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ࡱ> #` bjbj\.\. .>D>D$$<GlllllGGGFFFFFFF$Gh4J4F5=GG5=5=FllF]F]F]F5=llF]F5=F]F]F]Fl` ?,cA]FFF0G]FhKChK]FhK]F8G 'B]F06GGGFFSF GGGG5=5=5=5=d The Internationalisation of Higher Education in South Africa: Progress and Challenges Roshen Kishun Published in Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3): 455, 2007. Abstract South Africa needs to re-examine responses to some basic questions if it is to develop a robust push that would enable the higher education sector to maximise the benefits of internationalisation in the context of the "knowledge society" and to serve local needs while being an integral part of the global community. In responding to these questions, this article posits the view that the history and future of the internationalisation of higher education in South Africa would make a useful contribution to ongoing debates on this important topic. The article probes the internationalisation of higher education in South Africa against the backdrop of the internationalisation globally. It also investigates future scenarios and topics ranging from the "Africanization versus internationalization" debate and policies on internationalisation to student mobility, trade in educational services, and how internationalisation is being used to ease skill shortages in developed countries. Globalisation poses challenges to the higher education systems of the world, but for Africa those challenges are double-edged. Moja, 2002, p. 25 In the global context, higher education might well ask what kind of education would be best suited for South Africa in a 21st century characterised by rapid change and the "knowledge society." Education and its outcome knowledge, which supercede natural resources and population size, are seen as the prime wealth creator in today's global economy and the cornerstone for the development of high-level skills that the country needs. South Africa has much to gain by embracing the knowledge society to tackle some of its local challenges. In the 10 years of its existence, the International Education Association of South Africa (IEASA)-as a nongovernmental, nonprofit professional association of individuals and institutions with a common interest in the internationalisation of higher education-has played a significant role in positioning South African higher education to "reconnect" with the global higher education community and take advantage of opportunities to be part of the knowledge society. Much has been achieved. For instance, international student numbers in South Africa have more than quadrupled during the dozen years of democracy-from around 12,500 in 1994 to nearly 53,000 in 2005 (more than 7% of the total higher education student body of 730,000), according to the Department of Education. But it is also apparent that South Africa needs to reexamine responses to some basic questions if it is to develop a robust push that would enable the education sector to maximise the benefits of internationalisation in the context of the knowledge society and to serve local needs while being an integral part of the global community. Moja (2006) is of the view that South African institutions need to pay attention to the emerging trend that requires knowledge to be managed so that it can be processed and packaged for use in ways that contribute to improving institutional operations and development in the country. At the inaugural IEASA conference in 1997, Professor Njabulo Ndebele, the incoming chair of the South African Universities Vice-Chancellors' Association (SAUVCA), raised fundamental questions: What are South Africa's framing national values, and how do we promote them? What aspects of tertiary education do we wish to promote? What is the role of foreign expertise in the development of our new democracy? What are the opportunities and limits of globalisation? What are the curriculum implications of multiculturalism and internationalism? What do such curriculum questions mean for individual institutional cultures, and how do these cultures define the entire tertiary education system? To what extent should South Africa open up undergraduate and postgraduate programmes to international students? These and other questions raised in this chapter still need interrogation. Is internationalisation central to South African universities? This question needs to be examined as part of the postapartheid transformation of higher education to ensure that education plays its role in national development while also positioning the country to take its place on the continent and in the wider world. South African higher education institutions are faced not only with the challenges of internationalisation but also with those of "Africanising" the purposes, functions, and curricula of universities (Moja, 2006). In examining whether South African institutions see internationalisation as central to their missions, Moja (2006) alludes to a double-edged dilemma-on one hand are Africa's crippling legacies of the past, including the policies of international development agencies such as the World Bank that seriously neglected African universities (the bank even suggested at one point that the continent had no need for them), and on the other hand are new challenges posed by a globalising world. Moja (2002) proposed that a balance be struck between responding to inherited problems and new demands. For South Africa, the double-edged challenge is further complicated by the legacies of apartheid, which created a pressing need to redress past inequalities. In striking a balance between tackling the inherited inequities of centuries of exploitation and the challenges of a globalising world characterised by unprecedented advances in technology and telecommunications and a remaking of the global economy, universities have to take into account a world in which interdisciplinary and cross-border research and discovery are the norm and the expectation of students who are preparing to live and work in an interconnected world. Institutions that are able to prepare "students of the world" will be the universities of the new century. Substantive changes are needed to prepare globally educated students, and they will require global perspectives and the promotion of international experience as central to the mission of the university, according to the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC, 2004). Moja (2004) argued that to position South Africa to operate successfully in the global economy, it would be necessary to transform the higher education system in ways that made it responsive to globalisation challenges. This responsiveness has sometimes been wrongly interpreted in the Africanisation debate to mean meeting global needs at the expense of local needs. According to Moja, the goal is not to serve external needs but rather to prepare human resources that make the country a partner in a globalised world. The globalisation versus Africanisation debate leads to polarised positions that are not helpful in positioning higher education to be responsive to the global knowledge society. The first attempt to identify internationalisation as central to the mission of a university took place at IEASA's inaugural conference in January 1997, which had as its theme "South Africa and the World: Internationalising Education." Professor Sibusiso Bengu (1997), the minister of education, recognised higher education by its very nature to "constitute one of the core areas affected by internationalization." IEASA's position was further articulated in a chapter titled "Internationalisation in South Africa" (Kishun, 1998). Later, two key publications were SAUVCA's Internationalisation and Quality in South African Universities (Smout, 2003) and the Council of Higher Education (CHE, 2004) report South African Higher Education in the First Decade of Democracy. The latter two publications directly responded to vexed issues around the inclusion of education in the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which shone the spotlight on the internationalisation of South African higher education. The SAUVCA report, which featured articles by international experts such as Jane Knight, stated in its preface that it did "not advocate a case in favour of internationalisation per se." The CHE report made the case for higher education as a vital domain generally for all countries and specifically key to South Africa's reconstruction and transformation agenda, and it identified internationalisation as critical to meeting higher education's goals in the coming years. Some challenges beyond our borders There is now an acknowledgement of the worth of higher education in bringing about economic and democratic reforms. For example, the Commission for Africa (CFA) supports the "renewal" of higher education institutions as key vehicles for development on the continent. Universities are seen as the "breeding ground for the skilled individuals whom the continent needs (CFA, 2005). The commission endorsed the 10-year partnership programme between the Association of Commonwealth Universities and the Association of African Universities titled "Renewing the African University," which calls for, among other things, constructive engagement between African governments and higher education institutions, increased north-south and south-south collaboration, internationalisation of higher education curricula, and partnerships between universities and the private sector. Other positive developments on the continent include the concept of an African renaissance and the establishment of the African Union, the New Partnership for Africa's Development, and the Pan-African Parliament. Closer to home, in February 2005, vice chancellors from Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries launched the Southern African Regional Universities Association (SARUA). University leaders recognise that strengthening the quality and capacity of higher education and research in Southern Africa will be a leading contributor to growth and poverty alleviation in the region. SARUA's central functions include information gathering and dissemination, capacity building in higher education, and establishing networks throughout the region between universities and with