sector; (2) international organization; (3) developed country national government; (4) developing country national government; and (5) non-governmental organization (non-state actors or NGO). These Global Virtual Teams were tasked with a research problem and a role-playing exercise. Each global virtual team was expected to develop 4000-5000 words e-essay/paper and a 15 minute (Address to Humanity) presentation on the following research questions: "What is Globalization? Why has it attracted much controversy, supporters and detractors? How has globalization contributed to the wealth and poverty of nations? Identify the problems and promises of globalization. What roles should governments, individuals, civic society, the UN play in this? Propose three ways in which valued resources such as energy, food, shelter, medicine, etc., can be equitably and justly distributed. The paper must be based on one of the areas to be covered in the course listed below. 2) Presentation: Fifteen Minutes Address to Humanity: Mock UN Assembly Meeting: The Global Virtual Teams were expected to present a summary of their paper to an imaginary United Nations session devoted to Globalization. This was done during the four weeks of the term/semester. Culture Social Justice Economic Development Indigenous Peoples Foreign Policy Global Climate Global Health International Conflict Democracy Migration Religion Trade The Media Women Children Human rights Racial/Ethnic Minorities Senior citizens 3.14 Course Evaluation: Each student was expected to prepare a 2-5-page evaluation of the course and its approach that should be submitted in electronic format. 3.15 The Course Takes off The course started on January 7, 2008 at 8 am PST and 4PM Ghana Time and 8PM in Bangalore, India, with 35 students at Kwantlen University College, six students in Ghana and one student in Bangalore, India. Initially, we anticipated twice the number of Kwantlen students taking the course from UGL. This was not to be, because the University of Ghana was closed due to the African Cup of Nations Football (Soccer) Tournament that was held in Ghana in the months of January and February. Thus, six graduate students ended up enrolling in the course, instead of about 70 potential undergraduate students. The course was held in labs equipped with computers, projectors and screens at both sitesKUC and UGL. I had two course assistants, Kaelan Wong a Kwantlen University College science major and Sandy Hirtz of BCcampus. Dr. Darkwah was assisted by Mr. Patrick Kuti, webmaster for UGL. The lone student in Bangalore in IndiaLaura Johnson accessed the course through a computer terminal. 3.16 Division of Labour: Dr. Darkwah and I agreed at the planning stage that we divided the lecture and discussion sessions between us. I was to lead the lectures and discussions for the month of January and Dr. Darkwah was to take over in February. I was to take over in March and April. The lab sessions were conducted by course assistant Kaelan with assistants from me and Sandy. Day One: A virtual interactive classroom was the first of its kind at Kwantlen University College. Naturally, day one was filled with anxiety and uncertainty, but also anticipation and excitement. Neither I nor my students and course assistants had any idea what to expect. I did my best to assuage the fears and uncertainties of my students by assuring them that the course was a steep learning curve for all of usinstructors, course assistants and students. Sandy Hirtz is an expert in Elluminate, being the BCcampus Online Community Producer. Kaelan took training courses in Elluminate and Moodle during the Summer. I had gone through my own training a year ago, but to what to extent the amount of training will come into play could only be gauged when interacting with the students. Both programs seemed straight forward enough. The interface was laid out in a user friendly format. Icons were for the most part appropriately assigned. The first day was devoted to familiarizing students with the bells and whistlesthe technological aspects of the course. This was done superbly by course assistant Sandy Hirtz of BCCampus. It was decided that it would be best if there was some way to record each lecture and have them posted online for student access. This would allow students to revisit the lecture should there be a technological failure that day. The first attempt was made by utilizing a digital video camera to record the lecture and then uploading it online. This method had to be abandoned due to the large file size of digitized two hour lecture recording. The Moodle server was unable to host such a large file. Other programs were looked at as a possibility to record the lecture but in the end, the built in recording tool in the Elluminate program was used due to its simplicity and ease of access for students. Recordings were saved via the Elluminate website and a link was provided to each recorded lecture. For the most part, Elluminate showed very little problems with execution. Powerpoint lectures were loaded onto the white board in the program and students from both BC and Ghana can view them on their own computers. The audio was clear, although there was some delay when transmitting from Ghana. Due to this problem, audio output was only limited to one set of speakers. Multiple speaker outputs from different computers produced a garbled effect in that each computer were receiving the audio at different rates. The web camera was available for use to see students from both sides of the globe. This, however, was rarely utilized. The white board was also used when students were asked for their input during lectures. A blank white board would be put up and students would type in their ideas so that everyone can see it. Most students actively participated during these sessions. During lab sessions, students used the white board to communicate with their fellow group members as well as compile their lab work. There were complaints from a number of students that the white board was not a very effective method for placing text. First of all, since its functions mirrored that of Windows paint, it is limited in its word processing capabilities. Students have suggested that it should have a built in word processor for working on collaborative lab work. Also, frustration arose when students wanted to save their lab work and be able to edit it at home. The white board can only be saved as a white board file and so it was not compatible with other word editing software. Also, the file can only be opened in Elluminate. The only option that students had was to use the print screen function and save an image of their work. This, of course, was not editable in word. In addition, even though the print screen function was an instant solution for those who are more adept with computers; novice users found it to be both confusing and frustrating. These students resorted to using the whiteboard for brainstorming ideas and having one group member, taking the ideas and typing it in an alternate word processing program. Some students avoided using Elluminate during labs and instead, use Messenger to communicate with their group. So, there is a mix bag of reactions from the students. There was also apprehension when it came to using the microphones to communicate with the class. Students were each provided with headsets that had built in microphones but only a couple of students have actually used it. When asked to participate in such discussions, students did not readily volunteer. In Moodle online assignment submissions, one of most frequent problems encountered was that students tend to forget and spend long periods of time typing up their assignment in Moodle, only to have it disappear when the time out feature dissipated their work into virtual oblivion. Also, only one student can submit their work at any one time and the submission text box cannot be utilized by another student until they are done. 3.17 Project Hits a Snag: Internet Inconnectivity The course hit its major snag in the second month of February. In February, it was it was Professor Darkwah of Ghanas turn to deliver the lectures via Elluminate. The first lecture held on February 7, went fairly smoothly. However, the second lecture on February 14 was another matter altogether. The African Nations Football (Soccer) Tournament had come to an end and the University of Ghana students have returned to campus. With thousands of the students using the email, the network was overloaded and overwhelmed. Thus, Dr. Darkwah and her students could not connect to Elluminate. The solution was to have Dr. Darkwah record her lectures using audacity and have them posted on Moodle for the Canadian students. But this was not to be, as Dr. Darkwahs lecture did not record. And this was a huge blow, because the students really enjoyed Dr. Darkwahs lecture. Several of them made unsolicited complimentary comments after her first lecture and were anticipating her subsequent lectures. The second lecture lasted no more than 30 minutes when she was cut off. At this juncture, it became clear that until the problem of connectivity was solved, we both must conduct our lectures separately. Thus for the rest of February, the lectures were conducted at the separate sites. My lectures were posted at Moodle for the Ghanaian students. Dr. Darkwah unsuccessfully attempted to re-record her lecture own lectures and have them posted at Moodle as the recording equipment failed. GIMPA Comes to the Rescue Thankfully, the nightmare did not last long. Dr. Akosua Darkwah managed to arrange rather quickly with Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA) to use their better equipped e-lab to access elluminate. This was after she had tried unsuccessfully to get a deal from Busynet, a private internet company in Accra. BusyInternets rates were exorbitant. Besides, using Busynet would have meant transporting the students several miles to the city centre to access the internet. 3.18 Course Content Students in general, thought that the course content was intriguing. Issues regarding globalization, poverty, inequities, etc. were put under a magnifying glass by a combination of articles, videos, and lectures. Students showed educational growth in their essays as their eyes were opened to the other side. Students were taught to look past the obvious when examining such issues. 