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Experience from Soroti and Adjumani Districts}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs32 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs32\insrsid5898580 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 ( {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname place}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname country-region}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}), 2006. \par \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\qc \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\keepn\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 { \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 By \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\s2\qc \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\keepn\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel1\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 { \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 RWENGABO Sabastiano \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\qc \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 Tel: +256 78 2 808 220 \par \par July 2007 \par \par Email: }{\field{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 HYPERLINK "mailto:rweruta@yahoo.com" }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid11677619 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b020000001700000012000000720077006500720075007400610040007900610068006f006f002e0063006f006d000000e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b320000006d00610069006c0074006f003a00720077006500720075007400610040007900610068006f006f002e00 63006f006d00000000000000}}}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs19\b\fs28\ul\cf2\insrsid5898580 rweruta@yahoo.com}}}\sectd \psz1\pgnrestart\pgnlcrm\linex0\endnhere\titlepg\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 / }{\field{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 HYPERLINK "mailto:rutashoboroka@ss.mak.ac.ug" }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid11677619 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000001b0000007200750074006100730068006f0062006f0072006f006b0061004000730073002e006d0061006b002e00610063002e00750067000000e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b440000006d00610069006c0074006f003a0072007500740061007300 68006f0062006f0072006f006b0061004000730073002e006d0061006b002e00610063002e0075006700000000000000}}}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs19\b\fs28\ul\cf2\insrsid5898580 rutashoboroka@ss.mak.ac.ug}}}\sectd \psz1\pgnrestart\pgnlcrm\linex0\endnhere\titlepg\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 \par Department of Political Science and Public Administration, \par {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname place}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname PlaceName}}Makerere{\*\xmlclose} {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname PlaceType}}University{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}, \par {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname address}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname Street}}P.O. Box{\*\xmlclose} 7062{\*\xmlclose} \par {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}KAMPALA{\*\xmlclose} - {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname place}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname country-region}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}. \par \par \par \par \par \par \par Contributing to the Debate on Research Ethics: Eliciting Personal Experience and Challenges Encountered in the Field. \par \par July 2007. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\ul\insrsid5898580 Abstrac}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 t \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs22 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs22\insrsid5898580 The purpose of this paper is to debate }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs22 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs22\insrsid8877240 r}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs22 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs22\insrsid5898580 esearch }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs22 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs22\insrsid8877240 e}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs22 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs22\insrsid5898580 thics, by eliciting the challenges encountered by field research ers. Centrally, the paper seeks to question whether research ethics are upheld at all times during research, or whether violation of some ethics may be called for. Interestingly, some field experiences may render questionable some of the ethical considera t ions in research, hence the argument that abiding by research ethics is contextual and condition-specific; some of the research techniques violate some ethical values. Equally true, where ethics are ignored, the study is questionable and may render the fi ndings inappropriate. This paradoxical consideration needs to be handled with care and precaution, and an attempt made to marry ethical considerations and actual experiences. \par \sect }\sectd \ltrsect\psz1\pgnrestart\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj \pard\plain \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 Introduction \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\sl-827\slmult0\keepn\widctlpar\pvpara\wrapdefault\dropcapli2\dropcapt1\aspalpha\aspnum\faroman\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs91 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs91\up2\insrsid5898580 F \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 ield research is a difficult undertaking as it involves a lot of challenges and particular experiences researchers have to contend with. A researcher has to respond to the challenges encountered and develop mechanisms of copying with these constraints if her study is to be a success. Schndelbach (2002) reveals that we acquire knowledge through common sense, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 intu}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid8877240\charrsid8877240 i}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 tion}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf6\insrsid5898580 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 (I just know it); tenacity (time has given validity); tradition (practice through generations); personal experience; authority (experts and the powerful); divine and super-natural powers; reason and logic (intellect capturing truth and knowledge directly); and scientific methods (systematic and rigorous procedures). It is common knowledge altogether, among researchers, that field research is n ot easy; or that research ethics are vital in any study. Yet it is not informative to argue that all researchers experience the same challenges and respond to them in the same way. It is the concern of this paper to fill this gap by relating research ethi cs with personal experience from the field, in order to bring to light the way field constraints can be tackled, and the practical applicability of ethics in research. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Interestingly, while research ethics abound, their applicability depends on the peculia r experiences a researcher is confronted with; and while research methods are known, the methods of data collection especially in in-depth field investigations may of necessity change overtime as the researcher contends with field challenges. The paper co ntextualises challenges of field research and explores some of the research ethics and professional considerations researchers are expected to abide by. It then presents the challenges faced, notably, language barriers; a \lquote foreigner in the land \rquote ; research t iming; theme of the study; and building rapport. Implications of field challenges for researchers are concurrently pointed out with every experience elaborated. It is concluded that application of research ethics is paramount but is always condition-speci fic, since some research practices in themselves violate some ethical considerations in some ways. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 Contextualising Field Research Constraints \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The use of scientific methods to generate information on a certain phenomenon is called research. It is a purposi ve and rigorous investigation aimed at generating knew knowledge, that allows a person enter contexts of personal and or public interest that are known to them, and to search for answers for the questions intriguing them (Sarantakos, 2005: 4). Data are ga thered through interviews, observation, documentary review, questionnaire administration, and Focus Group Discussions. Whatever the method one uses, one is bound to face some challenges or constraints here and there. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Field constraints constitute the challe nges and difficulties encountered by the researcher in the field. They include personal, institutional, sociopolitical and situational constraints. While controlling research according to proposition is an attractive suggestion (Stapford and Abbort, 1996) , it is not easy to achieve because of the ups and downs in the field. Several constraints are common in field research. The }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 hindrances}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 encountered and relevant for this paper included language barrier, existence of a \lquote foreigner\rquote , timing of research, theme of the study and building rapport. To \lquote manage\rquote these and be able to produce }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8877240 a }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 good result}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 was not easy, yet the interest of the researcher and justifications of the studies were overriding. Thus most interestingly, while field research was rigorous and not easy, it had to be carried out; it was very important. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The rigour of research implies that it is not easy to carry out. Hence this paper elucidates the way the author personally }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 coped }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 with constraints in field research in Soroti (Eastern Uganda) and Adjumani ({\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname place}}West Nile{\*\xmlclose}) Districts. In Soroti; the study focused on \'93 The Nature and extent of Corruption in Universal Primary Education (UPE) in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}\'94, a study by the Anti-corruption Coalition \endash Uganda (ACCU) conducted through Dr Juliu s Kiiza of the Department of Political Science and Public Administration - {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Makerere{\*\xmlclose} {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}University{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose} , to whom Research Assistance was offered through field work. This was in September 2006. In Adjumani District, the study was focused on the \'93Institutional and Legal Context of the 2006 Elections in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}} {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}: The Role of the Electoral Commission in Election Administration\'94. This was a study by a Norwegian Research Institute \endash Christian Michelsen Institute (CMI) in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Bergen{\*\xmlclose} in collaboration with {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Makerere{\*\xmlclose} {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}University{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose} \rquote s Department of Political Science and Public Administration, and some individuals from the Faculty of Law. To this, Research Assistance was also offered. This was carried out February\endash April 2006. As a Research Assistant, the author faced the \lquote depth\rquote of field d ata collection and reporting, where field constraints were inevitable. In all studies, it was applied research, notably social impact studies whose motives were institutional, educational and political. Most research constraints, wherever faced, arouse th e \lquote pinch\rquote of research ethics. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 Research Ethics}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 \par Ethics are \'93norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior\'94, between what is wrong and right, or between what is fair and unfair. One may also define ethics as \'93a method, proced ure, or perspective for deciding how to act and for analyzing complex problems and issues\'94 . Ethical norms in a profession help members of the discipline to coordinate their actions or activities and to promote public trust of the discipline. It is importan t, therefore, to adhere to ethical norms in research, because some of these norms promote the aims of research, such as knowledge, truth, and avoidance of error. For example, prohibitions against fabricating, falsifying, or misrepresenting research data p r omote the truth and avoid error. Second, since research involves a great deal of cooperation and coordination among different people in different disciplines and institutions, available ethical standards promote essential values for collaborative work, su ch as trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness (Resnik, 2005)}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 \chftn {\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s15\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Source: Internet: }{\field{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 HYPERLINK "http://dir.niehs.nih.gov/ethics/whatisethics.htm" }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11677619 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000003100000068007400740070003a002f002f006400690072002e006e0069006500680073002e006e00690068002e0067006f0076002f006500740068006900630073002f007700680061007400690073006500740068006900630073002e00680074006d000000 e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b6200000068007400740070003a002f002f006400690072002e006e0069006500680073002e006e00690068002e0067006f0076002f006500740068006900630073002f007700680061007400690073006500740068006900630073002e00680074006d00000000000000}} }{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs19\ul\cf2\insrsid5898580 http://dir.niehs.nih.gov/ethics/whatisethics.htm}}}\sectd \psz1\pgnrestart\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . }}}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . Resnik does not exhaust ethics in field resea rch but gives an enriching explanation on ethics; namely that they need to be adhered to if the work of a professional or member of an institution, is to be trusted and upheld, and normative values enhanced. \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Ethics in field work are dos and don\rquote ts that focus on: physical and mental harm to the respondents; covert or hidden research; invasion of privacy; violation of anonymity and confidentiality; deception; coercion; plagiarism; and fabrication or concealment of findings (Orr,1999; Pfeifer, 2000). Hence the researcher is expected to: maintain objectively in the conduct of social inquiry; uphold professional integrity; demonstrate responsibility, competence and prosperity; employ accurate methods of data gathering and analysis; use relevant methodology; c h oose appropriate interpretation of data; report data accurately; and avoid misconduct through fabrication of data (Sarantakos, 2005:18). These ethical considerations guide researchers in what should be and should not be done. They are undoubtedly rich inp uts in the study of any phenomenon, though it is good to reinforce these considerations with a more elaborate input from other writers. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 To stand by these ethical considerations, one has to respect the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5898580 Decalogue}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 on research ethics: }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 Thou shall NOT}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 : \par 1. Include in the study or continue working with a person who demonstrates resistance or discomfort relating to the study or to the research topic; \par 2. Attempt to convince a person to take part in the study, when this person is not in position to respond adequately to the research question; \par 3. Fail to explain the relevant aspects of the study to the respondents before they agree to participate; \par 4. Promise any anonymity and confidentiality if it is likely that this promise will not be honoured; \par 5. Fail to respect the respondent\rquote s privacy; \par 6. Deceive the respondents in any way; \par 7. Subject respondents to procedures that may entail physical or mental stress; \par 8. Include in the study, techniques whose degree of safety is questionable; \par 9. Violate professional research standards, for example by fabricating, falsifying or concealing data; and \par 10. Accept a contracted research project that violates ethical and or professional standards. (Vlahos, 1984; Pfeifer, 2000 in Sarantakos, 2005:23). \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 It is these \'93ten commandments on ethics\'94 that were either upheld or violated when }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 coping }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 with field study constraints. The paper bases on these \'93commandments\'94 to elicit the author\rquote s experience. The questions of: what constitutes ethics; their universality; objective sta ndards of ethicality; the consistency of ethics with relative conditions on the ground; justification for ethics across time and space; and who benefits from ethics, were very teasing during the study. These are important issues whose relevance the paper attempts to examine. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The fact that a research process involves a series of activities and steps carried out in a sequence to accomplish a study is undeniable. But for this field case, focus is on the difficulties in the field. Sampling or choice of respond ents was also a matter of concern. The two (field challenges and sampling) are not necessarily separate or distinct; one leads to the next and may revert you to the previous one. Researchers generally encounter problems of: building rapport; selecting ad equate and appropriate respondents for qualitative studies; winning the confidence of respondents; research fatigue}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 1{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 1}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 A situation where a certain area has been researched on over and over again and people are \'93exhausted\'94 or disgursted with researchers. Rakai, Luwero, and Kasese districts, and {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname place}}Northern Uganda{\*\xmlclose}, are some of these areas where research fatigue is highly expected. }}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 ; accessing secretarial services; as well as personal security and confidence (vid, Kothari, C.R, 2005:20ff). These, the author faced. Hence, generally, the \lquote drudgery\rquote of field research is not so overemphasized; it is very challenging. Personal experience has proven this, whatever the argument that research success and rigour depend on skill and experience. Senior researchers, professors and policy analysts have reechoed this (anonymous sources). They add that the more research one does, the more and the newer the constraints one finds in the field. Some have also reaffirmed that every round of field research exposes the researcher to ne w challenges, especially social researchers dealing with unpredictable human behaviour and ever-changing socio-economic and political circumstances (Sources: Anonymous). Additionally, the newer the respondents (even in the same area), the newer the chall enges the researcher is faced with. Impliedly, the experience faced is part of what researchers go through, and it is worth documenting. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 Field Experience \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 In the field, the researcher hit against the normal challenges of: language barriers; being viewed as a \lquote foreigner\rquote ; research timing; theme of the study; and building rapport. To counter these without \'93hurting\'94 some ethical considerations for researchers was not easy, and admittedly, in some circumstances, this was not possible. Thus, some \lquote commandments \rquote in the \lquote Decalogue\rquote of ethics were either adhered to, partially adhered to (which is \lquote irreligious\rquote ) and sometimes broken. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid5912472 Coping}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\insrsid5898580 with Language Barrier \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose} is a heterogeneous nation. Thirty kilometers in any direction from where one is standing, one may find oneself in a people speaking a different (sometimes completely undecipherable) dialect. Yet as a Ugandan, one has to face this: in office, business, communication, service delivery, social interactions and interrelationships as well as social studies like research. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The researcher hails from Bushenyi (South-Western Uganda) where Runyakitara}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 2{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 2}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Runyakitara combines Runyankore-Rukiga and Runyoro-Rutooro (spoken by Banyankore, Bakiga, Banyoro, Batooro). The 2005 amendment to the Ugandan constitution recogn ized Batuku, Basongora, Banyaruguru, Batagwenda as formal tribes. These speak dialects that are part of the broad Runyakitara. It is difficult to distinguish their dialects from those that form Runyakitara unless one has lived among them.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 is spoken. He we nt to Soroti where a combination of Nile-hamitic and Luo languages bred Ateso (spoken by the Iteso). In Adjumani, (which was part of Moyo district of West Nile), Madi is spoken (and this differs from Acholi spoken in Gulu and other parts of Acholiland). T o communicate with people speaking different languages from the researcher\rquote s, was very challenging. A research aide (interpreter) was wanting. Yet acquisition and orientation of an interpreter was (and is) not easy - financially, practically and humanly (considering human biases). But this had to be done. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Respondents spoke their mother tongue (those who did not speak English) and then the interpreter put what they spoke in English. This did not go well at first but there was no choice. Surprisingly, compare d to ordinary people in South Western Uganda, many ordinary people in Soroti and Adjumani districts speak fair English and Kiswahili. This was discovered the second day in Adjumani and was \lquote tasked out\rquote right away as soon as the researcher reached Soroti. With fluency in English and fair knowledge of Kiswahili, things worked out more easily for the researcher. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Few respondents could not speak Kiswahili and English altogether. Many spoke either of the two languages. Interpretation now turned from Kiswahili to English, a slippery flow to the researcher who knew both. Interestingly, interpreters either distorted some information, failed to interpret some words or gave their own judgmental opinions. Only the researcher\rquote s discovery and preference that he did not k now Kiswahili at first saved the information gathered from considerable distortions. While this points to the vitality of the ability to speak many languages by researchers, it also reveals that research aides should be carefully selected and }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5898580 enlightened }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 a bout the study. Yet none of the interpreters asked to know why the researcher preferred Kiswahili (where the respondent was able to speak it). Whether this query was \lquote stomached\rquote by interpreters is beyond the author\rquote s interpretation. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Equally important, som e respondents would admit knowledge of English or Kiswahili but fail along the way. They would then revert to either Ateso or Madi. An interesting Karimojong respondent knew English, but did not know Ateso well. When he failed to speak fluently, he revert ed to English, in which he showed a rare capacity of a person who completed Primary Six. The researcher was astonished at a man who had \'93hidden\'94 himself for almost thirty minutes but unraveled himself at last. It was dared to ask him why he had \'93 hidden\'94 and he jokingly replied: \'93I had to know the ground I was treading\'94 . This is a clear indication of treatment to a foreigner in the field. It is also probable that the respondent would have denied the information if the study was suspicious, for then he would have \lquote treaded on a slippery ground\rquote . \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 It is noteworthy that researching in an area where one does not speak the local language is not easy; researchers depend on the humanity of interpreters. Admittedly (and importantly), people are (at least still) human. More importantly, knowledge of as many languages as one can learn is even more important; thanks to the researcher\rquote s little knowledge in Kiswahili. Without language there is no communication; no research. Good chance, neither of the contents of the \lquote Decalogue of ethics\rquote was broken or violated. Yet a more teasing experience was coming - foreignness. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\insrsid5898580 A foreigner as a Researcher: Establishing \lquote Citizenship\rquote \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Point six of the \'93Commandments on Ethics\'94 bars researchers from deceiving respondents in any way, while number ten bars them further from taking on a project contract that violates ethical or professional standards (Sarantakos, 2005, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5898580 Op Cit}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 ). Yet research is a systematised effort to gain new knowldge}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 3{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 3}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Redman, L.V and Mory, A. V. H. (1923:10). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 The Romance of Research}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 , cited in Kothari, C.R. (2005). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 , P.1.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 with an aim of gaining familiarity with a phenomenon or getting insights into it; to portray charac teristics of an individual, group, situation or institution; determine frequency and form of occurrence of phenomena; and to test hypotheses or build theories (Kothari, 2005:2). Hence, obviously, research has to be done. Building rapport in a distant land without violating some of the ethical standards is not easy; yet researching in an area where one has predetermined knowledge of the study subject (say in one\rquote s area because one knows the language or fears to look foreign) is equally unethical, and violates the principle of objectivity. How does one balance this contradiction? Such is the catch-twenty-two researchers face. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 To cope with this challenge, the researcher used the ethical standards of proper identification; clear information on the nature of inf ormation required; avoided mental or physical harm or discomfort to respondents; sought informed consent; promised and ensured anonymity (where possible); promised and upheld confidentiality (vid; Sarantakos, 2005:18); and used persuasion. However, some o f these considerations failed to apply; the researcher was tasked to deploy other methods. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 In Adjumani, for instance, non participant observation and disguise were used to capture the situational feel of a time when \'93political temperatures\'94 were high. Almo st every respondent was suspicious of \'93this man who avails himself at such a period\'94 in what was an attempt at healing the wounds earlier suffered. A parliamentary candidate (who, as was discovered had more support than the opponent and incumbent) had died . Elections had been called off, and the research was carried out at the time the process was resumed (very interesting to the researcher and significant for the project). Respondents were sentimental (both in interviews, meetings and general informal dis cussions), and penetrating them as a \lquote foreigner\rquote was not easy. So, observation, persuasion, secondary data sources and selective sampling were the only remedy. Where totally respondents refused (and this regularly happened), the researcher looked for others . This was an expensive, yet educative experience. Apart from official sources, indeed, no respondent was directly quoted from that study. The research disguised his identity, changed the methods of data collection from interviewing to general discussions , and impersonated an official tag that helped him acquire some of the world-be impossible information. All these were also dictated by the subject under, study, as was the case in Soroti. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 In Soroti, the study focused on corruption in UPE in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}. Corrup tion is a very complicated subject to study. People are not willing to reveal some important information especially if such information puts their moral and professional competence in question. It was not easy to acquire information on the subject. Althou gh no \lquote threatening\rquote discoveries were made that would render respondents fear, the subject was a challenging one. Almost everything had to be manipulated and disguised, save for the identity of the researcher. Information was acquired through probing and \lquote distant \rquote sources. For example, only parents could easily reveal cases of corrupt practices. The researcher would then go to relevant officers to \lquote confirm\rquote what might have already been observed, noted and examined. Then one would pretend to be ignorant and then surprise the respondent at the end of the interviews with \lquote rumoured\rquote cases of corrupt practices. Now the respondent would admit them! Some would be strongly opposed as unfounded rumours. Some findings from other sources were not mentioned at all if they directly referred to the respondent in question. To feel free with respondents was thus a hurdle. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The most overriding question some respondents asked would be \'93why all the way from Bushenyi to Adjumani or Soroti district?\'94 The researcher would then expla in the process of geographical or area sampling and convince them that their district was a random choice even when (truly) all choices were purposive. Several other attempts were made, including some little grasp of few words in the language to \lquote buy\rquote citi zenship. Otherwise it was like a foreign body in an unwanted place. The longer one stayed, the more acceptable he became. With time (after four days or so), respondents freely discussed information, revealed documents and connected the researcher to other helpful sources. Such was the benefit of building rapport, and staying longer in the field (amidst financial constraints) but the researcher cannot claim excellence in these two places. Worse still, the periods of study were also difficult ones. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid5912472 Coping}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\insrsid5898580 with Field Challenges: The Timing of the Research \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The time during which a study is carried out may have consequences to the study. To make the study a success but within ethical standards is a great challenge. As earlier noted, April 2006 was the time whe n Adjumani district woman parliamentary representative was elected; following the death of Clara Vuni in February 2006}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 4{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 4}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Accordingly, when one candidate dies, the law requires that elections be postponed. New nominations are held and campaigns resume. The election date is reset. This is what happened in Adjumani district.}}}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . Such a time is a period of heated political maneuvering, disappointments, great test to election administrators and general suspicion. Yet it is the most fertile period for researchers s tudying the institutional context of democratisation, the very focus of our study then. The researcher could not avoid sharing a test of the Electoral Commission\rquote s ability to ensure a peaceful, free and fair election process whose postponement was preceded by death, violence and general insecurity. Contending parties as well as security organisations were also on test. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Most challenging, however, the timing was so difficult that the researcher was suspected as a spy; people had developed a form of silence a nd suspicion to everyone. And the period was characterised by heated political and electoral activities, so that respondents had almost no time for the researcher. As already noted, persuasion, disguise (non-participant observation) and longer stay in the field were the only remedies. Then, and only then, would information be acquired from a greater number of respondents than was earlier planned. The researcher had to grapple with the cost (financial and time) of this adjustment. The timing of field resear ch in Soroti was no better either. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The Soroti research was carried out at a time when presidential elections were few months past, and all candidates had promised zero tolerance to corruption (September 2006). There were also significant developments in th e country against corrupt practices, leave alone the ongoing outcry against corruption in UPE. So, it was difficult to tell a respondent the theme of the study, for this would arouse fear. Some respondents promised to attend to the researcher but disappea r ed for the entire period of field work. Others refused openly to give information when they knew the theme of the study, considering the situation then on the ground. Some politicians were new in office and could not give informed positions. Indeed, timin g affected the study. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 To grapple with this, the researcher sought to access respondents who were \'93least-at-threat\'94 (who feared nothing revealing anything). Information acquired from these would be confirmed from official sources. Some information was acqui red from secondary sources. One interesting headmaster told the researcher an amount of money received when the latter had seen this record at the district. When at the end he was asked to provide documents pertaining to the same, he quickly recalled his lie and corrected it but refused to give documents, claiming that the Deputy Headmaster had gone with the key to the relevant \'93store\'94 ! He further remained embarrassed, and from the informal conversation that followed, a sense of guilt and insecurity was obs erved. The researcher had to give an assurance that the data is confidential and for academic purposes only. What else, would have been done? To consistently remain on track with the Decalogue of ethics was thus possible but not easy. So, timing of the st udy imposes its own challenges to the researcher, almost the same way the Theme does. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\insrsid5898580 The Theme of the Study: Friendly or Threatening, What Remedy? \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 While in Adjumani the study focused on \lquote The Role of Electoral Commission in Election Administration\rquote , in Soroti it focused on \lquote The Nature and Extent of Corruption in Universal Primary Education (UPE) in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}\rquote . To argue that there is a totally unbiased research is a deception. Researchers as well as respondents can be biased; the theme of the study can cause m ore biases (source: Senior Researcher). This is not to disregard the fact that research biases must be minimised as much as possible if the study findings are to claim a place in a scientific community. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Respondents in Adjumani queried why the researcher w as interested in the subject. They would be told that the project had started in 2004. But they would then ask for the contents in details before responding to questions, sometimes expressing fear that the researcher was an Electoral Commission Official e valuating people\rquote s opinions about the Commission. To convince a respondent out of this would not be easy but had to be done. Identifications and building rapport were the only remedies here. Commission officials were (indeed) too busy to attend to \'93non-official duties\'94 . They however, allowed the researcher to keep with them wherever they went in the field. This way, closer interaction and communication were established and data generated. Commission officials, unlike other stakeholders (politicians, monitors , security organizations, voters and observers), were not bothered by the theme of the study, and argued that they operated in an open environment where everyone had freedom to observe whatever they were doing. This may have been public relations gimmick, but eased the researcher\rquote s task. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 In Soroti, the researcher disagreed with the Principal Investigator about the title to put on the introductory letters and research instruments. It had to be changed from \'93 The Nature and Extent of corruption in UPE in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}\'94 to \'93The Performance and Management of UPE in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose} {\*\xmlclose}\'94. But even when it was changed, the questions asked through probing would raise suspicions from respondents. An official from the Auditor-General\rquote s office challenged the researcher that he was overstretching his focus from \'93 Management and the performance of UPE\'94 to \'93Management and Accountability in UPE in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}\'94 . He reached the extent of arguing that the researcher should merely read secondary data fro m the relevant Ministry and write a report. On convincing him that researchers go to the field not to teach but to learn, he hesitantly gave audience. By the time he realised, he had given some important information, but refused to give documented data. S o , the researcher got important information from respondents you will never find quoted, and then went to official ones to verify. It took a great deal of probing, confidence-building, establishing rapport and some form of disguise to get such data. Some c ommandments of the Decalogue of ethics may have been violated}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 5{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 5}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Some times covert research was employed because of the general difficulty in acquiring respondents\rquote participation}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . But how difficult is it to build rapport? \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\insrsid5898580 Building Rapport: Is it Incidental, Intentional or Situational? \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Building rapport in research means trying to win respondents over to your subject, and succeeding in securing their cooperation in the study, as respondents. This is done through body language, voice and words used to communic ate at first encounters (Internet)}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 6{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 6}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 .GoogleSearch: tp://www.managementcentre.co.uk/training_development/pdfs/Rapport_NEGS_09.06.pdf. Rapport may be lost even when it was already built; it is a researcher\rquote s task to maintain it till the end.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . It is also in conformity with Vlahos (1984) and Pfeifer\rquote s (2000) first and second \'93commandments of ethics\'94 (Sarantakos, 2005:23). Probably, unless respondents are much willing (and some are always so) to give information, the researcher must build rapport even over se veral minutes or even hours before an interview can kick off. Where the researcher is a foreigner, rapport must be built. This had to be done in Adjumani and Soroti. Probably the homeliest person is a researcher in a distant land. This process is, in a wa y, a form of bias researchers use to influence respondents to tell them their views, opinions and experiences about the study question. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 In Adjumani, by the time the researcher reached, three reliable acquaintances had been made in the bus. These helped the researcher acquire hotel facilities and an \'93entry-point\'94 into the field by connecting him to security officials, monitors and Electoral Commission Office. These acquaintances did break the ground - actually laid the foundation - for rapport building. The re are no standard methods of building rapport. It is a skill developed out of experience and situational dictates. The first thing the researcher did was clearance of the protocol, self introduction and explanation of the purpose, objectives and intent o f the study. Then one begged (at least in some instances) to have audience with respondents. Prior communication eased this. Where respondents promised to meet the researcher another time (say next day), then rapport was taken to be complete. Some responde nts took long to convince, others did not give hard time, while others refused completely. Researchers must learn that they may sometimes meet respondents who (respondents) instead research on them (researchers), bias them or misdirect them. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Building rapport was easier in Soroti than in Adjumani, although information acquisition was easier in Adjumani. This is interesting, because it showed that getting respondents\rquote acceptance does not necessarily mean getting information. In Soroti, while respondents paid attention and did not raise many questions, they refused to reveal certain kinds of information; gave distorted information; and sometimes claimed ignorance. In Adjumani, however, once respondents accepted, they easily gave out information. Whether this r e lated to the research themes or the general social conceptions and behaviours, is difficult to tell. It was thus difficult to build rapport in these different areas but to varying degrees; it was difficult to get the needed data, similarly to varying degr ees. In both instances and areas, building rapport marked the beginning of data generation. Obedience to the ethics was secured here. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 Research Field Experiences Elaborated: What Conclusions? \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The idea of ethics in research reveals a fundamental significance of good conduct by researchers. It also imposes a difficult task to field data collectors who have to grapple with the immense task of succeeding amidst constraints; mending their tasks with field realities; and using methods that may contradict some eth i cal consideraations. Ethics in themselves are good and necessary, but the difficulty with their observance depends on the peculiar experience a researcher is faced with. When the ethics are violated deliberately, this has disastrous consequences to the st udy. The findings will be in doubt. The profession may be questioned. The training a researcher acquired may also leave questions in the minds of those consuming one\rquote s findings. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Admittedly, researchers must follow ethics, abide by their professional obliga tions, and leave a fertile ground for future research and further building of their careers. Experience showed the researcher that unless the respondent is left confident of the information revealed, other researchers may find great difficulty in getting the same respondent\rquote s cooperation. Likewise, if rigidity with these ethical considerations is overstressed, the field study may be fruitless, leaving the researcher guilty of time wastage. Researchers, therefore, need to balance between ethical consideratio ns and the field experiences confronting them at the time. This may require fine-tuning some of the methods used to collect information, as well as (in some instances) abandoning some of them. This is a way of finding an entry-point in the field, succeedi ng in securing respondents\rquote cooperation, and collecting the needed data with ease. This must be crowned with hard work and determination, for field research is not easy. \par \page }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 References \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Economic and Social Research Council (n.d.). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Research Ethics Framework}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . (Accessed on July 29, 2007 from:}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 }{\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 HYPERLINK "http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/Images/ESRC_Re_Ethics_Frame_tcm6-11291.pdf" }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11677619 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000005c00000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e00650073007200630073006f006300690065007400790074006f006400610079002e00610063002e0075006b002f00450053005200430049006e0066006f00430065006e007400720065002f00 49006d0061006700650073002f0045005300520043005f00520065005f004500740068006900630073005f004600720061006d0065005f00740063006d0036002d00310031003200390031002e007000640066000000e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90bb800000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e 00650073007200630073006f006300690065007400790074006f006400610079002e00610063002e0075006b002f00450053005200430049006e0066006f00430065006e007400720065002f0049006d0061006700650073002f0045005300520043005f00520065005f004500740068006900630073005f00460072006100 6d0065005f00740063006d0036002d00310031003200390031002e00700064006600000000000000}}}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs19\ul\cf2\insrsid5898580 http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/Images/ESRC_Re_Ethics_Frame_tcm6-11291.pdf}}}\sectd \psz1\pgnrestart\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 )}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Sarantakos, S. (2005). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Social Research}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Pelgrave Macmillan{\*\xmlclose}, {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}New York{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}. 3}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \super\insrsid5898580 rd}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Edition. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Kothari, C. R. (2005). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Research Methodology}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 : }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Methods and Techniques}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . New Age International (P) Ltd Publishers, {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}New Delhi{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}. 2}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \super\insrsid5898580 nd}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Edition. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Resnik, D. B. (2005). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 What is Ethics in Research and Why is It Important}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 ? National {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Institute{\*\xmlclose} of {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}} Environmental Health Sciences{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}, Mail Drop, NH\endash 06; }{\field{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 HYPERLINK "http://dir.niehs.nih.gov/ethics/home.htm" }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11677619 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000002900000068007400740070003a002f002f006400690072002e006e0069006500680073002e006e00690068002e0067006f0076002f006500740068006900630073002f0068006f006d0065002e00680074006d000000e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b 5200000068007400740070003a002f002f006400690072002e006e0069006500680073002e006e00690068002e0067006f0076002f006500740068006900630073002f0068006f006d0065002e00680074006d00000000000000}}}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs19\ul\cf2\insrsid5898580 http://dir.niehs.nih.gov/ethics/home.htm}}}\sectd \psz1\pgnrestart\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 \par Royal ollege of Nursing (2004) }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Research Ethics}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 RCN Guidance for Nurses. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 RCN,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}London{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose} \par }}