external stakeholders. Globally, there is a drive to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals, which include cutting poverty in half by 2015. But perhaps the most important global development outside the ambit of the continent that is likely to affect the future policies, development, and internationalisation of higher education in Africa is the inclusion of education in the GATS of the World Trade Organization. As the demand for higher education increases, both in qualitative and quantitative measures, the capacity of the public sector to meet these demands is being challenged. This is, among other things, because of public budget limitations, the changing role of governments, and the increased emphasis in many countries on the market economy and privatisation. GATS could open the way for a more truly global market in higher education and a burgeoning of cross-border and private provision, placing public higher education in many (especially developing) countries under threat. South Africa's reaction to GATS and higher education has been negative, although a formal country response has yet to be drafted. Pundy Pillay (2006) is of the view that a persuasive case can be made for not committing South African higher education to GATS because the dangers of liberalisation in the sector are considerable given the level of development of our system relative to those of industrialised (and potentially exporting) countries and the considerable potential to derail the ongoing transformation of higher education. Pillay argues among other things that the dangers relate to unequal distribution of benefits, similar to what developing countries have experienced in general in the opening up of international trade in goods. In his article, Peter Scott (2006) discusses clusters of meanings attached to the concept of "globalisation" and major trends in international education and presents two case studies embodying different models of internationalisation: GATS as a "market" manifestation of internationalisation and the Bologna process in Europe as a "public" manifestation. The Bologna process was initially regarded as a purely European project with few implications for international education. Today, it covers 45 countries and is the largest and most substantial higher education grouping in the world. Its agenda is much broader than creating common course structures and quality assurance systems, as it includes higher education reforms and the more emphatic projection of European higher education onto the world stage (Huisman & van der Wende, 2004, cited by Scott, 2006; Huisman & van der Wende, 2005, cited by Scott, 2006; Muche, 2005, cited by Scott, 2006). The Bologna process now reaches (or will soon reach) countries far from Europe (e.g., Francophone and Anglophone countries in Africa), and the Bologna-linked Erasmus Mundus programme is designed to promote far greater student mobility between Europe and the rest of the world. According to Scott (2006), the CATS "market" road and the Bologna "public" road may not present two stark choices for the future internationalisation of higher education-this may be too simple an interpretation that suggests, at a time of rapid change, that internationalisation will continue to be mostly driven by North America and Western Europe. International education will be affected by and affect large geopolitical shifts underway, writes Scott. The emergence of China and India may currently be largely an economic phenomenon, but that could change, whereas other major regions such as Latin America and Africa "are unlikely to remain subordinated." Whether Africa will remain subordinated is a key question that policy makers need to ask when examining how Africa might set about becoming a global player in the provision of world-class education to solve local problems. Internationalisation, global labour mobility, and the brain drain Emerging knowledge societies around the world are creating global competition for the best students to provide skilled labour. As the global economy within which countries need to develop is knowledge driven and requires swift access to a highly skilled work force, there will be increased competition for international students, many of whom will stay on to fill the skills shortages of their (mostly developed) host countries. Much has been written about the brain drain from poor to rich countries, as well-qualified individuals seek out more and better paying job opportunities and higher quality of life, and as industrialised countries "raid" skills from developing nations to meet their own skills shortages-the "brain gain." Some scholars believe that the brain drain may fuel the vicious cycle of underdevelopment of poor countries and cost them the very people they most need to develop and to resist corruption and weak governance. Kapur and McHale (2005) argue that countries could be trapped in poverty by the loss of institution builders, hospital managers, university department heads, and political reformers. As an important regional player and the leading host country for international students in Africa, South Africa must urgently consider the implications of knowledge societies and the rapacious worldwide appetite for highly skilled personnel. As developed countries aggressively recruit more and the best international students, internationalisation becomes a strategic national issue. Competition for international students should be examined in the broader context of mass labour mobility that is a central global feature of the 21st century. Although South Africa's Immigration Bill of 2002 ushered in a new era of managing the movement of people, it is not sufficiently flexible to attract the high-level skills that the country needs. South Africa has ambitious new skills acquisition programmes. The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa was launched in 2005 with the objectives of dismantling obstacles to higher economic growth and halving unemployment and poverty by 2014. The initiative identified six factors that constrain economic growth. One is the skills shortage, and its response is a range of educational interventions and plans to acquire skills from abroad. In March 2006, Deputy President Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka launched the Joint Initiative for Priority Skills Acquisition (JIPSA), stating that "nothing short of a skills revolution by a nation united will extricate us from the crisis we face" (Mlambo-Ngcuka, 2006, p. 1). JIPSA is a hefty 3-year project that is charged with, among other things, identifying skills shortages, removing blockages to skills development, supporting fast-track training, building partnerships with training institutions to encourage the production of more graduates who meet public and private sector needs, and rapidly acquiring scarce and priority skills, including from abroad and from the African diaspora. Although South Africa should welcome back expatriates and develop strategies to make it easier for those who wish to return, this will not alone meet the skills need in this era of unprecedented movement of people and the recruitment of skilled personnel worldwide. Neither will government interventions or agreements with "raiding" countries or bringing back retirees be total solutions to the challenges of losing skilled people. Can South Africa compete for the skills it requires? The future of skilled labour migration will depend on complex economic, political, and personal factors. In South Africa, it is estimated that 1.0 million to 1.6 million people in professional and managerial occupations have left for developed countries since 1994, many of them highly qualified medical personnel and teachers. The science system provides an example of what drives the brain drain from developing countries to feed the insatiable appetite of the European Union (EU): Meeting the Lisbon target of 3% of gross domestic product spent on research and development will require several hundred thousand additional researchers to be active within its borders. These numbers cannot be generated from within the borders of the EU, so the skills will be sought in the countries of the south (Kahn, 2006). The data presented by Crush, Pendelton, and Tevera (2006) in the Southern African Migration Project (SAMP) show that in addition to affecting the existing skills base, the brain drain threatens the potential skills base in Southern Africa as students and new graduates consider the possibility of emigrating in search of greener pastures. The data show that although most SADC students are proud of their country, have a strong sense of national identity, have a desire to help build their countries with their talents and skills, and want to play a role in their country's future, there is a high risk of a continued brain drain from all six countries in the research sample. A major finding is that many of the students are taking the possibility of emigration very seriously. Across the six countries, about 36% of the students said it was likely they would emigrate within 6 months of graduation. This increased to about 52% within 2 years of graduation. The findings reveal powerful push factors (including low levels of satisfaction with personal and national economic conditions) fuelling the desires of students to migrate, whereas from more developed countries-including South Africa and Botswana within the region there are even stronger pull factors (including level of income, ability to find a job, prospects for professional advancement, and cost of living). The research findings by Kahn (2006) and Crush et al. (2006) focus attention on the availability of knowledge workers and infrastructure as a potential major threat to development in South Africa. The SAW survey findings, according to Crush et al., "ought to be extremely sobering to all governments of the region" (p. 140). Although all countries are heavily investing in skills development, the researchers found that to stay at home "students want significant job creation, economic development, opportunities for professional advancement and improvements in the quality of life in their home country" (p. 142). Kahn is of the view that countries that either reject or underdeveloped their knowledge workers cannot