3.19 Student Reactions During the first few lab sessions, there were many students who expressed frustrations with using Elluminate and Moodle. This was understandable. Students training in both programmes was shortone class session or three hours. Although students were constantly assisted and re-trained throughout the first few weeks, there was not enough time to really learn to use the programmes, especially, Elluminate. In short, there was not enough training time to enable students to learn to use the programmes competently and comfortably. One suggestion is that perhaps having a structured training session during the first two lectures to train the students in both Moodle and Elluminate. This will alleviate student frustration and confusion. Most students expressed the view that they were confused most of the time but they were happy with the timely responses to their inquiries and the availability of a course assistant to bridge the gap between them and the course instructor. They were further put at ease when they were told that this method of course delivery was new to both faculty and students and that any confusion and frustration that they were experiencing was to be expected. They were encouraged to voice their opinions throughout the duration of the semester. In fact, in my first lecture, I told the students that since the course was technology-intensive, it was going to be a steep learning curve for both students and instructors, and that there were likely to be technological glitches and blackouts. Conclusion It is my hope that as they leave the course and the semester, each student can confidently declare to her or his family and friends: Guess what, I entered the virtual classroom and came out at the pinnacle of the future classroom without walls with a better understanding of the wired world and the global village.Charles Quist-Adade (2008) Conclusion: Lesson Learned and Unlearned At the time of writing this paper, the course has just cruised through mid-stream. Six weeks more remain before the course wraps up. It is still uncertain if Dr. Darkwah and her students can connect with us via Elluminate. The maiden launch of this method of course delivery did pose several problems in regards to technological barriers and students handle on Elluminate and Moodle. My colleague and I did experience varying levels of frustrations and disappointment. The course assistant at the UGL site, Patrick Kuti certainly had more than his fair share of disappointments and frustrations. I am more than convinced that if I had had luck with funding, the course would have more successful than it was. For example, if we had extra dollars, it would have been possible for Dr. Darkwah to conduct her lecture from Busynet, a private internet provider when the University of Ghana network was facing connectivity problems. Nonetheless, many students were excited to be a part of this experience. To many, the sheer thrill of connecting and sharing a classroom, albeit virtual, with a fellow student as far away as Ghana and India is itself a veritable learning and life changing experience. While I suffered a couple paroxysms of frustration and angst during the planning stages and techno-shocks during the first half of the course, I must state emphatically that I have enjoyed every moment of the journey so far. It was a huge learning curve for everyone but even more so for the students. As they learned to embrace this course, it became increasingly apparent from their essays, internet discussions, and voluntary comments to me and my course assistant, Kaelan that, they are likely to take away from the course more than they anticipated. It is my hope that as they leave the course and the semester, each student can confidently declare to her or his family and friends: Guess what, I entered the virtual classroom and came out at the pinnacle of the future classroom without walls with a better understanding of the wired world and the global village. References: African Virtual University  HYPERLINK "http://www.etw.org/2003/case_studies/soc_inc_african_VU.htm" http://www.etw.org/2003/case_studies/soc_inc_african_VU.htm Retrieved February 23, 2008. African Universities Initiative  HYPERLINK "http://www.worldcomputerexchange.org/originals/AUI_Proposal.doc" http://www.worldcomputerexchange.org/originals/AUI_Proposal.doc Retrieved February 23, 2008. BCcampus:  HYPERLINK "http://www.bccampus.ca/EducatorServices/OnlineCommunities.htm" http://www.bccampus.ca/EducatorServices/OnlineCommunities.htm Retrieved February 23, 2008. Carnegie Mellon OLI:  HYPERLINK "http://www.cmu.edu/oli/" http://www.cmu.edu/oli/ Retrieved February 23, 2008. Cohen, Moshe, and Margaret Riel (1989) "The Effect of Distant Audiences on Students Writing," AERA Journal, pp. 132-159 Cogburn, D. L. (1998) Globalisation, knowledge, education, and training in the information age. International Forum on Information and Documentation 23, 4, 23-29. Connexions:  HYPERLINK "http://www.connexions.gov.uk/" http://www.connexions.gov.uk/ Education with Technologies. (2005).  HYPERLINK "http://learnweb.harvard.edu/ent/welcome/" http://learnweb.harvard.edu/ent/welcome/ Elluminate:  HYPERLINK "http://www.elluminate.com/index.jsp" http://www.elluminate.com/index.jsp Retrieved February 23, 2008. Farrell, Glen and Shafika Isaacs. 2007. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa: A Summary Report, Based on 53 Country Surveys. Washington, DC: infoDev / World Bank. Available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.353.html Retrieved February 23, 2008. Lechner, F. (2003) cited in The Globalization of Nothing, George Ritzer, Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge. MITOCW:  HYPERLINK "http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/web/home/home/index.htm" http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/web/home/home/index.htm UK Open University:  HYPERLINK "http://www.open.ac.uk/" http://www.open.ac.uk/ Retrieved February 23, 2008. Ritzer, G. (2003) The Globalization of Nothing Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge.  HYPERLINK "http://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdf" The Impact of Synchronous Online Learning in Academic Institutions ... retrieved February 23, 2008. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2005). (MIT) HYPERLINK "http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtml" http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtml Retrieved February 23, 2008. University of Michigan. .  HYPERLINK "http://www.communitytechnology.org/courses/globalization/1999/Syllabus.htm" http://www.communitytechnology.org/courses/globalization/1999/Syllabus.htm Retrieved February 23, 2008.  It must be said here that one Canadian student took the course from India, where she is currently based.  I moved to Central Michigan University in 2003, after a decade of teaching at the departments of Communication Studies and Sociology and Anthropology.  An adaptation of Global Syndicate approach used at the University of the Witwatersrand.      PAGE 10  PAGE 11  DOCPROPERTY "Date completed" \* MERGEFORMAT 3/28/2006  KEYWORDS \* MERGEFORMAT public  PAGE 1 MO~H I  ɴyyrke_e_eXTNTH hdaJ hG#pCJhG#p hG#p5CJ haCJ hG#pCJ hG#p6CJ hG#p56 hC@56 ha56haha56 hG#pCJhVhG#p5)hVhG#pB*CJPJ^JnHphtH)hVhG#pB*CJ0PJ^JnHphtH%hVhG#pB*CJ0PJnHphtHh!B*CJ0PJnHphtH%hVh!B*CJ0PJnHphtH usssq$>$ p ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Za$; p ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Z & F^$a$gdG#p E F Z \ ` a b c h m   nop}~&c'**++ȯȫݫziU'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJh(hG#pB*aJphh(hG#paJh(hdaJ hdaJ hG#pCJ hG#pCJhG#p%jhVhG#p0J0OJQJUaJ h!aJhVhG#paJhG#pCJOJQJaJ hG#p5CJ hG#pCJ hdCJ hG#p56hVhdaJ! F b ?@nop}$gdG#p>$ p ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Za$7 ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Z}~89XY !!$$O+P+}.~.1gdG#p>$ p ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Za$ & F^++I+J+e,g,~..11`5b5w57788,8o88 :::-:ڴڥn\Kn h(hG#pPJ^J aJnHtH#h(hG#pPJ]^JaJnHtH h(hG#pPJ^JaJnHtH#h(hG#p5PJ^JaJnHtH&h(hG#p5PJ]^JaJnHtHh(hG#pPJ^JnHtHh(hG#pB*aJph333h(hG#p5aJh(hG#pB*^JaJph333h(hG#paJh(hG#p0JaJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJ111b5c5w5778::===>>@@CCsEtEuEvEEGGLgdG#p 7$8$H$gdG#pgdG#p-:.::::::::::==>vEELLRRdSSSU㢏|gT?)h(hG#pB*PJ^J aJnHphtH%h(hG#pB*PJ^J nHphtH)h(hG#pB*PJ^J aJnHphtH%h(hG#pB*PJ^J nHphtH%jh(hG#p0J0OJQJUaJh(hG#paJh(hG#p5h(hG#p0J5aJh(hG#p0J5\aJ*jhVhG#p5OJQJUaJh(hG#p5aJ$jh(hG#p5OJQJUaJLLQQSSUU\Z]ZqZ^^_N````(aoaaaaabbc d7$8$H$gdG#pgdG#pUU~YY\Z]ZpZqZ^__aabcccc4dGdadmdfffffǿε㨙tgVLhVhG#p5aJ!h(hG#pB*OJQJaJphh(hG#pB*aJphh(hG#p5^J aJh(hG#p^J aJh(hG#p5\^J aJh(hG#pCJOJQJ^J h(hG#pCJOJQJh(hG#p5aJh(hG#p5 h(hG#p)h(hG#pB*PJ^JaJnHphtHh(hG#paJ%h(hG#pB*PJaJnHphtHcc(d)dadfffhhjjkkl$o dd[$\$gdG#pgdG#pgdG#p^gdG#pffjjjjkkkl'l(lll#o$o*\aJh(hG#p5\^J aJh(hG#pB*\aJphh(hG#pB*aJphh(hG#p5B*aJph $o=ooMY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pooNpMY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pNpp,qbqErxrMH<4dgdG#p dd[$\$gdG#pgdG#pY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pErurrrrrrrrrrÿrs s ssZs[s\srssstrvwxuyy)}}%o̒ĵuqqfhnwhnwCJaJhnw!jh(hG#p0J2OJQJUh(hG#p5 h(hG#p,h(hG#p5B*PJ^J aJnHphtHh(hG#paJh(hG#pB*\aJphh(hG#p5\aJh(hG#pB* \aJphh3.\^JaJh(hG#p^JaJh(hG#p\^JaJ'xrrrs sZs[s\sstrvsvwwxuyvyyE{F{(})} dgdG#pgdG#p d7$8$H$gdG#p0dd&d P [$\$^`0gdG#pdgdG#p  op >?% !gdnw$a$gdt"gdG#p 45 2NSLNYZ[wx¦æ˺˔˺˺o'j,hVhG#pOJQJUaJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJh! hdCJ hG#pCJ h(hdhd hG#phVhG#ph(hG#paJh(hG#p5 h(hG#p h(hnwht" hnwhnwht"ht"5CJaJht"ht"5hnwCJaJ) 2MNZ[Ч!gdsofd&^gdG#p:$ ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Za$æ?@ΧϧDEFߨCDopq'(Y۳۟ۋw'jAhVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJh(hG#paJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJh(hG#p0JaJ(n67<"#ϰа;)gdG#pYZ[~} IJK|}Эѭ<=Z[ѯү dƻƧƓk'j hVhG#pOJQJUaJ'j1 hVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJh(hG#pPJaJh(hG#paJh(hG#p0JaJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ%defϰаѰҰ:;<Աձ-./0235689;BCIJLMQRXY[¸}u}u}u}u}kekZkkekZh"0JmHnHu h( 0Jjh( 0JUjhD-~UhD-~hnvh( ^Jhnvh( B*\^Jphjhnvh( 0J0U^Jh( CJOJQJaJh( jh( 0J0UhG#ph(hG#paJh(hG#p0JaJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJ'j] hVhG#pOJQJUaJ#;Ա./124578:;<=ABOP]^_ɲʲ˲̲Ͳβ)1gdG#p[\_`ŲƲDzȲʲ˲̲ͲβhG#phD-~h"0JmHnHu h( 0JhSjh( Uh( jh( 0JUM 0 0:pCF{. A!"#$% Cf921!"DyK yK hhttp://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtmlSDyK yK http://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdfDyK yK xhttp://www.etw.org/2003/case_studies/soc_inc_african_VU.htmDyK yK http://www.worldcomputerexchange.org/originals/AUI_Proposal.docDyK yK |http://www.bccampus.ca/EducatorServices/OnlineCommunities.htmDyK yK 0http://www.cmu.edu/oli/DyK yK <http://www.connexions.gov.uk/DyK yK Rhttp://learnweb.harvard.edu/ent/welcome/DyK yK Hhttp://www.elluminate.com/index.jspDyK yK dhttp://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/web/home/home/index.htmDyK yK .http://www.open.ac.uk/SDyK yK http://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdfDyK yK hhttp://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtmlDyK yK http://www.communitytechnology.org/courses/globalization/1999/Syllabus.htm^3 2 0@P`p2( 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p8XV~_HmH nH sH tH X`X Normal `p@@@@@@OJQJ_HmH sH tH 88  Heading 1$@&5V@V  Heading 2&$ vhx@&^h`5DD  Heading 3 $x@& 5^JaJFF  Heading 4 $x@&5\^JaJ  Heading 5t$ ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-D@&M N!O$P!Q$]Z^Z 5OJ QJ d@d  Heading 6'$ `pT7$8$@&^T5CJOJQJ@@  Heading 7$@& 5B*ph  Heading 8t$ ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-D@&M N!O$P!Q$]Z^Z6>*B*phDA`D Default Paragraph FontViV  Table Normal :V 44 la (k (No List @@@ Header `p9!AB2B@2 Body Textx.)