expect to survive under globalisation. Careful thought should thus be given to measures needed to retain qualified staff and also foreign postgraduates in whom investment has been made. Kahn proposes a target of retaining one third of foreign doctoral students as a starting point. What does it mean to be internationalised? If South African universities are to maximise opportunities to internationalise, they need to determine the defining principles and characteristics of an internationalised higher education institution. These include internationalisation permeating almost everything we do in the higher education sector, international educational cooperation being essential for the development of a democratic society, university autonomy being an essential condition for flexible adaptation to changing educational and social needs, internationalisation being redefined in the context of developing nations, highlighting the powerful role and critical importance of grasping the notion of knowledge societies, and realising that a common policy framework is needed if South African higher education institutions are to grasp the opportunity to be part of the global society. The meanings of globalisation and internationalisation remain contested and are defined differently by different people (de Wit, 2006; Knight, 2006; Scott, 2006). South African higher education needs to recognise some of the difficulties in understanding the meaning of internationalisation. Are globalisation and internationlisation distinct concepts or different sides of the same coin? What are the relationships among globalisation, internationalisation, and, for instance, cross-border education? What are the meanings and implications of concepts such as knowledge society and "higher education network society" for the internationalisation process? Knight (2006) provides an in-depth discussion on relevant terminology, meanings, and definitions of higher education internationalisation. She examines the discourse during the past 20 years and articulates the view that developing a clear and comprehensive definition will help to clarify current confusion and misunderstanding, which needs to be dealt with if South African higher education is to develop policy priorities for the internationalisation of higher education. Knight argues that the process of internationalisation is central to any definition. She proposes that internationalisation can be defined as the process of integrating an international, inter-cultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions (teaching, research, service) and delivery of post-secondary education. (p. 44) As a developing nation, South Africa may need to look at the definition of internationalisation in the context of new realities of the 21st century to determine whether the powerful forces of globalisation will contribute to African development or be constrained by conditionalities within societies. South Africa may need to refocus international education to be sensitive to the development needs of country and understand that the higher education system cannot simply seek to address national needs (e.g., access, equity, and redress) in the global context. I would disagree with McLellan (2006) that the internationalisation (as defined by Knight) of higher education, and the argued rationales and actual expressions of the process, are noted and accepted as priorities in the government's White Paper 3 and the National Plan on Higher Education. In fact, there is little in the literature on change in South Africa that pays particular attention to internationalisation. There is almost no reference to the term internationalisation in the contents or indexes of the some of the most relevant policy documents dealing with higher education transformation. If international education is to contribute to development challenges that South Africa faces, then it should ideally be considered an integral part of higher education planning, implementation, and evaluation with an appropriate policy framework in place. Who is an international student? Students are regarded as central to the success of any university's attempt to globalise its campus, and students are seen as the primary reason why a university should embrace internationalisation. In South Africa, the lack of a clear definition of an international student is bedeviling the development of a national policy on internationalisation. We need to find a workable definition-an issue that I raised in a paper presented at the Integrated Tertiary Systems User Conference (Kishun, 2006). A challenge for the tertiary education sector is to develop a common set of definitions of various aspects of internationalisation (e.g., how to define an international student) and to ensure that the definitions are widely relevant and useful and produce reliable statistics that help South Africa to plan and to produce a national policy on internationalisation. Collecting good data is critical to the successful management of international collaboration that is tied to foreign policy initiatives, to reporting to the Department of Home Affairs, to ensuring that universities are able to comply with study permit and medical insurance requirements, and to enabling the higher education sector to develop marketing strategies that add to their diversity goals. What is an international office? This question was raised by the European Association for International Education in a publication titled Managing an International Office (Torenbeek, 2005). It is an issue that needs some attention in South Africa as international offices have been ad hoc structures arising out of the need to manage the influx of international students post-1994. International education administrators often debate where an international office should be placed within the administrative structure of a university (Van der Water, 2006). The responsibilities, positions, and reporting lines of staff managing international offices differ from institution to institution. Institutional mergers in South Africa created additional complexities as the reporting lines of the heads of international offices at merging institutions were not always clearly identified. The higher education sector needs to make international offices an integral part of governance structures if internationalisation is to be handled in ways that benefit the sector. Are international offices making universities more international? The traditional services provided by international offices are vital in ensuring that integrated and coherent support is provided to international students. Administrative rigour and discipline are needed to channel applications in a system that is generally geared to admit local students. Services including support for study-abroad students, student-exchange students, and full-time international students affect the reputation of a university. Importantly, experts in the area of internationalisation are wondering whether staff understands the changing roles of international offices (Van der Water 2000). For example, Van der Water (2000) is of the view that as academic disciplines increasingly function within global knowledge networks, and as the international mobility of scholars grows, international offices increasingly need to provide guidance and advice to academics. Also, international offices need to find innovative new ways to help universities become more international. International offices may also be required to provide highly specialised services. For example, universities accept a wide diversity of international students with many different backgrounds and qualifications (many of them unknown) from partner institutions around the world. Credentials evaluation has thus become a topic of increasing concern to universities (Wenger & Frey, 2006). High levels of expertise are required to determine the eligibility of growing numbers of international students from almost all countries. It is critical not merely to recognise other education systems but also to understand, interpret, and equate different systems so that access to higher education is handled holistically. The complexity of credentials evaluation is compounded by document forgery made easier by the Internet and wide access to sophisticated technology. Credentials evaluation is larger than just admissions, as it affects the strategic plans of institutions and countries and has implications for how concepts of "access" and "transformation" are viewed and implemented. Higher education practitioners also understand that a proper system of credential evaluation contributes to the larger goal of achieving benchmarks, ensuring quality, and setting standards to provide coordinated and professional services to the international community. Wenger and Frey (2006) argue that the quality of programmes and research at a university is significantly influenced by the quality of its student body. It is important that credential evaluators accurately assess the education levels of applicants so that students are correctly placed in South Africa's higher education system. If students who are not at the graduate level in their own countries are placed at the graduate level in South Africa and are unprepared for graduate work, the quality of a programme and a graduate school suffers. Without rigorous credential evaluation, institutions run the risk of compromising quality to expand access. What type of leadership can promote internationalisation? It is clear that internationalisation should be high on the higher education policy agenda of South Africa. In fact, internationalisation should be part of the critical transformation agenda of the South African higher education system, curriculum, and services. The higher education sector needs to ensure that South African universities rise to the forefront of higher education globally. To meet these challenges, university vice chancellors will need to articulate a vision for internationalisation, they will need to advocate international education, and they will need to implement changes the promote internationalisation (NASULGC, 2004). The higher education sector will need to convince institutions that substantive changes are needed to prepare globally educated students, including transformation of curricula and promotion of international experience as central to the mission of the university. As in many other countries, there is a gap between what higher education leaders say about international education and actual practice. This gap is also noticeable in the differences between institutional mission statements and the reality of institution practices as revealed by their strategic plans, policies, and resource allocations. Closing the gap is not a trivial task, nor does it involve simply adding a few internationally focused programmes or strengthening existing ones. Although institutions offer diverse mixes of international learning experiences, "few do so with intentionality," and this leads to a hodgepodge of programmes that are not integrated (Green & Olsen, 2003). This problem is common in South Africa. Many institutions have lofty mission statements and are proud of some of their programmes but have not given internationalisation the "intentionality" to promote maximum institutional impact. One of the challenges for South Africa in closing this gap is to develop a national framework within which an integrated response to internationalisation may begin to be realised. In providing leadership, consideration must be given to some key assumptions made by institutions wishing to integrate internationalisation into their educational experience. One assumption is the simple but compelling truth that all institutions are different, as each has its own history, culture, structure, and practices. This is true in South Africa even after the mergers. It is also noted that internationalisation, as other changes, is not a linear process, and that there is a need for a coherent approach as even the smallest campuses suffer from inadequate communication and fragmentation among related efforts; internationalisation is a shared responsibility across campus, as even the most visionary vice chancellor and the most energetic and creative international officer cannot make internationlisation happen without the participation of faculty, staff, and students. Conclusion In addition to the questions highlighted in this introduction, there are many others that are important to understanding the meanings of internationalisation (see Knight, 2006). Perhaps the most important one for South Africa is linked to the policy and funding implications of increased emphasis on internationalisation, both at the national and institutional levels. The worldwide experience is that national policies are key in providing a broad framework within which a higher education sector can strategically develop to take advantage of opportunities to internationalise. A policy on internationalisation in South Africa could provide a way forward in addressing one of the country's key policy challenges, namely that higher education must provide education and training to develop the skills and innovation necessary for national development and successful participation in the global economy. (White Paper, Section 1.11) To tackle this challenge, South African higher education may wish to engage in structured and strategic international activities that will equip its students and institutions for this dual task (McClellan, 2005). In proposing a policy, there are several questions: What are South Africa's policy priorities? What are the visible challenges in developing a broad policy on internationalisation for South Africa? What are some of the steps to be taken to address those challenges and ways of moving forward? (McLellan, 2006). At the national level, a policy framework may have to grapple with some specific issues, such as interministerial policy integration, immigration regulations to allow more streamlined entry into South Africa for international students, state policy on subsidy and international student fees, the government's policy to cap student numbers as it may affect international student numbers, and a framework for credentials evaluation to ensure the quality and consistency of services across the system. McLellan (2006) identifies the complexity of the process, which speaks volumes about the nature of internationalisation as a national policy issue for higher education. In advocating a policy on the internationalisation of higher education, McLellan quotes IEASA as having argued that there is a need for a comprehensive national policy with respect to the internationalisation of higher education that will integrate policy objectives and strategies in all higher education institution sectors to meet them. It must provide for national programmes, administrative structures and resources to implement the strategies. This will contribute to enhancing our global positioning, coherence among different national stakeholders and strengthening our institutional initiatives around the internationalisation of higher education. (p. 188) In the same document, support of "a process that will allow for the adoption" of such a policy is advocated. McLellan believes that this process must begin with a policy framework-not a comprehensive policy, which, if developed in haste, would more than likely lead to a need for constant revisions and redevelopment as kinks are worked out. In contrast, by developing a policy framework that clearly outlines policy priorities and the South African stance on them, each of those priorities can be used to guide the process of internationalisation and serve as an advocacy tool for even broader engagement with the internationalisation process by higher education institutions. References Bengu, S. (1997, January). Presentation at the International Education Association of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa. Commission for Africa. (2005). Our common interest. London: Author. Council of Higher Education. (2004). Internationalisation. In South African higher education in the first decade of democracy (pp. 65-80). Pretoria, South Africa: Author. Crush, J., Pendelton, W., & Tevera, D. S. (2006). Degrees of uncertainty: Students and the brain drain in southern Africa. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 123-144). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. de Wit, H. (2006). Changing dynamics in the internationalisation of higher education. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 29-40). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Green, M. F., & Olsen, C. (2003). Internationalising the campus. Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Kahn, M. (2006). Globalisation of research and development: Challenges and opportunities for South African higher education. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 113-122). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Kapur, D., & McHale, J. (2005). Give us your best and brightest: The global hunt for talent and its impact on the developing world. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development. Kishun, R. (1998). Internationalisation in South Africa. In P. Scott (Ed.), The globalisation of higher education (pp. 58-69). London: Society for Research into Higher Education, Open University Press. Kishun, R. (2006, February). Managing international students in South Africa: Developing an integrated and interdependent information system. Presentation at the ITS User Conference, Gabarone, Botswana. Knight, J. (2006). Internationalisation in the 21st century: Evolution and revolution. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 41-58). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. McLellan, C. E. (2005, August). An analysis of the policy climate for a national policy on internationalization of higher education in South Africa, and prepositions towards a national policy. Paper presented at the IEASA Strategic Planning meeting, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. McLellan, C. E. (2006). Internationalisation as a national policy issue in South African higher education: A look at the policy context and a way forward. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 179-190). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Mlambo-Ngcuka, P. (2006, March 27). Address delivered by the deputy president of South Africa at the launch of the Joint Initiative for Priority Skills Acquisition (JIPSA). Presidential Guest House, South Africa. Moja, T. (2002). Policy responses to global transformation by African higher education systems. In P. T. Zeleza & A. Olukoshi (Eds.), African universities in the twenty-first century (Vol. 1, pp. 21-41). Dakar, Senegal: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa. Moja, T. (2004). Glocalisation-A challenge for curriculum responsiveness. In Curriculum responsiveness: Case studies in higher education (pp. 21-38). Pretoria: South African Universities Vice-Chancellors' Association. Moja, T. (2006). Challenges in the internationalisation of higher education in South Africa. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 81-88). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. (2004, October). A call to leadership: The presidential role in internationalising the university. Washington, DC: Author. Pillay, P. (2006). GATS and higher education-What should South Africa do? In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 89-104). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Scott, P. (2006). Internationalising higher education-A global perspective. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 13-28). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Smout, M. (Ed.). (2003). Internationalisation and quality in South African universities. Pretoria: South African Universities Vice-Chancellors' Association. Torenbeek, J. (Ed.). (2005). Managing an international office. Amsterdam, Netherlands: European Association for International Education. Van der Water, J. (2000). The international office: Taking a closer look. Unpublished manuscript. Van der Water, J. (2006). The internationalisation process: Lessons learned from the U.S. experience. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 59-64). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Wenger, M., & Frey, J. S. (2006). Basic principles and procedures of credential evaluation. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 171-178). 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ࡱ> #` bjbj\.