@. Page NumberB"B centered-boxed-boldLC2L Body Text Indenth^h`PRBP Body Text Indent 2^`HSRH Body Text Indent 3 h^h|b| Style Arial 36 pt Bold Centered$ `pa$ 5CJH\J^@rJ Normal (Web)dd[$\$^JaJBU@B Hyperlink>*B*CJOJQJphFVF FollowedHyperlink >*B* ph4 @4 Footer  !@Z@ Plain Text xxOJQJ6@6  Footnote Text66 Style ArialOJQJNN Style Style Arial + 10 ptCJ Section Headl$ & FZ$d %d &d 'd -D M N O P Q ]Za$5B*CJ0^JaJ0phZOZ Chapter Head $ & Fa$5B*CJ0^JaJ0phO Heading 1At!$ `ZZ$d %d &d 'd -D M N O P Q ]Z^Z5B*CJ^JaJphR6"R List Bullet 2" & F dZZTOC 1# `p$ 5;OJ QJ \mHnHu8OB8 Heading 1 - NT$JRJ Section No #%$a$5CJ0^JaJ0\ \ Index 1#& `p8^`8CJOJQJaJ0Qr0 Appendices'>> stylestylearial10pt<P@< Body Text 2) B*ph^Q^ Body Text 3* `pB*CJOJPJQJphT Block Textn+ ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Z B*ph>'> Comment ReferenceCJ<<  Comment Text-CJaJBjB Comment Subject.CJaJDD  Balloon Text/CJOJQJaJ@&@@ VFootnote ReferenceH*N+@N V Endnote Text1 `pOJQJ>*@!> VEndnote ReferenceH*PK![Content_Types].xmlj0Eжr(΢Iw},-j4 wP-t#bΙ{UTU^hd}㨫)*1P' ^W0)T9<l#$yi};~@(Hu* Dנz/0ǰ $ X3aZ,D0j~3߶b~i>3\`?/[G\!-Rk.sԻ..a濭?PK!֧6 _rels/.relsj0 }Q%v/C/}(h"O = C?hv=Ʌ%[xp{۵_Pѣ<1H0ORBdJE4b$q_6LR7`0̞O,En7Lib/SeеPK!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xml M @}w7c(EbˮCAǠҟ7՛K Y, e.|,H,lxɴIsQ}#Ր ֵ+!,^$j=GW)E+& 8PK!Ptheme/theme/theme1.xmlYOo6w toc'vuر-MniP@I}úama[إ4:lЯGRX^6؊>$ !)O^rC$y@/yH*񄴽)޵߻UDb`}"qۋJחX^)I`nEp)liV[]1M<OP6r=zgbIguSebORD۫qu gZo~ٺlAplxpT0+[}`jzAV2Fi@qv֬5\|ʜ̭NleXdsjcs7f W+Ն7`g ȘJj|h(KD- dXiJ؇(x$( :;˹! I_TS 1?E??ZBΪmU/?~xY'y5g&΋/ɋ>GMGeD3Vq%'#q$8K)fw9:ĵ x}rxwr:\TZaG*y8IjbRc|XŻǿI u3KGnD1NIBs RuK>V.EL+M2#'fi ~V vl{u8zH *:(W☕ ~JTe\O*tHGHY}KNP*ݾ˦TѼ9/#A7qZ$*c?qUnwN%Oi4 =3ڗP 1Pm \\9Mؓ2aD];Yt\[x]}Wr|]g- eW )6-rCSj id DЇAΜIqbJ#x꺃 6k#ASh&ʌt(Q%p%m&]caSl=X\P1Mh9MVdDAaVB[݈fJíP|8 քAV^f Hn- "d>znNJ ة>b&2vKyϼD:,AGm\nziÙ.uχYC6OMf3or$5NHT[XF64T,ќM0E)`#5XY`פ;%1U٥m;R>QD DcpU'&LE/pm%]8firS4d 7y\`JnίI R3U~7+׸#m qBiDi*L69mY&iHE=(K&N!V.KeLDĕ{D vEꦚdeNƟe(MN9ߜR6&3(a/DUz<{ˊYȳV)9Z[4^n5!J?Q3eBoCM m<.vpIYfZY_p[=al-Y}Nc͙ŋ4vfavl'SA8|*u{-ߟ0%M07%<ҍPK! ѐ'theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM 0wooӺ&݈Э5 6?$Q ,.aic21h:qm@RN;d`o7gK(M&$R(.1r'JЊT8V"AȻHu}|$b{P8g/]QAsم(#L[PK-![Content_Types].xmlPK-!֧6 +_rels/.relsPK-!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-!Ptheme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-! ѐ' theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK] DdΪk^aΪΪ !00 +-:UfEræYd[βZ\_aceilnpqs }1Lc$ooNpxr ;β[]^`bdfghjkmor"#I#-222wž?ΟECp'Z~ J|Х<Zѧ eΪXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"),0_ik!!U!8@0(  B S  ? _Hlt122252991 _Hlt122252992 Assignments _Hlt122253242 _Hlt122253243 _Hlt122252833 _Hlt1222528343#3#^xxϪ@@@@@@4#4#^yyϪh u hTh h hB hl h h h* hT hL h h  h hDa h|ho h$h$h,v h| h̢hZ h[ htA hA h h< hT} h} h h< h4t htt h] h] h h4 hd h h h h h h h< hn h o hLo hk hk h>>n?u???????CCC|DDDDDpFpFyFFFGG+GIIIIIIJJKKKNNNNRRSWW X[Y[Y]]^^hlsllllllllbmpmmmoooooooqqqqyy/z/z(!!HHPYϪ      !"#$%&'()*+,-.0/132465789:;<>=?@ABCDFEGJHIKLMNOPQRSTUVWYXZ][\^_`acbdefighjklmnoprqstuvwzxy{|}~Xcc      """"Y#Y#--0011_5_588===== > >>>>s????????CDDDDDDDxFFFFF'G0G0GIIIIIIJJKKKNNNNRRSX5X5X`Y`Y^^^^qlxlllllllllmummm oo o ooooqqqqyy4z4z&**..OXcc,Ϫ  !"#$%&'()*+,-.0/132465789:;<>=?@ABCDFEGIJHKLMNOPQRSTUVWYXZ\][^_`acbdefhigjklmnoprqstuvwyzx{|}~=*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceName=*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceType8*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsCity9*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplaceB*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagscountry-region9*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsState Y 2:UZ  v|8 C [#c###&&&&I(T(((....V/b/011 11'12%255GGGG$I,IJJJJJJ KKKKbNlNrNwNPPQ"QQQRRRRRRESJSRTWTTTTTZVaVWWWWWWYYA[G[f[j[(^/^nnBoJoPoWotoxop pppppKqQqbslsxssssssssuuwwUx_xxx y*yWyayblBH#Dž7>eo҇؇wAGgnƊ̊?EFM-4[i#Yc!+9CBHMWՖܖ7;ELip7A%,3ޤШ.//11224578:;BMQ\_Ȫʪ˪̪ϪO~~Fchm253^^$g=gggjk}}oŠŠÊÊĊĊŊŊƊƊ̊NS#ϨШ//11224578:;_ʪ˪˪ϪO~~hm}}o̊NSϨ//11224578:;_ʪϪ.|, }d_~&NdOq܁T|_ u ĺRkL+3{Y~T@cN|X o+KWB #v9%_p#Z=]#B)Vk3(01wk+>6uk2@h2n3P94.U3r,7]BE0tc;(i@0g> &3E i!H g)MSMH<-VPTYQvuTeWzg] Mu`RĪWhv/:jEgmv$p4kp|%+\ufbu/D%~ v@&w + awn0^`.^`.88^8`.^`. ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( 88^8`OJQJo( P^`POJQJo(<hh^h`. hh^h`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(nh^`CJOJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh pp^p`OJQJo(h @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh PP^P`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n Z2 ^Z`56B*CJ0OJ QJ o(ph Section : ^`.pLp^p`L.@ @ ^@ `.^`.L^`L.^`.^`.PLP^P`L.?^`?o(. ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo( P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n88^`OJQJo(hH8^`OJ QJ o(hHo8pp^p`OJQJo(hH8@ @ ^@ `OJQJo(hH8^`OJ QJ o(hHo8^`OJQJo(hH8^`OJQJo(hH8^`OJ QJ o(hHo8PP^P`OJQJo(hH ^`OJQJo(- P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo(h^`CJOJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh pp^p`OJQJo(h @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh PP^P`OJQJo( P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n hh^h`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo(h^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJ QJ ^Jo(hHohpp^p`OJQJo(hHh@ @ ^@ `OJQJo(hHh^`OJ QJ ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJ QJ ^Jo(hHohPP^P`OJQJo(hHhh^h`.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h pLp^p`LhH.h @ @ ^@ `hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h PLP^P`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h pLp^p`LhH.h @ @ ^@ `hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h PLP^P`LhH.  P ^ `POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( PP^P`OJ QJ o(o   ^ `OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( !!^!`OJ QJ o(o $$^$`OJQJo(  ^`56CJ0OJ QJ o( Chapter :^`.pLp^p`L.@ @ ^@ `.^`.L^`L.^`.^`.PLP^P`L. P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n  P ^ `POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( PP^P`OJ QJ o(o   ^ `OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( !!^!`OJ QJ o(o $$^$`OJQJo( P^`POJQJo(< ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo(^`.h^`OJQJo(hHpp^p`.@ @ ^@ `.^`.^`.^`.^`.PP^P`. P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo(..U3i!Hg]v9+KWgm:jpbu#]#,7+ awg>~}|%~ vYQ3{Yk3(-VP6uk2|X _k+%+\uSMg)M3EkpL2n3@0tc;WhMu`eWw..          S( :o?xt"C@CFbFadG#pnwF}D-~)nvs$D"cKx5!3.ШҨ@ϨϨ@ ϨϨΪx@Unknown Sandy HirtzuwcallisonG* Times New Roman5Symbol3. * Arial; Batang7Tms RmnE.Berlin Sans FB5. *aTahomaQAGaramondPro-RegularM Futura-BookOblique? Futura-Book?= * Courier New1" Helv9Garamond= Arial Bold9New York9Palatino3Times[/Lucida GrandeCourier Newg WP MathAHoefler Text Ornaments;WingdingsA BCambria Math!hff[f2 V22 V2d4dzzz2qHX ?Y2!xxkC:\Documents and Settings\Sandy Hirtz\Local Settings\Temporary Internet Files\OLK5D\chapter_template_v3.dotChapter number Chapter titlepublic Sandy Hirtzuwc.                           ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - Oh+'0   @ L X dpxChapter numberChapter title Sandy Hirtzpublicchapter_template_v3uwc2Microsoft Office Word@F#@:Ք@@ 2՜.+,D՜.+,d x  2Vz Chapter number Title 0u} _PID_LINKBASE _PID_HLINKSDate completedAA Tcj'Khttp://www.communitytechnology.org/courses/globalization/1999/Syllabus.htmy2%q$4http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtmly2X]!qhttp://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdfy2j6http://www.open.ac.uk/y2S2http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/web/home/home/index.htmy25m$http://www.elluminate.com/index.jspy2)http://learnweb.harvard.edu/ent/welcome/y2Q@http://www.connexions.gov.uk/y24+http://www.cmu.edu/oli/y2 >http://www.bccampus.ca/EducatorServices/OnlineCommunities.htmy2Ue @http://www.worldcomputerexchange.org/originals/AUI_Proposal.docy2l,<http://www.etw.org/2003/case_studies/soc_inc_african_VU.htmy2X]qhttp://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdfy2%q4http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtmly2@=R  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstvwxyz{|~Root Entry F$Data u1Table}WordDocumentOSummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjy  F'Microsoft Office Word 97-2003 Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q
Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 23

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 24

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 25

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 26
ࡱ>  βbjbj OhhШ_K!a!!!!!!!8!d;"t!Z"#^ $ $ $$%<% $ܩ~^ӣ!J@$$J@J@ӣu! ! $ $FRJRJRJJ@|! $! $RJJ@RJRJ y $Z$!Fb.TwܭFܭ ܭ! & $/RJ54:r & & &ӣӣRI & & &J@J@J@J@ܭ & & & & & & & & &  : Linking Students from the University of Ghana and Kwantlen University College: Challenges Confronted and Lessons (Un)Learned: By Charles Quist-Adade, PhD, Kwantlen University College, Surrey, BC, Canada for the cultures of the Global Village to flourish in a tolerant, mutually beneficial fashion, it is imperative that there be real sharing of ideas, knowledge, and values. Charles Quist-Adade (2008) Abstract the course was conceived on the basis of two ideasClassroom without Walls and Global Village. -Charles Quist-Adade (2008) This paper presents preliminary overview and findings of a pilot course webconferencing course on Globalization involving largely students and instructors in Canada and Ghana. The overview will focus more on the planning and implementation stages of the course than on the delivery and content. It will highlight the challenges confronted, lessons learned and lessons unlearned throughout the more than two years planning and implementation of the project, whose principal objective was to create geographically distributed collaborative learning and teaching between students and faculty in developed and developing countries. The undergraduate and graduate course on Globalization (Sociology of Global Inequalities), which was implemented in the Spring of 2008 (from January 7 to April 21), was conceived on the basis of two ideasClassroom without Walls and Global Village. It was designed, using a unique interactive multimedia approach to link students and faculty in two international locationsGhana and Canada. The course, through the integrative information and educational technologies, aimed to break the boundaries of time, space and distance thereby facilitating the sharing of knowledge between the students at the three sites. What is more, it sought to create a networked collaborative learning environment for students and instructors at the