\. .>D>D$$<GlllllGGGFFFFFFF$Gh4J4F5=GG5=5=FllF]F]F]F5=llF]F5=F]F]F]Fl` ?,cA]FFF0G]FhKChK]FhK]F8G 'B]F06GGGFFSF GGGG5=5=5=5=d The Internationalisation of Higher Education in South Africa: Progress and Challenges Roshen Kishun Published in Journal of Studies in International Education, 11(3): 455, 2007. Abstract South Africa needs to re-examine responses to some basic questions if it is to develop a robust push that would enable the higher education sector to maximise the benefits of internationalisation in the context of the "knowledge society" and to serve local needs while being an integral part of the global community. In responding to these questions, this article posits the view that the history and future of the internationalisation of higher education in South Africa would make a useful contribution to ongoing debates on this important topic. The article probes the internationalisation of higher education in South Africa against the backdrop of the internationalisation globally. It also investigates future scenarios and topics ranging from the "Africanization versus internationalization" debate and policies on internationalisation to student mobility, trade in educational services, and how internationalisation is being used to ease skill shortages in developed countries. Globalisation poses challenges to the higher education systems of the world, but for Africa those challenges are double-edged. Moja, 2002, p. 25 In the global context, higher education might well ask what kind of education would be best suited for South Africa in a 21st century characterised by rapid change and the "knowledge society." Education and its outcome knowledge, which supercede natural resources and population size, are seen as the prime wealth creator in today's global economy and the cornerstone for the development of high-level skills that the country needs. South Africa has much to gain by embracing the knowledge society to tackle some of its local challenges. In the 10 years of its existence, the International Education Association of South Africa (IEASA)-as a nongovernmental, nonprofit professional association of individuals and institutions with a common interest in the internationalisation of higher education-has played a significant role in positioning South African higher education to "reconnect" with the global higher education community and take advantage of opportunities to be part of the knowledge society. Much has been achieved. For instance, international student numbers in South Africa have more than quadrupled during the dozen years of democracy-from around 12,500 in 1994 to nearly 53,000 in 2005 (more than 7% of the total higher education student body of 730,000), according to the Department of Education. But it is also apparent that South Africa needs to reexamine responses to some basic questions if it is to develop a robust push that would enable the education sector to maximise the benefits of internationalisation in the context of the knowledge society and to serve local needs while being an integral part of the global community. Moja (2006) is of the view that South African institutions need to pay attention to the emerging trend that requires knowledge to be managed so that it can be processed and packaged for use in ways that contribute to improving institutional operations and development in the country. At the inaugural IEASA conference in 1997, Professor Njabulo Ndebele, the incoming chair of the South African Universities Vice-Chancellors' Association (SAUVCA), raised fundamental questions: What are South Africa's framing national values, and how do we promote them? What aspects of tertiary education do we wish to promote? What is the role of foreign expertise in the development of our new democracy? What are the opportunities and limits of globalisation? What are the curriculum implications of multiculturalism and internationalism? What do such curriculum questions mean for individual institutional cultures, and how do these cultures define the entire tertiary education system? To what extent should South Africa open up undergraduate and postgraduate programmes to international students? These and other questions raised in this chapter still need interrogation. Is internationalisation central to South African universities? This question needs to be examined as part of the postapartheid transformation of higher education to ensure that education plays its role in national development while also positioning the country to take its place on the continent and in the wider world. South African higher education institutions are faced not only with the challenges of internationalisation but also with those of "Africanising" the purposes, functions, and curricula of universities (Moja, 2006). In examining whether South African institutions see internationalisation as central to their missions, Moja (2006) alludes to a double-edged dilemma-on one hand are Africa's crippling legacies of the past, including the policies of international development agencies such as the World Bank that seriously neglected African universities (the bank even suggested at one point that the continent had no need for them), and on the other hand are new challenges posed by a globalising world. Moja (2002) proposed that a balance be struck between responding to inherited problems and new demands. For South Africa, the double-edged challenge is further complicated by the legacies of apartheid, which created a pressing need to redress past inequalities. In striking a balance between tackling the inherited inequities of centuries of exploitation and the challenges of a globalising world characterised by unprecedented advances in technology and telecommunications and a remaking of the global economy, universities have to take into account a world in which interdisciplinary and cross-border research and discovery are the norm and the expectation of students who are preparing to live and work in an interconnected world. Institutions that are able to prepare "students of the world" will be the universities of the new century. Substantive changes are needed to prepare globally educated students, and they will require global perspectives and the promotion of international experience as central to the mission of the university, according to the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges (NASULGC, 2004). Moja (2004) argued that to position South Africa to operate successfully in the global economy, it would be necessary to transform the higher education system in ways that made it responsive to globalisation challenges. This responsiveness has sometimes been wrongly interpreted in the Africanisation debate to mean meeting global needs at the expense of local needs. According to Moja, the goal is not to serve external needs but rather to prepare human resources that make the country a partner in a globalised world. The globalisation versus Africanisation debate leads to polarised positions that are not helpful in positioning higher education to be responsive to the global knowledge society. The first attempt to identify internationalisation as central to the mission of a university took place at IEASA's inaugural conference in January 1997, which had as its theme "South Africa and the World: Internationalising Education." Professor Sibusiso Bengu (1997), the minister of education, recognised higher education by its very nature to "constitute one of the core areas affected by internationalization." IEASA's position was further articulated in a chapter titled "Internationalisation in South Africa" (Kishun, 1998). Later, two key publications were SAUVCA's Internationalisation and Quality in South African Universities (Smout, 2003) and the Council of Higher Education (CHE, 2004) report South African Higher Education in the First Decade of Democracy. The latter two publications directly responded to vexed issues around the inclusion of education in the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which shone the spotlight on the internationalisation of South African higher education. The SAUVCA report, which featured articles by international experts such as Jane Knight, stated in its preface that it did "not advocate a case in favour of internationalisation per se." The CHE report made the case for higher education as a vital domain generally for all countries and specifically key to South Africa's reconstruction and transformation agenda, and it identified internationalisation as critical to meeting higher education's goals in the coming years. Some challenges beyond our borders There is now an acknowledgement of the worth of higher education in bringing about economic and democratic reforms. For example, the Commission for Africa (CFA) supports the "renewal" of higher education institutions as key vehicles for development on the continent. Universities are seen as the "breeding ground for the skilled individuals whom the continent needs (CFA, 2005). The commission endorsed the 10-year partnership programme between the Association of Commonwealth Universities and the Association of African Universities titled "Renewing the African University," which calls for, among other things, constructive engagement between African governments and higher education institutions, increased north-south and south-south collaboration, internationalisation of higher education curricula, and partnerships between universities and the private sector. Other positive developments on the continent include the concept of an African renaissance and the establishment of the African Union, the New Partnership for Africa's Development, and the Pan-African Parliament. Closer to home, in February 2005, vice chancellors from Southern African Development Community (SADC) countries launched the Southern African Regional Universities Association (SARUA). University leaders recognise that strengthening the quality and capacity of higher education and research in Southern Africa will be a leading contributor to growth and poverty alleviation in the region. SARUA's central functions include information gathering and dissemination, capacity building in higher education, and establishing networks throughout the region between universities and with external stakeholders. Globally, there is a drive to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals, which include cutting poverty in half by 2015. But perhaps the most important global development outside the ambit of the continent that is likely to affect the future policies, development, and internationalisation of higher education in Africa is the inclusion of education in the GATS of the World Trade Organization. As the demand for higher education increases, both in qualitative and quantitative measures, the capacity of the public sector to meet these demands is being challenged. This is, among other things, because of public budget limitations, the changing role of governments, and the increased emphasis in many countries on the market economy and privatisation. GATS could open the way for a more truly global market in higher education and a burgeoning of cross-border and private provision, placing public higher education in many (especially developing) countries under threat. South Africa's reaction to GATS and higher education has been negative, although a formal country response has yet to be drafted. Pundy Pillay (2006) is of the view that a persuasive case can be made for not committing South African higher education to GATS because the dangers of liberalisation in the sector are considerable given the level of development of our system relative to those of industrialised (and potentially exporting) countries and the considerable potential to derail the ongoing transformation of higher education. Pillay argues among other things that the dangers relate to unequal distribution of benefits, similar to what developing countries have experienced in general in the opening up of international trade in goods. In his article, Peter Scott (2006) discusses clusters of meanings attached to the concept of "globalisation" and major trends in international education and presents two case studies embodying different models of internationalisation: GATS as a "market" manifestation of internationalisation and the Bologna process in Europe as a "public" manifestation. The Bologna process was initially regarded as a purely European project with few implications for international education. Today, it covers 45 countries and is the largest and most substantial higher education grouping in the world. Its agenda is much broader than creating common course structures and quality assurance systems, as it includes higher education reforms and the more emphatic projection of European higher education onto the world stage (Huisman & van der Wende, 2004, cited by Scott, 2006; Huisman & van der Wende, 2005, cited by Scott, 2006; Muche, 2005, cited by Scott, 2006). The Bologna process now reaches (or will soon reach) countries far from Europe (e.g., Francophone and Anglophone countries in Africa), and the Bologna-linked Erasmus Mundus programme is designed to promote far greater student mobility between Europe and the rest of the world. According to Scott (2006), the CATS "market" road and the Bologna "public" road may not present two stark choices for the future internationalisation of higher education-this may be too simple an interpretation that suggests, at a time of rapid change, that internationalisation will continue to be mostly driven by North America and Western Europe. International education will be affected by and affect large geopolitical shifts underway, writes Scott. The emergence of China and India may currently be largely an economic phenomenon, but that could change, whereas other major regions such as Latin America and Africa "are unlikely to remain subordinated." Whether Africa will remain subordinated is a key question that policy makers need to ask when examining how Africa might set about becoming a global player in the provision of world-class education to solve local problems. Internationalisation, global labour mobility, and the brain drain Emerging knowledge societies around the world are creating global competition for the best students to provide skilled labour. As the global economy within which countries need to develop is knowledge driven and requires swift access to a highly skilled work force, there will be increased competition for international students, many of whom will stay on to fill the skills shortages of their (mostly developed) host countries. Much has been written about the brain drain from poor to rich countries, as well-qualified individuals seek out more and better paying job opportunities and higher quality of life, and as industrialised countries "raid" skills from developing nations to meet their own skills shortages-the "brain gain." Some scholars believe that the brain drain may fuel the vicious cycle of underdevelopment of poor countries and cost them the very people they most need to develop and to resist corruption and weak governance. Kapur and McHale (2005) argue that countries could be trapped in poverty by the loss of institution builders, hospital managers, university department heads, and political reformers. As an important regional player and the leading host country for international students in Africa, South Africa must urgently consider the implications of knowledge societies and the rapacious worldwide appetite for highly skilled personnel. As developed countries aggressively recruit more and the best international students, internationalisation becomes a strategic national issue. Competition for international students should be examined in the broader context of mass labour mobility that is a central global feature of the 21st century. Although South Africa's Immigration Bill of 2002 ushered in a new era of managing the movement of people, it is not sufficiently flexible to attract the high-level skills that the country needs. South Africa has ambitious new skills acquisition programmes. The Accelerated and Shared Growth Initiative for South Africa was launched in 2005 with the objectives of dismantling obstacles to higher economic growth and halving unemployment and poverty by 2014. The initiative identified six factors that constrain economic growth. One is the skills shortage, and its response is a range of educational interventions and plans to acquire skills from abroad. In March 2006, Deputy President Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka launched the Joint Initiative for Priority Skills Acquisition (JIPSA), stating that "nothing short of a skills revolution by a nation united will extricate us from the crisis we face" (Mlambo-Ngcuka, 2006, p. 1). JIPSA is a hefty 3-year project that is charged with, among other things, identifying skills shortages, removing blockages to skills development, supporting fast-track training, building partnerships with training institutions to encourage the production of more graduates who meet public and private sector needs, and rapidly acquiring scarce and priority skills, including from abroad and from the African diaspora. Although South Africa should welcome back expatriates and develop strategies to make it easier for those who wish to return, this will not alone meet the skills need in this era of unprecedented movement of people and the recruitment of skilled personnel worldwide. Neither will government interventions or agreements with "raiding" countries or bringing back retirees be total solutions to the challenges of losing skilled people. Can South Africa compete for the skills it requires? The future of skilled labour migration will depend on complex economic, political, and personal factors. In South Africa, it is estimated that 1.0 million to 1.6 million people in professional and managerial occupations have left for developed countries since 1994, many of them highly qualified medical personnel and teachers. The science system provides an example of what drives the brain drain from developing countries to feed the insatiable appetite of the European Union (EU): Meeting the Lisbon target of 3% of gross domestic product spent on research and development will require several hundred thousand additional researchers to be active within its borders. These numbers cannot be generated from within the borders of the EU, so the skills will be sought in the countries of the south (Kahn, 2006). The data presented by Crush, Pendelton, and Tevera (2006) in the Southern African Migration Project (SAMP) show that in addition to affecting the existing skills base, the brain drain threatens the potential skills base in Southern Africa as students and new graduates consider the possibility of emigrating in search of greener pastures. The data show that although most SADC students are proud of their country, have a strong sense of national identity, have a desire to help build their countries with their talents and skills, and want to play a role in their country's future, there is a high risk of a continued brain drain from all six countries in the research sample. A major finding is that many of the students are taking the possibility of emigration very seriously. Across the six countries, about 36% of the students said it was likely they would emigrate within 6 months of graduation. This increased to about 52% within 2 years of graduation. The findings reveal powerful push factors (including low levels of satisfaction with personal and national economic conditions) fuelling the desires of students to migrate, whereas from more developed countries-including South Africa and Botswana within the region there are even stronger pull factors (including level of income, ability to find a job, prospects for professional advancement, and cost of living). The research findings by Kahn (2006) and Crush et al. (2006) focus attention on the availability of knowledge workers and infrastructure as a potential major threat to development in South Africa. The SAW survey findings, according to Crush et al., "ought to be extremely sobering to all governments of the region" (p. 140). Although all countries are heavily investing in skills development, the researchers found that to stay at home "students want significant job creation, economic development, opportunities for professional advancement and improvements in the quality of life in their home country" (p. 142). Kahn is of the view that countries that either reject or underdeveloped their knowledge workers cannot expect to survive under