University of Ghana and Kwantlen University College in British Columbia, Canada. The partially on-line course used a mixed mode delivery approach, combining synchronous video-audio streaming (videoconferencing), real chat, online materials, pre-packaged online materials, as well as asynchronous chat sessions. The course had a classroom component at each of the host sites that was supported by a course web site. Interaction between learner and lecturer was primarily through text messaging and online chats during synchronous lecture sessions. Students also had to use online chat sessions and discussion forums with teaching assistants. The course had a mix of synchronous and asynchronous activities (i.e., some activities took place at the same time, same place; some at the same time, different place; and some at a different time, different place). The course provided continuous feedback, high levels of interaction and an emphasis on student work and group projects. In all 31 undergraduate students from Kwantlen University College (KUC) and six graduate students from the University of Ghana, Legon (UGL) took the course. The preliminary study showed that while the preparatory stage was quite daunting and the project leader had some harrowing experiences in finding collaborators, accessing funding, the overall benefits of the project to both students and instructors were quite substantial, making the efforts and sacrifices worthwhile. Introduction While Canadian Communications scholar Marshall McLuhan put us all in a Global Village, the benefits of the village appear to elude a sizeable number of the villagers as the digital divide between the technology-haves and technology-have-nots has been growing ever wider and wider Charles Quist-Adade (2008) While Canadian Communications scholar Marshall McLuhan put us all in a Global Village, the benefits of the village appear to elude a sizeable number of the villagers as the digital divide between the technology-haves and technology-have-nots has been growing ever wider and wider. Knowledge and ideas flow in a uni-directional, North-to-South (from the Developed World to the Developing World) fashion with little going in the opposite direction. A lopsided flow of knowledge, values and ideas creates an atmosphere of mutual suspicion and recrimination, with some of the villagers complaining of cultural imperialism and others fending off such charges by saying they are only promoting the ideas of democracy. But for the cultures of the Global Village to flourish in a tolerant, mutually beneficial fashion, it is imperative that there be real sharing of ideas, knowledge, and values. Globalization has been described as an ideology and practice of corporate expansion across borders and a structure of cross-border facilities and economic linkages, which focus on the imperialistic ambitions of nations, corporations, organizationsand their desire to impose themselves on various geographic areas.(Ritzer, G. (2003) While this description may sound cynical, and points to the vulnerabilities of the concept, it is imperative to extend and expand the intellectual realm of Globalization on the crest wave of the ever-evolving information revolution to the benefit of students and countries world wide. There is no better forum to address the ever-increasing need for mutual understanding and mutual respect across cultures and national borders than via collaborative learning. Formal education systems, in the developing world in general and Africa in particular, are taxed by minimal resources and extensive responsibilities. A conspiracy of factorslimited financial resources, the brain drain which has affected tertiary institutions the most, the dearth of information communication technological (ICT) facilities, among many othersmakes clear the need for new and alternative approaches. While the use of ICT may increase the likelihood of improved learning only so much, its capacity to alter the status quo is unparalleled. Using technology to attract and facilitate connections and interaction among communities, regardless of where they are located or who they are, can promote flows of information and knowledge, creation of ideas and initiatives, and ultimately a healthier society (African Universities Initiative, 2005). This project will offer Canada a fine opportunity to play its part in bridging the digital gap between a developing country and a developed one, while facilitating mutual enrichment of the life experiences of Canadian and Ghanaian students, improving and innovating pedagogical methods of educators in Canada and Ghana. The course will be guided by the more benign conceptualization of globalization as the worldwide nexus of practices, expansion of relations across continents, organization of social life on a global scale, and growth of a shared global consciousness.(Lechner, F, 2003, p.72) It will be a cost-effective and innovative way to exchange knowledge across continents, allowing for the interpenetration of the global and the local, which will bring about unique outcomes in different geographic areas. (Ritzer, G., 2003, p.73) As a micro academia in the global academic world, it will offer the best opportunity for both students and faculty to contribute to the global "stock of knowledge" through an active cross-fertilization of cross-cultural ideas. Already, increasing numbers of institutions of higher learning and non-profit organizations in collaboration with ICT companies have developed free resusable online resources which allow for the sharing of academic knowledge, pedagogical practices, course resources not only between institutions, but also between students and educators in different countries. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has perhaps one of the leading global collaborative learning projects. MITs Open Courseware (OCW) provides free, searchable access to MIT's course materials for educators, students, and self-learners around the world. The Singapore-MIT (SMA) is a classic example of how collaborative learning and teaching can revolutionize the global exchange of knowledge and help train innovative leaders of the world. In the words of Professor Schmalensee, SMA joins students at the National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University, and MIT in a virtual classroom taught--via Internet2--by professors from all three universities. SMA was founded in 1998 to promote global engineering education and research while providing students with unlimited access to exceptional faculty expertise and superior research facilities. While students may sit in classrooms at different sites, they share course lectures, online materials, and research opportunities with over 90 faculty--half from MIT. MIT has expanded its project to include Korea and Mexico and its now eyeing Africa, precisely Ghana ( HYPERLINK "http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtml" http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtml ). In Canada, BCcampus has developed a leading edge technology that allows the free searchable access to courses across the Province. Through BCcampus, students, educators and self-learners can access services, resources, and online courses from several participating institutions. In addition, users have access to the Online Learner Community, an online community that provides users opportunities for collaboration, general interest, and special event use. Through its SOL*R, BC public post-secondary educators can license, contribute, and access free online learning resources. As a repository portal, SOL*R facilitates the sharing, discovery, reuse, and remixing of course materialincluding course outlines, lecture notes, best teaching practices, etc. from a wide variety of disciplines and subject areas. 3.1 Connexions: Connexions is an environment for collaboratively developing, freely sharing, and rapidly publishing scholarly content on the Web. Its Content Commons contains educational materials for a variety of users, including children to college students to professionals, which is organized in small modules that are easily connected into larger courses. All content is free to use and reuse under what it calls Creative Commons attributable license. Connexions philosophy is Sharing is good. Guided by this philosophical principle and informed by the logic that people need not re-invent the wheel, the creators of Connexions have made it possible for people to share their knowledge, so they can select from the best ideas to create the most effective learning materials. 3.2 Carnegie Mellon Another online learning project with a huge potential for shared global learning and instruction is the Carnegie Mellon Online Learning Initiative (OLI) project. The project which grew out of collaboration among cognitive scientists, experts in human computer interaction and seasoned faculty aims to increase access to education, enhancing the quality of instruction and providing a model for a new generation of online courses and course materials that teach more effectively and appeal to students more powerfully than anything in existence today. The project is unique in that it adds to online education the crucial elements of instructional design grounded in cognitive theory, formative evaluation for students and faculty, and iterative course improvement based on empirical evidence. OLI courses include a number of innovative online instructional components such as: cognitive tutors, virtual laboratories, group experiments, and simulations 3.3 Open University The United Kingdoms Open University is one of leaders in the field of online learning. In fact, OU is the pioneer in the field, having been making learning materials freely available as early as 1969 through its partnership with the British Broadcasting Corporation. The OUs OpenLearn was launched in 2006 to open access to education for all and it is designed for distance and elearning. It now boasts of 700,000 users globally. It incorporates video conferencing technology, FlashMeeting for seminars and collaboration, Compendium (knowledge maps), MSG (instant messaging) as well as self-assessments tools. 3.4 Open Source Software and Operating Systems in Africa According to a recent survey of ICT and education in Africa commissioned by the World Bank, there is a growing interest in free open source software (FLOSS) in Africa. The Free and Open Source Software Foundation for Africa (FOSSFA), Bokjang Bokjef in Senegal, and LinuxChix Africa are examples of organizations promoting the use and development of FLOSS in Africa. At the same time, the report noted substantial drawbacks with regard to the dearth of skilled personnel available to support such systems. As a recent Elluminate report  HYPERLINK "http://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdf" The Impact of Synchronous Online Learning in Academic Institutions ... noted that distance learning can be an isolating experience. Consequently, transitioning from simply delivering courses to providing a total experience is a central to distance learning. Creating online communities will help foster a sense of connectedness. The report also notes hat increasing numbers of institutions of higher learning and governments have concluded that its time for academia to blend pedagogical structure with sound business decision-making. Its also time to change mindsets and approaches to move online education from current trend into the mainstream. This explains why all over Canada and the rest of the world, institutions of higher learning are introducing elearning as a supplement or a complement to traditional teaching modes. 3.5 Course Description and Objectives The course examined different types of inequality and the historical, as well as contemporary roots of these inequalities throughout the world. It focused on the relationship between globalization, inequality and poverty; the fate of cultural diversity in a globalizing world; and issues of gender, ethnicity, the environment, social justice, and human rights. It also discussed several development patterns and trends that influence peoples of various countries in the global system from a comparative and cross-cultural perspective. Different regions of the world, including Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas were examined from both a substantive and theoretical perspective. The course was based on the premise that globalization is dialectical process with local and global interests colliding, coalescing, negotiating, and negating each other. In other words, globalization was perceived as the master trend reshaping social life everywhere, while social outcomes were shaped through interaction with other processes as well. The course was interdisciplinary, combining perspectives from sociology, anthropology, political science, economics and philosophy to explore the meanings of globalization and its central processes and institutional structures. The course sought to develop a conceptually grounded understanding of the various aspects of globalization, particularly, economic, political, social, and cultural. The main objectives were to introduce students to: (a) the main topics and debates related to globalization; (b) the conceptual and empirical tools available to frame discussions of globalization topics; and (c) the multifaceted ways in which globalization manifests itself and its complex impacts on individuals and collectives and multiple ways individuals and collectives are challenging and shaping globalization in the contemporary world. 3.6 The Beginnings The course was conceived in the Fall of 1998 when I was a lecturer at Wayne State University. I received a School of Liberal Arts innovative Global Curriculum research grant. The aim of the grant was to encourage faculty to design courses with an eye to linking students and faculty of Wayne State with students and faculty in different parts of the world. With a modest seed grant I began an intensive research into long distance learning. Also, began to look for collaborators in Ghana, South Africa and Kenya. I continued my research when I moved to Central Michigan University in the Fall of 2003. Looking for collaborators was quite daunting. After several blind emails and phone calls I was able to get in touch with a couple interested ones but lost contact with them somewhere along the line. Many of those who I maintained more or less longer links with preferred the traditional methods and eventually lost interest in my proposal. Their greatest fear, I gathered, was change. They appeared comfortable with what they have, i.e., the hassle-free traditional mode of pedagogy. Many of these referred me to colleagues who they suggested might be interested. These in turn suggested others who might be. Two constant questions I was asked were How is the technology going to work? We do not have even one computer in our entire department, how are we going to train our students to take a course that is computer-based? The electronic aspect was quite intimidating to most of them, even to me at first. Just thinking about how to link technology-savvy students in ICT-rich Canada with their technology deprived counterparts in Ghana was mind-boggling, to say the least. In spite of the challenges, I decided against giving up. Thus, when I moved back to Canada and to Kwantlen University College in the Fall of 2005, I decided to pursue the project. Looking for funding for the project proved even more daunting. After applying to several external funding agencies with no success, I had to settle for a modest internal funding. In the Spring of 2006, I received a $500 Technology Innovation grant from Kwantlen University College Information and Education department grant to purchase two webcams and a pair of headsets. In the same year, I received Kwantlen University Colleges Office for Research and Scholarship travel grant. In the Summer of 2006 I traveled to Ghana where I met several potential collaborators at the University of Ghana and to assess the level of technological readiness of the countrys premier university. Professor Kojo Senah, who is the current chair of the Sociology Department signed onto my proposal, cautiously. While I was aware of the yawning digital divide between the Global North and Global South, I was not prepared for what I saw. For example, the entire Department of Sociology had only two computersone for the secretary and the other for the head of the department. On my return, I teamed up with Afretech, a Delta, BC-based NGO which supplies used computers to various African countries to collect and ship 40 used computers from Kwantlen University College to the Sociology Department of the University of Ghana. In 2007, I went back to Ghana to follow up on the project. I met with the Director of the Information Technology Directorate, Mr. Emmanuel Owusu-Oware, who enthusiastically also signed on to the project. He immediately assigned his deputy, Ms Ama Dadson and Mr. Patrick Kuti, the directorates web-developer to work with on the project. He has made available UGLs a well-equipped lab for students. It is pertinent to mention that the University of Ghana, Legon has had internet connectivity some time now. In fact, UGL is one of the participant institutions taking part in the African Virtual University (AVU) project. The AVU was set up In 1995 under the auspices of the World Bank as a satellite based distance education project whose objectives are to deliver to countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), university education in the discipline of science and engineering, non-credit/ continuing education programs and remedial instruction (http://www.etw.org/2003/case_studies/soc_inc_african_VU.htm) . From August, 2007 to October 2007, Patrick and I tried a number of course delivery systems, notably Adobe Connect, Elluminate, and Yugma. We tried Adobe Connect first, because Kwantlen University College has just purchased a license for it. Unfortunately, we had a hell of time with it. In fact, about half of the trial period was spent on Adobe Connect. Most of the time, I could hear and see Patrick. However, he could hear and see me some times, but other times he could not. There was constant feedback and delays in the audio transmission. At this stage, I decided to hit the internet, sending blind messages asking for suggestions. It was through one such blind messages that I got in touch with Sandy Hirtz of BCCampus, who offered not only to be my course assistant gratis, but also offered her Elluminate virtual meeting room for the course. Prior to that, LearningTimes.org had given awarded me its Global Collaboration Grant, which consisted of one Member Office with a capacity of 25 users. In addition, Elluminate, a web-conferencing company offered me a four-month free trial and training beginning in May, 2007. 3.7 The Near Miss: After frantic efforts throughout the Summer, after my return from Ghana, to link up with my collaborator, Dr. Senah, Dr. Akosua Darkwah also of the Sociology Department of UGL was suggested as a replacement. Dr. Senah had been quite busy, teaching and also attending conferences in Europe. My several emails and phone calls were not returned. My attempt to seek my colleagues input in crafting the course syllabus proved futile. When all seemed to be lost, I managed to reach Dr. Senah, eventually. He then suggested I contacted Dr. Darkwah, who he said teaches a graduate course in Globalization. This was mid-December, 2007. Thankfully, Dr. Darkwah readily accepted the challenge. Her biggest headache was how to get in touch with her 12 graduate students, who because of the closure of the UGL due to the African Cup of Nations Soccer Tournament, were scattered all over the country. In the end, with dodged determination, she managed to get six of the students to enroll in the course. Had Dr. Darkwah not agreed at the last moment to team up with me, the project would have been a non-starter, and for this I am deeply indebted to her. The Course Website and Bells and Whistles Concurrently, Information and Educational Technology (I.E.T) Department was building course website on Moodle for the project. Meg Goodine of IET was a consultant for the project. She assigned Sue Birthwell of IET to assist the University of Ghana Online Collaborative Learning Project in the following ways: Production of course (i.e. identifying and engineering course content for digital delivery format); Administration of tech support for faculty, students; Maintenance of course (content management); Administration of delivery of course from KUC to Ghana using course management system (Elluminate); Consulting, training: faculty preparation for online teaching and course facilitation 3.8 COURSE FORMAT Lectures and Labs The class met twice a week on Mondays and Thursdays. The instructors lectured on Thursday and devote Monday to laboratory work, where students complete assignments, held discussions and conducted collaborative research for their group projects. The labs were supervised by the course assistantsKaelan Wong at the KUC site, Patrick Kuti at UGL and Sandy Hirtz, at virtual site. 3.9 COURSE REQUIREMENTS AND EVALUATION: EXAMS: Exams covered class lectures and discussions, assigned readings, and audio-visual presentations. There were two take-home examsa mid-term and a final. 3.10 QUIZZES: Three quizzes were given over the course of the semester. The quizzes were short tests that primarily evaluated students retention of readings. Students took the quizzes online in the course of the day, in their free time. The quizzes were activated from 08 A.M. until 23:55 P.M. (PT). The quizzes, which comprised multiple-choice and true-or-false questions and short questions, were for only the Kwantlen University College students. Dr. Darkwah gave her graduate students replacement assignments, commensurate with their level. 