globalisation. Careful thought should thus be given to measures needed to retain qualified staff and also foreign postgraduates in whom investment has been made. Kahn proposes a target of retaining one third of foreign doctoral students as a starting point. What does it mean to be internationalised? If South African universities are to maximise opportunities to internationalise, they need to determine the defining principles and characteristics of an internationalised higher education institution. These include internationalisation permeating almost everything we do in the higher education sector, international educational cooperation being essential for the development of a democratic society, university autonomy being an essential condition for flexible adaptation to changing educational and social needs, internationalisation being redefined in the context of developing nations, highlighting the powerful role and critical importance of grasping the notion of knowledge societies, and realising that a common policy framework is needed if South African higher education institutions are to grasp the opportunity to be part of the global society. The meanings of globalisation and internationalisation remain contested and are defined differently by different people (de Wit, 2006; Knight, 2006; Scott, 2006). South African higher education needs to recognise some of the difficulties in understanding the meaning of internationalisation. Are globalisation and internationlisation distinct concepts or different sides of the same coin? What are the relationships among globalisation, internationalisation, and, for instance, cross-border education? What are the meanings and implications of concepts such as knowledge society and "higher education network society" for the internationalisation process? Knight (2006) provides an in-depth discussion on relevant terminology, meanings, and definitions of higher education internationalisation. She examines the discourse during the past 20 years and articulates the view that developing a clear and comprehensive definition will help to clarify current confusion and misunderstanding, which needs to be dealt with if South African higher education is to develop policy priorities for the internationalisation of higher education. Knight argues that the process of internationalisation is central to any definition. She proposes that internationalisation can be defined as the process of integrating an international, inter-cultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions (teaching, research, service) and delivery of post-secondary education. (p. 44) As a developing nation, South Africa may need to look at the definition of internationalisation in the context of new realities of the 21st century to determine whether the powerful forces of globalisation will contribute to African development or be constrained by conditionalities within societies. South Africa may need to refocus international education to be sensitive to the development needs of country and understand that the higher education system cannot simply seek to address national needs (e.g., access, equity, and redress) in the global context. I would disagree with McLellan (2006) that the internationalisation (as defined by Knight) of higher education, and the argued rationales and actual expressions of the process, are noted and accepted as priorities in the government's White Paper 3 and the National Plan on Higher Education. In fact, there is little in the literature on change in South Africa that pays particular attention to internationalisation. There is almost no reference to the term internationalisation in the contents or indexes of the some of the most relevant policy documents dealing with higher education transformation. If international education is to contribute to development challenges that South Africa faces, then it should ideally be considered an integral part of higher education planning, implementation, and evaluation with an appropriate policy framework in place. Who is an international student? Students are regarded as central to the success of any university's attempt to globalise its campus, and students are seen as the primary reason why a university should embrace internationalisation. In South Africa, the lack of a clear definition of an international student is bedeviling the development of a national policy on internationalisation. We need to find a workable definition-an issue that I raised in a paper presented at the Integrated Tertiary Systems User Conference (Kishun, 2006). A challenge for the tertiary education sector is to develop a common set of definitions of various aspects of internationalisation (e.g., how to define an international student) and to ensure that the definitions are widely relevant and useful and produce reliable statistics that help South Africa to plan and to produce a national policy on internationalisation. Collecting good data is critical to the successful management of international collaboration that is tied to foreign policy initiatives, to reporting to the Department of Home Affairs, to ensuring that universities are able to comply with study permit and medical insurance requirements, and to enabling the higher education sector to develop marketing strategies that add to their diversity goals. What is an international office? This question was raised by the European Association for International Education in a publication titled Managing an International Office (Torenbeek, 2005). It is an issue that needs some attention in South Africa as international offices have been ad hoc structures arising out of the need to manage the influx of international students post-1994. International education administrators often debate where an international office should be placed within the administrative structure of a university (Van der Water, 2006). The responsibilities, positions, and reporting lines of staff managing international offices differ from institution to institution. Institutional mergers in South Africa created additional complexities as the reporting lines of the heads of international offices at merging institutions were not always clearly identified. The higher education sector needs to make international offices an integral part of governance structures if internationalisation is to be handled in ways that benefit the sector. Are international offices making universities more international? The traditional services provided by international offices are vital in ensuring that integrated and coherent support is provided to international students. Administrative rigour and discipline are needed to channel applications in a system that is generally geared to admit local students. Services including support for study-abroad students, student-exchange students, and full-time international students affect the reputation of a university. Importantly, experts in the area of internationalisation are wondering whether staff understands the changing roles of international offices (Van der Water 2000). For example, Van der Water (2000) is of the view that as academic disciplines increasingly function within global knowledge networks, and as the international mobility of scholars grows, international offices increasingly need to provide guidance and advice to academics. Also, international offices need to find innovative new ways to help universities become more international. International offices may also be required to provide highly specialised services. For example, universities accept a wide diversity of international students with many different backgrounds and qualifications (many of them unknown) from partner institutions around the world. Credentials evaluation has thus become a topic of increasing concern to universities (Wenger & Frey, 2006). High levels of expertise are required to determine the eligibility of growing numbers of international students from almost all countries. It is critical not merely to recognise other education systems but also to understand, interpret, and equate different systems so that access to higher education is handled holistically. The complexity of credentials evaluation is compounded by document forgery made easier by the Internet and wide access to sophisticated technology. Credentials evaluation is larger than just admissions, as it affects the strategic plans of institutions and countries and has implications for how concepts of "access" and "transformation" are viewed and implemented. Higher education practitioners also understand that a proper system of credential evaluation contributes to the larger goal of achieving benchmarks, ensuring quality, and setting standards to provide coordinated and professional services to the international community. Wenger and Frey (2006) argue that the quality of programmes and research at a university is significantly influenced by the quality of its student body. It is important that credential evaluators accurately assess the education levels of applicants so that students are correctly placed in South Africa's higher education system. If students who are not at the graduate level in their own countries are placed at the graduate level in South Africa and are unprepared for graduate work, the quality of a programme and a graduate school suffers. Without rigorous credential evaluation, institutions run the risk of compromising quality to expand access. What type of leadership can promote internationalisation? It is clear that internationalisation should be high on the higher education policy agenda of South Africa. In fact, internationalisation should be part of the critical transformation agenda of the South African higher education system, curriculum, and services. The higher education sector needs to ensure that South African universities rise to the forefront of higher education globally. To meet these challenges, university vice chancellors will need to articulate a vision for internationalisation, they will need to advocate international education, and they will need to implement changes the promote internationalisation (NASULGC, 2004). The higher education sector will need to convince institutions that substantive changes are needed to prepare globally educated students, including transformation of curricula and promotion