3.11 ASSIGNMENTS: WEEKLY ELECTRONIC (E-) ESSAYS AND CHAPTER SUMMARIES: Each student was required to provide a summary/synopsis of a chapter from the course main text, (G &L) in no more than 300 words and write a 200-word reaction essay of the weeks assigned reading/chapter, 500 words or roughly one-and-a-half single-spaced page. Each essay was to begin with a brief synopsis (summary) of the central assumptions and premises of the reading followed by the students answer to the chapter issue question. For example, the issue question for chapter five is To what extent did early globalization affect peoples of the world? Students were encouraged to react to the lectures, class discussions, the readings, videos, other students essays, and the course as a whole. Meaningful reactions could be used as bonus points. I examined each students reaction to determine whether or not it merited a bonus point. Students earned up to 10 bonus points, i.e., 10 reaction submissions. All reactions were posted at OUR GLBAL VILLAGE. 3.12 INTRODUCTORY PRESENTATION: On the first day of class, each student was asked to post a brief background and a photo at the course website. This was to give instructors an opportunity to know the students and indeed also for the students to know one another, particular students in the remote sites. 3.13 GROUP PROJECTS The group project was made of two partsResearch and Presentation 1) Research: By the third week of the semester, participants in the course were assigned to a global collaborative research team called Global Virtual Teams. Each Global Virtual Team consisted of 5 persons (4 from KUC and 1 from UGL.) Each Virtual Team was assigned one of five stakeholder perspectives: (1) global private sector; (2) international organization; (3) developed country national government; (4) developing country national government; and (5) non-governmental organization (non-state actors or NGO). These Global Virtual Teams were tasked with a research problem and a role-playing exercise. Each global virtual team was expected to develop 4000-5000 words e-essay/paper and a 15 minute (Address to Humanity) presentation on the following research questions: "What is Globalization? Why has it attracted much controversy, supporters and detractors? How has globalization contributed to the wealth and poverty of nations? Identify the problems and promises of globalization. What roles should governments, individuals, civic society, the UN play in this? Propose three ways in which valued resources such as energy, food, shelter, medicine, etc., can be equitably and justly distributed. The paper must be based on one of the areas to be covered in the course listed below. 2) Presentation: Fifteen Minutes Address to Humanity: Mock UN Assembly Meeting: The Global Virtual Teams were expected to present a summary of their paper to an imaginary United Nations session devoted to Globalization. This was done during the four weeks of the term/semester. Culture Social Justice Economic Development Indigenous Peoples Foreign Policy Global Climate Global Health International Conflict Democracy Migration Religion Trade The Media Women Children Human rights Racial/Ethnic Minorities Senior citizens 3.14 Course Evaluation: Each student was expected to prepare a 2-5-page evaluation of the course and its approach that should be submitted in electronic format. 3.15 The Course Takes off The course started on January 7, 2008 at 8 am PST and 4PM Ghana Time and 8PM in Bangalore, India, with 35 students at Kwantlen University College, six students in Ghana and one student in Bangalore, India. Initially, we anticipated twice the number of Kwantlen students taking the course from UGL. This was not to be, because the University of Ghana was closed due to the African Cup of Nations Football (Soccer) Tournament that was held in Ghana in the months of January and February. Thus, six graduate students ended up enrolling in the course, instead of about 70 potential undergraduate students. The course was held in labs equipped with computers, projectors and screens at both sitesKUC and UGL. I had two course assistants, Kaelan Wong a Kwantlen University College science major and Sandy Hirtz of BCcampus. Dr. Darkwah was assisted by Mr. Patrick Kuti, webmaster for UGL. The lone student in Bangalore in IndiaLaura Johnson accessed the course through a computer terminal. 3.16 Division of Labour: Dr. Darkwah and I agreed at the planning stage that we divided the lecture and discussion sessions between us. I was to lead the lectures and discussions for the month of January and Dr. Darkwah was to take over in February. I was to take over in March and April. The lab sessions were conducted by course assistant Kaelan with assistants from me and Sandy. Day One: A virtual interactive classroom was the first of its kind at Kwantlen University College. Naturally, day one was filled with anxiety and uncertainty, but also anticipation and excitement. Neither I nor my students and course assistants had any idea what to expect. I did my best to assuage the fears and uncertainties of my students by assuring them that the course was a steep learning curve for all of usinstructors, course assistants and students. Sandy Hirtz is an expert in Elluminate, being the BCcampus Online Community Producer. Kaelan took training courses in Elluminate and Moodle during the Summer. I had gone through my own training a year ago, but to what to extent the amount of training will come into play could only be gauged when interacting with the students. Both programs seemed straight forward enough. The interface was laid out in a user friendly format. Icons were for the most part appropriately assigned. The first day was devoted to familiarizing students with the bells and whistlesthe technological aspects of the course. This was done superbly by course assistant Sandy Hirtz of BCCampus. It was decided that it would be best if there was some way to record each lecture and have them posted online for student access. This would allow students to revisit the lecture should there be a technological failure that day. The first attempt was made by utilizing a digital video camera to record the lecture and then uploading it online. This method had to be abandoned due to the large file size of digitized two hour lecture recording. The Moodle server was unable to host such a large file. Other programs were looked at as a possibility to record the lecture but in the end, the built in recording tool in the Elluminate program was used due to its simplicity and ease of access for students. Recordings were saved via the Elluminate website and a link was provided to each recorded lecture. For the most part, Elluminate showed very little problems with execution. Powerpoint lectures were loaded onto the white board in the program and students from both BC and Ghana can view them on their own computers. The audio was clear, although there was some delay when transmitting from Ghana. Due to this problem, audio output was only limited to one set of speakers. Multiple speaker outputs from different computers produced a garbled effect in that each computer were receiving the audio at different rates. The web camera was available for use to see students from both sides of the globe. This, however, was rarely utilized. The white board was also used when students were asked for their input during lectures. A blank white board would be put up and students would type in their ideas so that everyone can see it. Most students actively participated during these sessions. During lab sessions, students used the white board to communicate with their fellow group members as well as compile their lab work. There were complaints from a number of students that the white board was not a very effective method for placing text. First of all, since its functions mirrored that of Windows paint, it is limited in its word processing capabilities. Students have suggested that it should have a built in word processor for working on collaborative lab work. Also, frustration arose when students wanted to save their lab work and be able to edit it at home. The white board can only be saved as a white board file and so it was not compatible with other word editing software. Also, the file can only be opened in Elluminate. The only option that students had was to use the print screen function and save an image of their work. This, of course, was not editable in word. In addition, even though the print screen function was an instant solution for those who are more adept with computers; novice users found it to be both confusing and frustrating. These students resorted to using the whiteboard for brainstorming ideas and having one group member, taking the ideas and typing it in an alternate word processing program. Some students avoided using Elluminate during labs and instead, use Messenger to communicate with their group. So, there is a mix bag of reactions from the students. There was also apprehension when it came to using the microphones to communicate with the class. Students were each provided with headsets that had built in microphones but only a couple of students have actually used it. When asked to participate in such discussions, students did not readily volunteer. In Moodle online assignment submissions, one of most frequent problems encountered was that students tend to forget and spend long periods of time typing up their assignment in Moodle, only to have it disappear when the time out feature dissipated their work into virtual oblivion. Also, only one student can submit their work at any one time and the submission text box cannot be utilized by another student until they are done. 3.17 Project Hits a Snag: Internet Inconnectivity The course hit its major snag in the second month of February. In February, it was it was Professor Darkwah of Ghanas turn to deliver the lectures via Elluminate. The first lecture held on February 7, went fairly smoothly. However, the second lecture on February 14 was another matter altogether. The African Nations Football (Soccer) Tournament had come to an end and the University of Ghana students have returned to campus. With thousands of the students using the email, the network was overloaded and overwhelmed. Thus, Dr. Darkwah and her students could not connect to Elluminate. The solution was to have Dr. Darkwah record her lectures using audacity and have them posted on Moodle for the Canadian students. But this was not to be, as Dr. Darkwahs lecture did not record. And this was a huge blow, because the students really enjoyed Dr. Darkwahs lecture. Several of them made unsolicited complimentary comments after her first lecture and were anticipating her subsequent lectures. The second lecture lasted no more than 30 minutes when she was cut off. At this juncture, it became clear that until the problem of connectivity was solved, we both must conduct our lectures separately. Thus for the rest of February, the lectures were conducted at the separate sites. My lectures were posted at Moodle for the Ghanaian students. Dr. Darkwah unsuccessfully attempted to re-record her lecture own lectures and have them posted at Moodle as the recording equipment failed. GIMPA Comes to the Rescue Thankfully, the nightmare did not last long. Dr. Akosua Darkwah managed to arrange rather quickly with Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration (GIMPA) to use their better equipped e-lab to access elluminate. This was after she had tried unsuccessfully to get a deal from Busynet, a private internet company in Accra. BusyInternets rates were exorbitant. Besides, using Busynet would have meant transporting the students several miles to the city centre to access the internet. 3.18 Course Content Students in general, thought that the course content was intriguing. Issues regarding globalization, poverty, inequities, etc. were put under a magnifying glass by a combination of articles, videos, and lectures. Students showed educational growth in their essays as their eyes were opened to the other side. Students were taught to look past the obvious when examining such issues. 3.19 Student Reactions During the first few lab sessions, there were many students who expressed frustrations with using Elluminate and Moodle. This was understandable. Students training in both programmes was shortone class session or three hours. Although students were constantly assisted and re-trained throughout the first few weeks, there was not enough time to really learn to use the programmes, especially, Elluminate. In short, there was not enough training time to enable students to learn to use the programmes competently and comfortably. One suggestion is that perhaps having a structured training session during the first two lectures to train the students in both Moodle and Elluminate. This will alleviate student frustration and confusion. Most students expressed the view that they were confused most of the time but they were happy with the timely responses to their inquiries and the availability of a course assistant to bridge the gap between them and the course instructor. They were further put at ease when they were told that this method of course delivery was new to both faculty and students and that any confusion and frustration that they were experiencing was to be expected. They were encouraged to voice their opinions throughout the duration of the semester. In fact, in my first lecture, I told the students that since the course was technology-intensive, it was going to be a steep learning curve for both students and instructors, and that there were likely to be technological glitches and blackouts. Conclusion It is my hope that as they leave the course and the semester, each student can confidently declare to her or his family and friends: Guess what, I entered the virtual classroom and came out at the pinnacle of the future classroom without walls with a better understanding of the wired world and the global village.Charles Quist-Adade (2008) Conclusion: Lesson Learned and Unlearned At the time of writing this paper, the course has just cruised through mid-stream. Six weeks more remain before the course wraps up. It is still uncertain if Dr. Darkwah and her students can connect with us via Elluminate. The maiden launch of this method of course delivery did pose several problems in regards to technological barriers and students handle on Elluminate and Moodle. My colleague and I did experience varying levels of frustrations and disappointment. The course assistant at the UGL site, Patrick Kuti certainly had more than his fair share of disappointments and frustrations. I am more than convinced that if I had had luck with funding, the course would have more successful than it was. For example, if we had extra dollars, it would have been possible for Dr. Darkwah to conduct her lecture from Busynet, a private internet provider when the University of Ghana network was facing connectivity problems. Nonetheless, many students were excited to be a part of this experience. To many, the sheer thrill of connecting and sharing a classroom, albeit virtual, with a fellow student as far away as Ghana and India is itself a veritable learning and life changing experience. While I suffered a couple paroxysms of frustration and angst during the planning stages and techno-shocks during the first half of the course, I must state emphatically that I have enjoyed every moment of the journey so far. It was a huge learning curve for everyone but even more so for the students. As they learned to embrace this course, it became increasingly apparent from their essays, internet discussions, and voluntary comments to me and my course assistant, Kaelan that, they are likely to take away from the course more than they anticipated. It is my hope that as they leave the course and the semester, each student can confidently declare to her or his family and friends: Guess what, I entered the virtual classroom and came out at the pinnacle of the future classroom without walls with a better understanding of the wired world and the global village. References: African Virtual University  HYPERLINK "http://www.etw.org/2003/case_studies/soc_inc_african_VU.htm" http://www.etw.org/2003/case_studies/soc_inc_african_VU.htm Retrieved February 23, 2008. African Universities Initiative  HYPERLINK "http://www.worldcomputerexchange.org/originals/AUI_Proposal.doc" http://www.worldcomputerexchange.org/originals/AUI_Proposal.doc Retrieved February 23, 2008. BCcampus:  HYPERLINK "http://www.bccampus.ca/EducatorServices/OnlineCommunities.htm" http://www.bccampus.ca/EducatorServices/OnlineCommunities.htm Retrieved February 23, 2008. Carnegie Mellon OLI:  HYPERLINK "http://www.cmu.edu/oli/" http://www.cmu.edu/oli/ Retrieved February 23, 2008. Cohen, Moshe, and Margaret Riel (1989) "The Effect of Distant Audiences on Students Writing," AERA Journal, pp. 132-159 Cogburn, D. L. (1998) Globalisation, knowledge, education, and training in the information age. International Forum on Information and Documentation 23, 4, 23-29. Connexions:  HYPERLINK "http://www.connexions.gov.uk/" http://www.connexions.gov.uk/ Education with Technologies. (2005).  HYPERLINK "http://learnweb.harvard.edu/ent/welcome/" http://learnweb.harvard.edu/ent/welcome/ Elluminate:  HYPERLINK "http://www.elluminate.com/index.jsp" http://www.elluminate.com/index.jsp Retrieved February 23, 2008. Farrell, Glen and Shafika Isaacs. 2007. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa: A Summary Report, Based on 53 Country Surveys. Washington, DC: infoDev / World Bank. Available at http://www.infodev.org/en/Publication.353.html Retrieved February 23, 2008. Lechner, F. (2003) cited in The Globalization of Nothing, George Ritzer, Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge. MITOCW:  HYPERLINK "http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/web/home/home/index.htm" http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/web/home/home/index.htm UK Open University:  HYPERLINK "http://www.open.ac.uk/" http://www.open.ac.uk/ Retrieved February 23, 2008. Ritzer, G. (2003) The Globalization of Nothing Thousand Oaks: Pine Forge.  HYPERLINK "http://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdf" The Impact of Synchronous Online Learning in Academic Institutions ... retrieved February 23, 2008. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (2005). (MIT) HYPERLINK "http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtml" http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtml Retrieved February 23, 2008. University of Michigan. .  HYPERLINK "http://www.communitytechnology.org/courses/globalization/1999/Syllabus.htm" http://www.communitytechnology.org/courses/globalization/1999/Syllabus.htm Retrieved February 23, 2008.  It must be said here that one Canadian student took the course from India, where she is currently based.  I moved to Central Michigan University in 2003, after a decade of teaching at the departments of Communication Studies and Sociology and Anthropology.  An adaptation of Global Syndicate approach used at the University of the Witwatersrand.      PAGE 10  PAGE 11  DOCPROPERTY "Date completed" \* MERGEFORMAT 3/28/2006  KEYWORDS \* MERGEFORMAT public  PAGE 1 MO~H I  ɴyyrke_e_eXTNTH hdaJ hG#pCJhG#p hG#p5CJ haCJ hG#pCJ hG#p6CJ hG#p56 hC@56 ha56haha56 hG#pCJhVhG#p5)hVhG#pB*CJPJ^JnHphtH)hVhG#pB*CJ0PJ^JnHphtH%hVhG#pB*CJ0PJnHphtHh!B*CJ0PJnHphtH%hVh!B*CJ0PJnHphtH usssq$>$ p ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Za$; p ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Z & F^$a$gdG#p E F Z \ ` a b c h m   nop}~&c'**++ȯȫݫziU'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJh(hG#pB*aJphh(hG#paJh(hdaJ hdaJ hG#pCJ hG#pCJhG#p%jhVhG#p0J0OJQJUaJ h!aJhVhG#paJhG#pCJOJQJaJ hG#p5CJ hG#pCJ hdCJ hG#p56hVhdaJ! F b ?@nop}$gdG#p>$ p ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Za$7 ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Z}~89XY !!$$O+P+}.~.1gdG#p>$ p ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Za$ & F^++I+J+e,g,~..11`5b5w57788,8o88 :::-:ڴڥn\Kn h(hG#pPJ^J aJnHtH#h(hG#pPJ]^JaJnHtH h(hG#pPJ^JaJnHtH#h(hG#p5PJ^JaJnHtH&h(hG#p5PJ]^JaJnHtHh(hG#pPJ^JnHtHh(hG#pB*aJph333h(hG#p5aJh(hG#pB*^JaJph333h(hG#paJh(hG#p0JaJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJ111b5c5w5778::===>>@@CCsEtEuEvEEGGLgdG#p 7$8$H$gdG#pgdG#p-:.::::::::::==>vEELLRRdSSSU㢏|gT?)h(hG#pB*PJ^J aJnHphtH%h(hG#pB*PJ^J nHphtH)h(hG#pB*PJ^J aJnHphtH%h(hG#pB*PJ^J nHphtH%jh(hG#p0J0OJQJUaJh(hG#paJh(hG#p5h(hG#p0J5aJh(hG#p0J5\aJ*jhVhG#p5OJQJUaJh(hG#p5aJ$jh(hG#p5OJQJUaJLLQQSSUU\Z]ZqZ^^_N````(aoaaaaabbc d7$8$H$gdG#pgdG#pUU~YY\Z]ZpZqZ^__aabcccc4dGdadmdfffffǿε㨙tgVLhVhG#p5aJ!h(hG#pB*OJQJaJphh(hG#pB*aJphh(hG#p5^J aJh(hG#p^J aJh(hG#p5\^J aJh(hG#pCJOJQJ^J h(hG#pCJOJQJh(hG#p5aJh(hG#p5 h(hG#p)h(hG#pB*PJ^JaJnHphtHh(hG#paJ%h(hG#pB*PJaJnHphtHcc(d)dadfffhhjjkkl$o dd[$\$gdG#pgdG#pgdG#p^gdG#pffjjjjkkkl'l(lll#o$o*\aJh(hG#p5\^J aJh(hG#pB*\aJphh(hG#pB*aJphh(hG#p5B*aJph $o=ooMY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pooNpMY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pNpp,qbqErxrMH<4dgdG#p dd[$\$gdG#pgdG#pY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pY & F. `pddEƀ1cf[$\$gdG#pErurrrrrrrrrrÿrs s ssZs[s\srssstrvwxuyy)}}%o̒ĵuqqfhnwhnwCJaJhnw!jh(hG#p0J2OJQJUh(hG#p5 h(hG#p,h(hG#p5B*PJ^J aJnHphtHh(hG#paJh(hG#pB*\aJphh(hG#p5\aJh(hG#pB* \aJphh3.\^JaJh(hG#p^JaJh(hG#p\^JaJ'xrrrs sZs[s\sstrvsvwwxuyvyyE{F{(})} dgdG#pgdG#p d7$8$H$gdG#p0dd&d P [$\$^`0gdG#pdgdG#p  op >?