of international experience as central to the mission of the university. As in many other countries, there is a gap between what higher education leaders say about international education and actual practice. This gap is also noticeable in the differences between institutional mission statements and the reality of institution practices as revealed by their strategic plans, policies, and resource allocations. Closing the gap is not a trivial task, nor does it involve simply adding a few internationally focused programmes or strengthening existing ones. Although institutions offer diverse mixes of international learning experiences, "few do so with intentionality," and this leads to a hodgepodge of programmes that are not integrated (Green & Olsen, 2003). This problem is common in South Africa. Many institutions have lofty mission statements and are proud of some of their programmes but have not given internationalisation the "intentionality" to promote maximum institutional impact. One of the challenges for South Africa in closing this gap is to develop a national framework within which an integrated response to internationalisation may begin to be realised. In providing leadership, consideration must be given to some key assumptions made by institutions wishing to integrate internationalisation into their educational experience. One assumption is the simple but compelling truth that all institutions are different, as each has its own history, culture, structure, and practices. This is true in South Africa even after the mergers. It is also noted that internationalisation, as other changes, is not a linear process, and that there is a need for a coherent approach as even the smallest campuses suffer from inadequate communication and fragmentation among related efforts; internationalisation is a shared responsibility across campus, as even the most visionary vice chancellor and the most energetic and creative international officer cannot make internationlisation happen without the participation of faculty, staff, and students. Conclusion In addition to the questions highlighted in this introduction, there are many others that are important to understanding the meanings of internationalisation (see Knight, 2006). Perhaps the most important one for South Africa is linked to the policy and funding implications of increased emphasis on internationalisation, both at the national and institutional levels. The worldwide experience is that national policies are key in providing a broad framework within which a higher education sector can strategically develop to take advantage of opportunities to internationalise. A policy on internationalisation in South Africa could provide a way forward in addressing one of the country's key policy challenges, namely that higher education must provide education and training to develop the skills and innovation necessary for national development and successful participation in the global economy. (White Paper, Section 1.11) To tackle this challenge, South African higher education may wish to engage in structured and strategic international activities that will equip its students and institutions for this dual task (McClellan, 2005). In proposing a policy, there are several questions: What are South Africa's policy priorities? What are the visible challenges in developing a broad policy on internationalisation for South Africa? What are some of the steps to be taken to address those challenges and ways of moving forward? (McLellan, 2006). At the national level, a policy framework may have to grapple with some specific issues, such as interministerial policy integration, immigration regulations to allow more streamlined entry into South Africa for international students, state policy on subsidy and international student fees, the government's policy to cap student numbers as it may affect international student numbers, and a framework for credentials evaluation to ensure the quality and consistency of services across the system. McLellan (2006) identifies the complexity of the process, which speaks volumes about the nature of internationalisation as a national policy issue for higher education. In advocating a policy on the internationalisation of higher education, McLellan quotes IEASA as having argued that there is a need for a comprehensive national policy with respect to the internationalisation of higher education that will integrate policy objectives and strategies in all higher education institution sectors to meet them. It must provide for national programmes, administrative structures and resources to implement the strategies. This will contribute to enhancing our global positioning, coherence among different national stakeholders and strengthening our institutional initiatives around the internationalisation of higher education. (p. 188) In the same document, support of "a process that will allow for the adoption" of such a policy is advocated. McLellan believes that this process must begin with a policy framework-not a comprehensive policy, which, if developed in haste, would more than likely lead to a need for constant revisions and redevelopment as kinks are worked out. In contrast, by developing a policy framework that clearly outlines policy priorities and the South African stance on them, each of those priorities can be used to guide the process of internationalisation and serve as an advocacy tool for even broader engagement with the internationalisation process by higher education institutions. References Bengu, S. (1997, January). Presentation at the International Education Association of South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa. Commission for Africa. (2005). Our common interest. London: Author. Council of Higher Education. (2004). Internationalisation. In South African higher education in the first decade of democracy (pp. 65-80). Pretoria, South Africa: Author. Crush, J., Pendelton, W., & Tevera, D. S. (2006). Degrees of uncertainty: Students and the brain drain in southern Africa. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 123-144). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. de Wit, H. (2006). Changing dynamics in the internationalisation of higher education. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 29-40). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Green, M. F., & Olsen, C. (2003). Internationalising the campus. Washington, DC: American Council on Education. Kahn, M. (2006). Globalisation of research and development: Challenges and opportunities for South African higher education. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 113-122). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Kapur, D., & McHale, J. (2005). Give us your best and brightest: The global hunt for talent and its impact on the developing world. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development. Kishun, R. (1998). Internationalisation in South Africa. In P. Scott (Ed.), The globalisation of higher education (pp. 58-69). London: Society for Research into Higher Education, Open University Press. Kishun, R. (2006, February). Managing international students in South Africa: Developing an integrated and interdependent information system. Presentation at the ITS User Conference, Gabarone, Botswana. Knight, J. (2006). Internationalisation in the 21st century: Evolution and revolution. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 41-58). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. McLellan, C. E. (2005, August). An analysis of the policy climate for a national policy on internationalization of higher education in South Africa, and prepositions towards a national policy. Paper presented at the IEASA Strategic Planning meeting, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa. McLellan, C. E. (2006). Internationalisation as a national policy issue in South African higher education: A look at the policy context and a way forward. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 179-190). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Mlambo-Ngcuka, P. (2006, March 27). Address delivered by the deputy president of South Africa at the launch of the Joint Initiative for Priority Skills Acquisition (JIPSA). Presidential Guest House, South Africa. Moja, T. (2002). Policy responses to global transformation by African higher education systems. In P. T. Zeleza & A. Olukoshi (Eds.), African universities in the twenty-first century (Vol. 1, pp. 21-41). Dakar, Senegal: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa. Moja, T. (2004). Glocalisation-A challenge for curriculum responsiveness. In Curriculum responsiveness: Case studies in higher education (pp. 21-38). Pretoria: South African Universities Vice-Chancellors' Association. Moja, T. (2006). Challenges in the internationalisation of higher education in South Africa. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 81-88). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges. (2004, October). A call to leadership: The presidential role in internationalising the university. Washington, DC: Author. Pillay, P. (2006). GATS and higher education-What should South Africa do? In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 89-104). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Scott, P. (2006). Internationalising higher education-A global perspective. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 13-28). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Smout, M. (Ed.). (2003). Internationalisation and quality in South African universities. Pretoria: South African Universities Vice-Chancellors' Association. Torenbeek, J. (Ed.). (2005). Managing an international office. Amsterdam, Netherlands: European Association for International Education. Van der Water, J. (2000). The international office: Taking a closer look. Unpublished manuscript. Van der Water, J. (2006). The internationalisation process: Lessons learned from the U.S. experience. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 59-64). Durban, South Africa: IEASA. Wenger, M., & Frey, J. S. (2006). Basic principles and procedures of credential evaluation. In R. Kishun (Ed.), The internationalisation of higher education in South Africa (pp. 171-178). 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