% !gdnw$a$gdt"gdG#p 45 2NSLNYZ[wx¦æ˺˔˺˺o'j,hVhG#pOJQJUaJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJh! hdCJ hG#pCJ h(hdhd hG#phVhG#ph(hG#paJh(hG#p5 h(hG#p h(hnwht" hnwhnwht"ht"5CJaJht"ht"5hnwCJaJ) 2MNZ[Ч!gdsofd&^gdG#p:$ ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Za$æ?@ΧϧDEFߨCDopq'(Y۳۟ۋw'jAhVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJh(hG#paJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJh(hG#p0JaJ(n67<"#ϰа;)gdG#pYZ[~} IJK|}Эѭ<=Z[ѯү dƻƧƓk'j hVhG#pOJQJUaJ'j1 hVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJh(hG#pPJaJh(hG#paJh(hG#p0JaJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJ'jhVhG#pOJQJUaJ%defϰаѰҰ:;<Աձ-./0235689;BCIJLMQRXY[¸}u}u}u}u}kekZkkekZh"0JmHnHu h( 0Jjh( 0JUjhD-~UhD-~hnvh( ^Jhnvh( B*\^Jphjhnvh( 0J0U^Jh( CJOJQJaJh( jh( 0J0UhG#ph(hG#paJh(hG#p0JaJ!jh(hG#pOJQJUaJ'j] hVhG#pOJQJUaJ#;Ա./124578:;<=ABOP]^_ɲʲ˲̲Ͳβ)1gdG#p[\_`ŲƲDzȲʲ˲̲ͲβhG#phD-~h"0JmHnHu h( 0JhSjh( Uh( jh( 0JUM 0 0:pCF{. A!"#$% Cf921!"DyK yK hhttp://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtmlSDyK yK http://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdfDyK yK xhttp://www.etw.org/2003/case_studies/soc_inc_african_VU.htmDyK yK http://www.worldcomputerexchange.org/originals/AUI_Proposal.docDyK yK |http://www.bccampus.ca/EducatorServices/OnlineCommunities.htmDyK yK 0http://www.cmu.edu/oli/DyK yK <http://www.connexions.gov.uk/DyK yK Rhttp://learnweb.harvard.edu/ent/welcome/DyK yK Hhttp://www.elluminate.com/index.jspDyK yK dhttp://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/web/home/home/index.htmDyK yK .http://www.open.ac.uk/SDyK yK http://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdfDyK yK hhttp://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtmlDyK yK http://www.communitytechnology.org/courses/globalization/1999/Syllabus.htm^3 2 0@P`p2( 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p 0@P`p8XV~_HmH nH sH tH X`X Normal `p@@@@@@OJQJ_HmH sH tH 88  Heading 1$@&5V@V  Heading 2&$ vhx@&^h`5DD  Heading 3 $x@& 5^JaJFF  Heading 4 $x@&5\^JaJ  Heading 5t$ ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-D@&M N!O$P!Q$]Z^Z 5OJ QJ d@d  Heading 6'$ `pT7$8$@&^T5CJOJQJ@@  Heading 7$@& 5B*ph  Heading 8t$ ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-D@&M N!O$P!Q$]Z^Z6>*B*phDA`D Default Paragraph FontViV  Table Normal :V 44 la (k (No List @@@ Header `p9!AB2B@2 Body Textx.)@. Page NumberB"B centered-boxed-boldLC2L Body Text Indenth^h`PRBP Body Text Indent 2^`HSRH Body Text Indent 3 h^h|b| Style Arial 36 pt Bold Centered$ `pa$ 5CJH\J^@rJ Normal (Web)dd[$\$^JaJBU@B Hyperlink>*B*CJOJQJphFVF FollowedHyperlink >*B* ph4 @4 Footer  !@Z@ Plain Text xxOJQJ6@6  Footnote Text66 Style ArialOJQJNN Style Style Arial + 10 ptCJ Section Headl$ & FZ$d %d &d 'd -D M N O P Q ]Za$5B*CJ0^JaJ0phZOZ Chapter Head $ & Fa$5B*CJ0^JaJ0phO Heading 1At!$ `ZZ$d %d &d 'd -D M N O P Q ]Z^Z5B*CJ^JaJphR6"R List Bullet 2" & F dZZTOC 1# `p$ 5;OJ QJ \mHnHu8OB8 Heading 1 - NT$JRJ Section No #%$a$5CJ0^JaJ0\ \ Index 1#& `p8^`8CJOJQJaJ0Qr0 Appendices'>> stylestylearial10pt<P@< Body Text 2) B*ph^Q^ Body Text 3* `pB*CJOJPJQJphT Block Textn+ ZZ$d!%d$&d!'d$-DM N!O$P!Q$]Z^Z B*ph>'> Comment ReferenceCJ<<  Comment Text-CJaJBjB Comment Subject.CJaJDD  Balloon Text/CJOJQJaJ@&@@ VFootnote ReferenceH*N+@N V Endnote Text1 `pOJQJ>*@!> VEndnote ReferenceH*PK![Content_Types].xmlj0Eжr(΢Iw},-j4 wP-t#bΙ{UTU^hd}㨫)*1P' ^W0)T9<l#$yi};~@(Hu* Dנz/0ǰ $ X3aZ,D0j~3߶b~i>3\`?/[G\!-Rk.sԻ..a濭?PK!֧6 _rels/.relsj0 }Q%v/C/}(h"O = C?hv=Ʌ%[xp{۵_Pѣ<1H0ORBdJE4b$q_6LR7`0̞O,En7Lib/SeеPK!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xml M @}w7c(EbˮCAǠҟ7՛K Y, e.|,H,lxɴIsQ}#Ր ֵ+!,^$j=GW)E+& 8PK!Ptheme/theme/theme1.xmlYOo6w toc'vuر-MniP@I}úama[إ4:lЯGRX^6؊>$ !)O^rC$y@/yH*񄴽)޵߻UDb`}"qۋJחX^)I`nEp)liV[]1M<OP6r=zgbIguSebORD۫qu gZo~ٺlAplxpT0+[}`jzAV2Fi@qv֬5\|ʜ̭NleXdsjcs7f W+Ն7`g ȘJj|h(KD- dXiJ؇(x$( :;˹! I_TS 1?E??ZBΪmU/?~xY'y5g&΋/ɋ>GMGeD3Vq%'#q$8K)fw9:ĵ x}rxwr:\TZaG*y8IjbRc|XŻǿI u3KGnD1NIBs RuK>V.EL+M2#'fi ~V vl{u8zH *:(W☕ ~JTe\O*tHGHY}KNP*ݾ˦TѼ9/#A7qZ$*c?qUnwN%Oi4 =3ڗP 1Pm \\9Mؓ2aD];Yt\[x]}Wr|]g- eW )6-rCSj id DЇAΜIqbJ#x꺃 6k#ASh&ʌt(Q%p%m&]caSl=X\P1Mh9MVdDAaVB[݈fJíP|8 քAV^f Hn- "d>znNJ ة>b&2vKyϼD:,AGm\nziÙ.uχYC6OMf3or$5NHT[XF64T,ќM0E)`#5XY`פ;%1U٥m;R>QD DcpU'&LE/pm%]8firS4d 7y\`JnίI R3U~7+׸#m qBiDi*L69mY&iHE=(K&N!V.KeLDĕ{D vEꦚdeNƟe(MN9ߜR6&3(a/DUz<{ˊYȳV)9Z[4^n5!J?Q3eBoCM m<.vpIYfZY_p[=al-Y}Nc͙ŋ4vfavl'SA8|*u{-ߟ0%M07%<ҍPK! ѐ'theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsM 0wooӺ&݈Э5 6?$Q ,.aic21h:qm@RN;d`o7gK(M&$R(.1r'JЊT8V"AȻHu}|$b{P8g/]QAsم(#L[PK-![Content_Types].xmlPK-!֧6 +_rels/.relsPK-!kytheme/theme/themeManager.xmlPK-!Ptheme/theme/theme1.xmlPK-! ѐ' theme/theme/_rels/themeManager.xml.relsPK] DdΪk^aΪΪ !00 +-:UfEræYd[βZ\_aceilnpqs }1Lc$ooNpxr ;β[]^`bdfghjkmor"#I#-222wž?ΟECp'Z~ J|Х<Zѧ eΪXXXXXXXXXXXXXX"),0_ik!!U!8@0(  B S  ? _Hlt122252991 _Hlt122252992 Assignments _Hlt122253242 _Hlt122253243 _Hlt122252833 _Hlt1222528343#3#^xxϪ@@@@@@4#4#^yyϪh u hTh h hB hl h h h* hT hL h h  h hDa h|ho h$h$h,v h| h̢hZ h[ htA hA h h< hT} h} h h< h4t htt h] h] h h4 hd h h h h h h h< hn h o hLo hk hk h>>n?u???????CCC|DDDDDpFpFyFFFGG+GIIIIIIJJKKKNNNNRRSWW X[Y[Y]]^^hlsllllllllbmpmmmoooooooqqqqyy/z/z(!!HHPYϪ      !"#$%&'()*+,-.0/132465789:;<>=?@ABCDFEGJHIKLMNOPQRSTUVWYXZ][\^_`acbdefighjklmnoprqstuvwzxy{|}~Xcc      """"Y#Y#--0011_5_588===== > >>>>s????????CDDDDDDDxFFFFF'G0G0GIIIIIIJJKKKNNNNRRSX5X5X`Y`Y^^^^qlxlllllllllmummm oo o ooooqqqqyy4z4z&**..OXcc,Ϫ  !"#$%&'()*+,-.0/132465789:;<>=?@ABCDFEGIJHKLMNOPQRSTUVWYXZ\][^_`acbdefhigjklmnoprqstuvwyzx{|}~=*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceName=*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceType8*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsCity9*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplaceB*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagscountry-region9*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsState Y 2:UZ  v|8 C [#c###&&&&I(T(((....V/b/011 11'12%255GGGG$I,IJJJJJJ KKKKbNlNrNwNPPQ"QQQRRRRRRESJSRTWTTTTTZVaVWWWWWWYYA[G[f[j[(^/^nnBoJoPoWotoxop pppppKqQqbslsxssssssssuuwwUx_xxx y*yWyayblBH#Dž7>eo҇؇wAGgnƊ̊?EFM-4[i#Yc!+9CBHMWՖܖ7;ELip7A%,3ޤШ.//11224578:;BMQ\_Ȫʪ˪̪ϪO~~Fchm253^^$g=gggjk}}oŠŠÊÊĊĊŊŊƊƊ̊NS#ϨШ//11224578:;_ʪ˪˪ϪO~~hm}}o̊NSϨ//11224578:;_ʪϪ.|, }d_~&NdOq܁T|_ u ĺRkL+3{Y~T@cN|X o+KWB #v9%_p#Z=]#B)Vk3(01wk+>6uk2@h2n3P94.U3r,7]BE0tc;(i@0g> &3E i!H g)MSMH<-VPTYQvuTeWzg] Mu`RĪWhv/:jEgmv$p4kp|%+\ufbu/D%~ v@&w + awn0^`.^`.88^8`.^`. ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( 88^8`OJQJo( P^`POJQJo(<hh^h`. hh^h`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(nh^`CJOJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh pp^p`OJQJo(h @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh PP^P`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n Z2 ^Z`56B*CJ0OJ QJ o(ph Section : ^`.pLp^p`L.@ @ ^@ `.^`.L^`L.^`.^`.PLP^P`L.?^`?o(. ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo( P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n88^`OJQJo(hH8^`OJ QJ o(hHo8pp^p`OJQJo(hH8@ @ ^@ `OJQJo(hH8^`OJ QJ o(hHo8^`OJQJo(hH8^`OJQJo(hH8^`OJ QJ o(hHo8PP^P`OJQJo(hH ^`OJQJo(- P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo(h^`CJOJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh pp^p`OJQJo(h @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJ QJ o(oh PP^P`OJQJo( P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n hh^h`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo(h^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJ QJ ^Jo(hHohpp^p`OJQJo(hHh@ @ ^@ `OJQJo(hHh^`OJ QJ ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJ QJ ^Jo(hHohPP^P`OJQJo(hHhh^h`.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h pLp^p`LhH.h @ @ ^@ `hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h PLP^P`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h pLp^p`LhH.h @ @ ^@ `hH.h ^`hH.h L^`LhH.h ^`hH.h ^`hH.h PLP^P`LhH.  P ^ `POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( PP^P`OJ QJ o(o   ^ `OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( !!^!`OJ QJ o(o $$^$`OJQJo(  ^`56CJ0OJ QJ o( Chapter :^`.pLp^p`L.@ @ ^@ `.^`.L^`L.^`.^`.PLP^P`L. P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n pp^p`OJQJo(n @ @ ^@ `OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n ^`OJQJo(n PP^P`OJQJo(n  P ^ `POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( PP^P`OJ QJ o(o   ^ `OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( !!^!`OJ QJ o(o $$^$`OJQJo( P^`POJQJo(< ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo(^`.h^`OJQJo(hHpp^p`.@ @ ^@ `.^`.^`.^`.^`.PP^P`. P^`POJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o pp^p`OJQJo( @ @ ^@ `OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o ^`OJQJo( ^`OJQJo( ^`OJ QJ o(o PP^P`OJQJo(..U3i!Hg]v9+KWgm:jpbu#]#,7+ awg>~}|%~ vYQ3{Yk3(-VP6uk2|X _k+%+\uSMg)M3EkpL2n3@0tc;WhMu`eWw..          S( :o?xt"C@CFbFadG#pnwF}D-~)nvs$D"cKx5!3.ШҨ@ϨϨ@ ϨϨΪx@Unknown Sandy HirtzuwcallisonG* Times New Roman5Symbol3. * Arial; Batang7Tms RmnE.Berlin Sans FB5. *aTahomaQAGaramondPro-RegularM Futura-BookOblique? Futura-Book?= * Courier New1" Helv9Garamond= Arial Bold9New York9Palatino3Times[/Lucida GrandeCourier Newg WP MathAHoefler Text Ornaments;WingdingsA BCambria Math!hff[f2 V22 V2d4dzzz2qHX ?Y2!xxkC:\Documents and Settings\Sandy Hirtz\Local Settings\Temporary Internet Files\OLK5D\chapter_template_v3.dotChapter number Chapter titlepublic Sandy Hirtzuwc.                           ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - Oh+'0   @ L X dpxChapter numberChapter title Sandy Hirtzpublicchapter_template_v3uwc2Microsoft Office Word@F#@:Ք@@ 2՜.+,D՜.+,d x  2Vz Chapter number Title 0u} _PID_LINKBASE _PID_HLINKSDate completedAA Tcj'Khttp://www.communitytechnology.org/courses/globalization/1999/Syllabus.htmy2%q$4http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtmly2X]!qhttp://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdfy2j6http://www.open.ac.uk/y2S2http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/web/home/home/index.htmy25m$http://www.elluminate.com/index.jspy2)http://learnweb.harvard.edu/ent/welcome/y2Q@http://www.connexions.gov.uk/y24+http://www.cmu.edu/oli/y2 >http://www.bccampus.ca/EducatorServices/OnlineCommunities.htmy2Ue @http://www.worldcomputerexchange.org/originals/AUI_Proposal.docy2l,<http://www.etw.org/2003/case_studies/soc_inc_african_VU.htmy2X]qhttp://www.abac.edu/Tips/online/Impact%20of%20Synchronous%20Online%20Learning%20in%20Academic%20Institutions.pdfy2%q4http://alumweb.mit.edu/opendoor/200011/degree.shtmly2@=R  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstvwxyz{|~Root Entry F$Data u1Table}WordDocumentOSummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjy  F'Microsoft Office Word 97-2003 Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q
Warning: Unknown(): open(/tmp/sess_a03d9025da01ee6ba25868c8c7a0f396, O_RDWR) failed: Read-only file system (30) in Unknown on line 0

Warning: Unknown(): Failed to write session data (files). Please verify that the current setting of session.save_path is correct (/tmp) in Unknown on line 0