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Experience from Soroti and Adjumani Districts}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs32 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs32\insrsid5898580 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 ( {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname place}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname country-region}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}), 2006. \par \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\s1\qc \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\keepn\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel0\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 { \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 By \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\s2\qc \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\keepn\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\outlinelevel1\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 { \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 RWENGABO Sabastiano \par }\pard\plain \ltrpar\qc \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 Tel: +256 78 2 808 220 \par \par July 2007 \par \par Email: }{\field{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 HYPERLINK "mailto:rweruta@yahoo.com" }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid11677619 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b020000001700000012000000720077006500720075007400610040007900610068006f006f002e0063006f006d000000e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b320000006d00610069006c0074006f003a00720077006500720075007400610040007900610068006f006f002e00 63006f006d00000000000000}}}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs19\b\fs28\ul\cf2\insrsid5898580 rweruta@yahoo.com}}}\sectd \psz1\pgnrestart\pgnlcrm\linex0\endnhere\titlepg\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 / }{\field{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 HYPERLINK "mailto:rutashoboroka@ss.mak.ac.ug" }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid11677619 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000001b0000007200750074006100730068006f0062006f0072006f006b0061004000730073002e006d0061006b002e00610063002e00750067000000e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b440000006d00610069006c0074006f003a0072007500740061007300 68006f0062006f0072006f006b0061004000730073002e006d0061006b002e00610063002e0075006700000000000000}}}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs19\b\fs28\ul\cf2\insrsid5898580 rutashoboroka@ss.mak.ac.ug}}}\sectd \psz1\pgnrestart\pgnlcrm\linex0\endnhere\titlepg\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 \par Department of Political Science and Public Administration, \par {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname place}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname PlaceName}}Makerere{\*\xmlclose} {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname PlaceType}}University{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}, \par {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname address}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname Street}}P.O. Box{\*\xmlclose} 7062{\*\xmlclose} \par {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}KAMPALA{\*\xmlclose} - {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname place}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname country-region}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}. \par \par \par \par \par \par \par Contributing to the Debate on Research Ethics: Eliciting Personal Experience and Challenges Encountered in the Field. \par \par July 2007. \par }\pard \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\ul\insrsid5898580 Abstrac}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 t \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs22 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs22\insrsid5898580 The purpose of this paper is to debate }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs22 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs22\insrsid8877240 r}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs22 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs22\insrsid5898580 esearch }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs22 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs22\insrsid8877240 e}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs22 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs22\insrsid5898580 thics, by eliciting the challenges encountered by field research ers. Centrally, the paper seeks to question whether research ethics are upheld at all times during research, or whether violation of some ethics may be called for. Interestingly, some field experiences may render questionable some of the ethical considera t ions in research, hence the argument that abiding by research ethics is contextual and condition-specific; some of the research techniques violate some ethical values. Equally true, where ethics are ignored, the study is questionable and may render the fi ndings inappropriate. This paradoxical consideration needs to be handled with care and precaution, and an attempt made to marry ethical considerations and actual experiences. \par \sect }\sectd \ltrsect\psz1\pgnrestart\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj \pard\plain \ltrpar\ql \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs24\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs24\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs28 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs28\insrsid5898580 Introduction \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\sl-827\slmult0\keepn\widctlpar\pvpara\wrapdefault\dropcapli2\dropcapt1\aspalpha\aspnum\faroman\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs91 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs91\up2\insrsid5898580 F \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 ield research is a difficult undertaking as it involves a lot of challenges and particular experiences researchers have to contend with. A researcher has to respond to the challenges encountered and develop mechanisms of copying with these constraints if her study is to be a success. Schndelbach (2002) reveals that we acquire knowledge through common sense, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 intu}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid8877240\charrsid8877240 i}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 tion}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf6\insrsid5898580 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 (I just know it); tenacity (time has given validity); tradition (practice through generations); personal experience; authority (experts and the powerful); divine and super-natural powers; reason and logic (intellect capturing truth and knowledge directly); and scientific methods (systematic and rigorous procedures). It is common knowledge altogether, among researchers, that field research is n ot easy; or that research ethics are vital in any study. Yet it is not informative to argue that all researchers experience the same challenges and respond to them in the same way. It is the concern of this paper to fill this gap by relating research ethi cs with personal experience from the field, in order to bring to light the way field constraints can be tackled, and the practical applicability of ethics in research. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Interestingly, while research ethics abound, their applicability depends on the peculia r experiences a researcher is confronted with; and while research methods are known, the methods of data collection especially in in-depth field investigations may of necessity change overtime as the researcher contends with field challenges. The paper co ntextualises challenges of field research and explores some of the research ethics and professional considerations researchers are expected to abide by. It then presents the challenges faced, notably, language barriers; a \lquote foreigner in the land \rquote ; research t iming; theme of the study; and building rapport. Implications of field challenges for researchers are concurrently pointed out with every experience elaborated. It is concluded that application of research ethics is paramount but is always condition-speci fic, since some research practices in themselves violate some ethical considerations in some ways. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 Contextualising Field Research Constraints \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The use of scientific methods to generate information on a certain phenomenon is called research. It is a purposi ve and rigorous investigation aimed at generating knew knowledge, that allows a person enter contexts of personal and or public interest that are known to them, and to search for answers for the questions intriguing them (Sarantakos, 2005: 4). Data are ga thered through interviews, observation, documentary review, questionnaire administration, and Focus Group Discussions. Whatever the method one uses, one is bound to face some challenges or constraints here and there. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Field constraints constitute the challe nges and difficulties encountered by the researcher in the field. They include personal, institutional, sociopolitical and situational constraints. While controlling research according to proposition is an attractive suggestion (Stapford and Abbort, 1996) , it is not easy to achieve because of the ups and downs in the field. Several constraints are common in field research. The }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 hindrances}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 encountered and relevant for this paper included language barrier, existence of a \lquote foreigner\rquote , timing of research, theme of the study and building rapport. To \lquote manage\rquote these and be able to produce }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid8877240 a }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 good result}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 was not easy, yet the interest of the researcher and justifications of the studies were overriding. Thus most interestingly, while field research was rigorous and not easy, it had to be carried out; it was very important. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The rigour of research implies that it is not easy to carry out. Hence this paper elucidates the way the author personally }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 coped }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 with constraints in field research in Soroti (Eastern Uganda) and Adjumani ({\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname place}}West Nile{\*\xmlclose}) Districts. In Soroti; the study focused on \'93 The Nature and extent of Corruption in Universal Primary Education (UPE) in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}\'94, a study by the Anti-corruption Coalition \endash Uganda (ACCU) conducted through Dr Juliu s Kiiza of the Department of Political Science and Public Administration - {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Makerere{\*\xmlclose} {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}University{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose} , to whom Research Assistance was offered through field work. This was in September 2006. In Adjumani District, the study was focused on the \'93Institutional and Legal Context of the 2006 Elections in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}} {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}: The Role of the Electoral Commission in Election Administration\'94. This was a study by a Norwegian Research Institute \endash Christian Michelsen Institute (CMI) in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Bergen{\*\xmlclose} in collaboration with {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Makerere{\*\xmlclose} {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}University{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose} \rquote s Department of Political Science and Public Administration, and some individuals from the Faculty of Law. To this, Research Assistance was also offered. This was carried out February\endash April 2006. As a Research Assistant, the author faced the \lquote depth\rquote of field d ata collection and reporting, where field constraints were inevitable. In all studies, it was applied research, notably social impact studies whose motives were institutional, educational and political. Most research constraints, wherever faced, arouse th e \lquote pinch\rquote of research ethics. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 Research Ethics}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 \par Ethics are \'93norms for conduct that distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable behavior\'94, between what is wrong and right, or between what is fair and unfair. One may also define ethics as \'93a method, proced ure, or perspective for deciding how to act and for analyzing complex problems and issues\'94 . Ethical norms in a profession help members of the discipline to coordinate their actions or activities and to promote public trust of the discipline. It is importan t, therefore, to adhere to ethical norms in research, because some of these norms promote the aims of research, such as knowledge, truth, and avoidance of error. For example, prohibitions against fabricating, falsifying, or misrepresenting research data p r omote the truth and avoid error. Second, since research involves a great deal of cooperation and coordination among different people in different disciplines and institutions, available ethical standards promote essential values for collaborative work, su ch as trust, accountability, mutual respect, and fairness (Resnik, 2005)}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 \chftn {\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s15\ql \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 \chftn }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Source: Internet: }{\field{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 HYPERLINK "http://dir.niehs.nih.gov/ethics/whatisethics.htm" }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11677619 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000003100000068007400740070003a002f002f006400690072002e006e0069006500680073002e006e00690068002e0067006f0076002f006500740068006900630073002f007700680061007400690073006500740068006900630073002e00680074006d000000 e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b6200000068007400740070003a002f002f006400690072002e006e0069006500680073002e006e00690068002e0067006f0076002f006500740068006900630073002f007700680061007400690073006500740068006900630073002e00680074006d00000000000000}} }{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs19\ul\cf2\insrsid5898580 http://dir.niehs.nih.gov/ethics/whatisethics.htm}}}\sectd \psz1\pgnrestart\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . }}}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . Resnik does not exhaust ethics in field resea rch but gives an enriching explanation on ethics; namely that they need to be adhered to if the work of a professional or member of an institution, is to be trusted and upheld, and normative values enhanced. \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Ethics in field work are dos and don\rquote ts that focus on: physical and mental harm to the respondents; covert or hidden research; invasion of privacy; violation of anonymity and confidentiality; deception; coercion; plagiarism; and fabrication or concealment of findings (Orr,1999; Pfeifer, 2000). Hence the researcher is expected to: maintain objectively in the conduct of social inquiry; uphold professional integrity; demonstrate responsibility, competence and prosperity; employ accurate methods of data gathering and analysis; use relevant methodology; c h oose appropriate interpretation of data; report data accurately; and avoid misconduct through fabrication of data (Sarantakos, 2005:18). These ethical considerations guide researchers in what should be and should not be done. They are undoubtedly rich inp uts in the study of any phenomenon, though it is good to reinforce these considerations with a more elaborate input from other writers. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 To stand by these ethical considerations, one has to respect the }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5898580 Decalogue}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 on research ethics: }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 Thou shall NOT}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 : \par 1. Include in the study or continue working with a person who demonstrates resistance or discomfort relating to the study or to the research topic; \par 2. Attempt to convince a person to take part in the study, when this person is not in position to respond adequately to the research question; \par 3. Fail to explain the relevant aspects of the study to the respondents before they agree to participate; \par 4. Promise any anonymity and confidentiality if it is likely that this promise will not be honoured; \par 5. Fail to respect the respondent\rquote s privacy; \par 6. Deceive the respondents in any way; \par 7. Subject respondents to procedures that may entail physical or mental stress; \par 8. Include in the study, techniques whose degree of safety is questionable; \par 9. Violate professional research standards, for example by fabricating, falsifying or concealing data; and \par 10. Accept a contracted research project that violates ethical and or professional standards. (Vlahos, 1984; Pfeifer, 2000 in Sarantakos, 2005:23). \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 It is these \'93ten commandments on ethics\'94 that were either upheld or violated when }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid8877240 coping }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 with field study constraints. The paper bases on these \'93commandments\'94 to elicit the author\rquote s experience. The questions of: what constitutes ethics; their universality; objective sta ndards of ethicality; the consistency of ethics with relative conditions on the ground; justification for ethics across time and space; and who benefits from ethics, were very teasing during the study. These are important issues whose relevance the paper attempts to examine. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The fact that a research process involves a series of activities and steps carried out in a sequence to accomplish a study is undeniable. But for this field case, focus is on the difficulties in the field. Sampling or choice of respond ents was also a matter of concern. The two (field challenges and sampling) are not necessarily separate or distinct; one leads to the next and may revert you to the previous one. Researchers generally encounter problems of: building rapport; selecting ad equate and appropriate respondents for qualitative studies; winning the confidence of respondents; research fatigue}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 1{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 1}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 A situation where a certain area has been researched on over and over again and people are \'93exhausted\'94 or disgursted with researchers. Rakai, Luwero, and Kasese districts, and {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname place}}Northern Uganda{\*\xmlclose}, are some of these areas where research fatigue is highly expected. }}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 ; accessing secretarial services; as well as personal security and confidence (vid, Kothari, C.R, 2005:20ff). These, the author faced. Hence, generally, the \lquote drudgery\rquote of field research is not so overemphasized; it is very challenging. Personal experience has proven this, whatever the argument that research success and rigour depend on skill and experience. Senior researchers, professors and policy analysts have reechoed this (anonymous sources). They add that the more research one does, the more and the newer the constraints one finds in the field. Some have also reaffirmed that every round of field research exposes the researcher to ne w challenges, especially social researchers dealing with unpredictable human behaviour and ever-changing socio-economic and political circumstances (Sources: Anonymous). Additionally, the newer the respondents (even in the same area), the newer the chall enges the researcher is faced with. Impliedly, the experience faced is part of what researchers go through, and it is worth documenting. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 Field Experience \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 In the field, the researcher hit against the normal challenges of: language barriers; being viewed as a \lquote foreigner\rquote ; research timing; theme of the study; and building rapport. To counter these without \'93hurting\'94 some ethical considerations for researchers was not easy, and admittedly, in some circumstances, this was not possible. Thus, some \lquote commandments \rquote in the \lquote Decalogue\rquote of ethics were either adhered to, partially adhered to (which is \lquote irreligious\rquote ) and sometimes broken. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid5912472 Coping}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\insrsid5898580 with Language Barrier \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose} is a heterogeneous nation. Thirty kilometers in any direction from where one is standing, one may find oneself in a people speaking a different (sometimes completely undecipherable) dialect. Yet as a Ugandan, one has to face this: in office, business, communication, service delivery, social interactions and interrelationships as well as social studies like research. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The researcher hails from Bushenyi (South-Western Uganda) where Runyakitara}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 2{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 2}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Runyakitara combines Runyankore-Rukiga and Runyoro-Rutooro (spoken by Banyankore, Bakiga, Banyoro, Batooro). The 2005 amendment to the Ugandan constitution recogn ized Batuku, Basongora, Banyaruguru, Batagwenda as formal tribes. These speak dialects that are part of the broad Runyakitara. It is difficult to distinguish their dialects from those that form Runyakitara unless one has lived among them.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 is spoken. He we nt to Soroti where a combination of Nile-hamitic and Luo languages bred Ateso (spoken by the Iteso). In Adjumani, (which was part of Moyo district of West Nile), Madi is spoken (and this differs from Acholi spoken in Gulu and other parts of Acholiland). T o communicate with people speaking different languages from the researcher\rquote s, was very challenging. A research aide (interpreter) was wanting. Yet acquisition and orientation of an interpreter was (and is) not easy - financially, practically and humanly (considering human biases). But this had to be done. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Respondents spoke their mother tongue (those who did not speak English) and then the interpreter put what they spoke in English. This did not go well at first but there was no choice. Surprisingly, compare d to ordinary people in South Western Uganda, many ordinary people in Soroti and Adjumani districts speak fair English and Kiswahili. This was discovered the second day in Adjumani and was \lquote tasked out\rquote right away as soon as the researcher reached Soroti. With fluency in English and fair knowledge of Kiswahili, things worked out more easily for the researcher. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Few respondents could not speak Kiswahili and English altogether. Many spoke either of the two languages. Interpretation now turned from Kiswahili to English, a slippery flow to the researcher who knew both. Interestingly, interpreters either distorted some information, failed to interpret some words or gave their own judgmental opinions. Only the researcher\rquote s discovery and preference that he did not k now Kiswahili at first saved the information gathered from considerable distortions. While this points to the vitality of the ability to speak many languages by researchers, it also reveals that research aides should be carefully selected and }{ \rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5898580 enlightened }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 a bout the study. Yet none of the interpreters asked to know why the researcher preferred Kiswahili (where the respondent was able to speak it). Whether this query was \lquote stomached\rquote by interpreters is beyond the author\rquote s interpretation. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Equally important, som e respondents would admit knowledge of English or Kiswahili but fail along the way. They would then revert to either Ateso or Madi. An interesting Karimojong respondent knew English, but did not know Ateso well. When he failed to speak fluently, he revert ed to English, in which he showed a rare capacity of a person who completed Primary Six. The researcher was astonished at a man who had \'93hidden\'94 himself for almost thirty minutes but unraveled himself at last. It was dared to ask him why he had \'93 hidden\'94 and he jokingly replied: \'93I had to know the ground I was treading\'94 . This is a clear indication of treatment to a foreigner in the field. It is also probable that the respondent would have denied the information if the study was suspicious, for then he would have \lquote treaded on a slippery ground\rquote . \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 It is noteworthy that researching in an area where one does not speak the local language is not easy; researchers depend on the humanity of interpreters. Admittedly (and importantly), people are (at least still) human. More importantly, knowledge of as many languages as one can learn is even more important; thanks to the researcher\rquote s little knowledge in Kiswahili. Without language there is no communication; no research. Good chance, neither of the contents of the \lquote Decalogue of ethics\rquote was broken or violated. Yet a more teasing experience was coming - foreignness. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\insrsid5898580 A foreigner as a Researcher: Establishing \lquote Citizenship\rquote \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Point six of the \'93Commandments on Ethics\'94 bars researchers from deceiving respondents in any way, while number ten bars them further from taking on a project contract that violates ethical or professional standards (Sarantakos, 2005, }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \i\insrsid5898580 Op Cit}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 ). Yet research is a systematised effort to gain new knowldge}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 3{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 3}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Redman, L.V and Mory, A. V. H. (1923:10). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 The Romance of Research}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 , cited in Kothari, C.R. (2005). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 , P.1.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 with an aim of gaining familiarity with a phenomenon or getting insights into it; to portray charac teristics of an individual, group, situation or institution; determine frequency and form of occurrence of phenomena; and to test hypotheses or build theories (Kothari, 2005:2). Hence, obviously, research has to be done. Building rapport in a distant land without violating some of the ethical standards is not easy; yet researching in an area where one has predetermined knowledge of the study subject (say in one\rquote s area because one knows the language or fears to look foreign) is equally unethical, and violates the principle of objectivity. How does one balance this contradiction? Such is the catch-twenty-two researchers face. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 To cope with this challenge, the researcher used the ethical standards of proper identification; clear information on the nature of inf ormation required; avoided mental or physical harm or discomfort to respondents; sought informed consent; promised and ensured anonymity (where possible); promised and upheld confidentiality (vid; Sarantakos, 2005:18); and used persuasion. However, some o f these considerations failed to apply; the researcher was tasked to deploy other methods. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 In Adjumani, for instance, non participant observation and disguise were used to capture the situational feel of a time when \'93political temperatures\'94 were high. Almo st every respondent was suspicious of \'93this man who avails himself at such a period\'94 in what was an attempt at healing the wounds earlier suffered. A parliamentary candidate (who, as was discovered had more support than the opponent and incumbent) had died . Elections had been called off, and the research was carried out at the time the process was resumed (very interesting to the researcher and significant for the project). Respondents were sentimental (both in interviews, meetings and general informal dis cussions), and penetrating them as a \lquote foreigner\rquote was not easy. So, observation, persuasion, secondary data sources and selective sampling were the only remedy. Where totally respondents refused (and this regularly happened), the researcher looked for others . This was an expensive, yet educative experience. Apart from official sources, indeed, no respondent was directly quoted from that study. The research disguised his identity, changed the methods of data collection from interviewing to general discussions , and impersonated an official tag that helped him acquire some of the world-be impossible information. All these were also dictated by the subject under, study, as was the case in Soroti. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 In Soroti, the study focused on corruption in UPE in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}. Corrup tion is a very complicated subject to study. People are not willing to reveal some important information especially if such information puts their moral and professional competence in question. It was not easy to acquire information on the subject. Althou gh no \lquote threatening\rquote discoveries were made that would render respondents fear, the subject was a challenging one. Almost everything had to be manipulated and disguised, save for the identity of the researcher. Information was acquired through probing and \lquote distant \rquote sources. For example, only parents could easily reveal cases of corrupt practices. The researcher would then go to relevant officers to \lquote confirm\rquote what might have already been observed, noted and examined. Then one would pretend to be ignorant and then surprise the respondent at the end of the interviews with \lquote rumoured\rquote cases of corrupt practices. Now the respondent would admit them! Some would be strongly opposed as unfounded rumours. Some findings from other sources were not mentioned at all if they directly referred to the respondent in question. To feel free with respondents was thus a hurdle. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The most overriding question some respondents asked would be \'93why all the way from Bushenyi to Adjumani or Soroti district?\'94 The researcher would then expla in the process of geographical or area sampling and convince them that their district was a random choice even when (truly) all choices were purposive. Several other attempts were made, including some little grasp of few words in the language to \lquote buy\rquote citi zenship. Otherwise it was like a foreign body in an unwanted place. The longer one stayed, the more acceptable he became. With time (after four days or so), respondents freely discussed information, revealed documents and connected the researcher to other helpful sources. Such was the benefit of building rapport, and staying longer in the field (amidst financial constraints) but the researcher cannot claim excellence in these two places. Worse still, the periods of study were also difficult ones. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\cf1\insrsid5898580\charrsid5912472 Coping}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\insrsid5898580 with Field Challenges: The Timing of the Research \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The time during which a study is carried out may have consequences to the study. To make the study a success but within ethical standards is a great challenge. As earlier noted, April 2006 was the time whe n Adjumani district woman parliamentary representative was elected; following the death of Clara Vuni in February 2006}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 4{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar \s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 4}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Accordingly, when one candidate dies, the law requires that elections be postponed. New nominations are held and campaigns resume. The election date is reset. This is what happened in Adjumani district.}}}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . Such a time is a period of heated political maneuvering, disappointments, great test to election administrators and general suspicion. Yet it is the most fertile period for researchers s tudying the institutional context of democratisation, the very focus of our study then. The researcher could not avoid sharing a test of the Electoral Commission\rquote s ability to ensure a peaceful, free and fair election process whose postponement was preceded by death, violence and general insecurity. Contending parties as well as security organisations were also on test. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Most challenging, however, the timing was so difficult that the researcher was suspected as a spy; people had developed a form of silence a nd suspicion to everyone. And the period was characterised by heated political and electoral activities, so that respondents had almost no time for the researcher. As already noted, persuasion, disguise (non-participant observation) and longer stay in the field were the only remedies. Then, and only then, would information be acquired from a greater number of respondents than was earlier planned. The researcher had to grapple with the cost (financial and time) of this adjustment. The timing of field resear ch in Soroti was no better either. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The Soroti research was carried out at a time when presidential elections were few months past, and all candidates had promised zero tolerance to corruption (September 2006). There were also significant developments in th e country against corrupt practices, leave alone the ongoing outcry against corruption in UPE. So, it was difficult to tell a respondent the theme of the study, for this would arouse fear. Some respondents promised to attend to the researcher but disappea r ed for the entire period of field work. Others refused openly to give information when they knew the theme of the study, considering the situation then on the ground. Some politicians were new in office and could not give informed positions. Indeed, timin g affected the study. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 To grapple with this, the researcher sought to access respondents who were \'93least-at-threat\'94 (who feared nothing revealing anything). Information acquired from these would be confirmed from official sources. Some information was acqui red from secondary sources. One interesting headmaster told the researcher an amount of money received when the latter had seen this record at the district. When at the end he was asked to provide documents pertaining to the same, he quickly recalled his lie and corrected it but refused to give documents, claiming that the Deputy Headmaster had gone with the key to the relevant \'93store\'94 ! He further remained embarrassed, and from the informal conversation that followed, a sense of guilt and insecurity was obs erved. The researcher had to give an assurance that the data is confidential and for academic purposes only. What else, would have been done? To consistently remain on track with the Decalogue of ethics was thus possible but not easy. So, timing of the st udy imposes its own challenges to the researcher, almost the same way the Theme does. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\insrsid5898580 The Theme of the Study: Friendly or Threatening, What Remedy? \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 While in Adjumani the study focused on \lquote The Role of Electoral Commission in Election Administration\rquote , in Soroti it focused on \lquote The Nature and Extent of Corruption in Universal Primary Education (UPE) in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}\rquote . To argue that there is a totally unbiased research is a deception. Researchers as well as respondents can be biased; the theme of the study can cause m ore biases (source: Senior Researcher). This is not to disregard the fact that research biases must be minimised as much as possible if the study findings are to claim a place in a scientific community. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Respondents in Adjumani queried why the researcher w as interested in the subject. They would be told that the project had started in 2004. But they would then ask for the contents in details before responding to questions, sometimes expressing fear that the researcher was an Electoral Commission Official e valuating people\rquote s opinions about the Commission. To convince a respondent out of this would not be easy but had to be done. Identifications and building rapport were the only remedies here. Commission officials were (indeed) too busy to attend to \'93non-official duties\'94 . They however, allowed the researcher to keep with them wherever they went in the field. This way, closer interaction and communication were established and data generated. Commission officials, unlike other stakeholders (politicians, monitors , security organizations, voters and observers), were not bothered by the theme of the study, and argued that they operated in an open environment where everyone had freedom to observe whatever they were doing. This may have been public relations gimmick, but eased the researcher\rquote s task. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 In Soroti, the researcher disagreed with the Principal Investigator about the title to put on the introductory letters and research instruments. It had to be changed from \'93 The Nature and Extent of corruption in UPE in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}\'94 to \'93The Performance and Management of UPE in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose} {\*\xmlclose}\'94. But even when it was changed, the questions asked through probing would raise suspicions from respondents. An official from the Auditor-General\rquote s office challenged the researcher that he was overstretching his focus from \'93 Management and the performance of UPE\'94 to \'93Management and Accountability in UPE in {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Uganda{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}\'94 . He reached the extent of arguing that the researcher should merely read secondary data fro m the relevant Ministry and write a report. On convincing him that researchers go to the field not to teach but to learn, he hesitantly gave audience. By the time he realised, he had given some important information, but refused to give documented data. S o , the researcher got important information from respondents you will never find quoted, and then went to official ones to verify. It took a great deal of probing, confidence-building, establishing rapport and some form of disguise to get such data. Some c ommandments of the Decalogue of ethics may have been violated}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 5{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 5}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Some times covert research was employed because of the general difficulty in acquiring respondents\rquote participation}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . But how difficult is it to build rapport? \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\ai\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\i\insrsid5898580 Building Rapport: Is it Incidental, Intentional or Situational? \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Building rapport in research means trying to win respondents over to your subject, and succeeding in securing their cooperation in the study, as respondents. This is done through body language, voice and words used to communic ate at first encounters (Internet)}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 6{\footnote \ltrpar \pard\plain \ltrpar\s15\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 \rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs20\alang1025 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs20\lang1033\langfe1033\cgrid\langnp1033\langfenp1033 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs16\super\insrsid5898580 6}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 .GoogleSearch: tp://www.managementcentre.co.uk/training_development/pdfs/Rapport_NEGS_09.06.pdf. Rapport may be lost even when it was already built; it is a researcher\rquote s task to maintain it till the end.}}}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . It is also in conformity with Vlahos (1984) and Pfeifer\rquote s (2000) first and second \'93commandments of ethics\'94 (Sarantakos, 2005:23). Probably, unless respondents are much willing (and some are always so) to give information, the researcher must build rapport even over se veral minutes or even hours before an interview can kick off. Where the researcher is a foreigner, rapport must be built. This had to be done in Adjumani and Soroti. Probably the homeliest person is a researcher in a distant land. This process is, in a wa y, a form of bias researchers use to influence respondents to tell them their views, opinions and experiences about the study question. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 In Adjumani, by the time the researcher reached, three reliable acquaintances had been made in the bus. These helped the researcher acquire hotel facilities and an \'93entry-point\'94 into the field by connecting him to security officials, monitors and Electoral Commission Office. These acquaintances did break the ground - actually laid the foundation - for rapport building. The re are no standard methods of building rapport. It is a skill developed out of experience and situational dictates. The first thing the researcher did was clearance of the protocol, self introduction and explanation of the purpose, objectives and intent o f the study. Then one begged (at least in some instances) to have audience with respondents. Prior communication eased this. Where respondents promised to meet the researcher another time (say next day), then rapport was taken to be complete. Some responde nts took long to convince, others did not give hard time, while others refused completely. Researchers must learn that they may sometimes meet respondents who (respondents) instead research on them (researchers), bias them or misdirect them. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Building rapport was easier in Soroti than in Adjumani, although information acquisition was easier in Adjumani. This is interesting, because it showed that getting respondents\rquote acceptance does not necessarily mean getting information. In Soroti, while respondents paid attention and did not raise many questions, they refused to reveal certain kinds of information; gave distorted information; and sometimes claimed ignorance. In Adjumani, however, once respondents accepted, they easily gave out information. Whether this r e lated to the research themes or the general social conceptions and behaviours, is difficult to tell. It was thus difficult to build rapport in these different areas but to varying degrees; it was difficult to get the needed data, similarly to varying degr ees. In both instances and areas, building rapport marked the beginning of data generation. Obedience to the ethics was secured here. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 Research Field Experiences Elaborated: What Conclusions? \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 The idea of ethics in research reveals a fundamental significance of good conduct by researchers. It also imposes a difficult task to field data collectors who have to grapple with the immense task of succeeding amidst constraints; mending their tasks with field realities; and using methods that may contradict some eth i cal consideraations. Ethics in themselves are good and necessary, but the difficulty with their observance depends on the peculiar experience a researcher is faced with. When the ethics are violated deliberately, this has disastrous consequences to the st udy. The findings will be in doubt. The profession may be questioned. The training a researcher acquired may also leave questions in the minds of those consuming one\rquote s findings. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Admittedly, researchers must follow ethics, abide by their professional obliga tions, and leave a fertile ground for future research and further building of their careers. Experience showed the researcher that unless the respondent is left confident of the information revealed, other researchers may find great difficulty in getting the same respondent\rquote s cooperation. Likewise, if rigidity with these ethical considerations is overstressed, the field study may be fruitless, leaving the researcher guilty of time wastage. Researchers, therefore, need to balance between ethical consideratio ns and the field experiences confronting them at the time. This may require fine-tuning some of the methods used to collect information, as well as (in some instances) abandoning some of them. This is a way of finding an entry-point in the field, succeedi ng in securing respondents\rquote cooperation, and collecting the needed data with ease. This must be crowned with hard work and determination, for field research is not easy. \par \page }{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 References \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Economic and Social Research Council (n.d.). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Research Ethics Framework}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . (Accessed on July 29, 2007 from:}{ \rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 }{\field\flddirty{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 HYPERLINK "http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/Images/ESRC_Re_Ethics_Frame_tcm6-11291.pdf" }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11677619 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000005c00000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e00650073007200630073006f006300690065007400790074006f006400610079002e00610063002e0075006b002f00450053005200430049006e0066006f00430065006e007400720065002f00 49006d0061006700650073002f0045005300520043005f00520065005f004500740068006900630073005f004600720061006d0065005f00740063006d0036002d00310031003200390031002e007000640066000000e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90bb800000068007400740070003a002f002f007700770077002e 00650073007200630073006f006300690065007400790074006f006400610079002e00610063002e0075006b002f00450053005200430049006e0066006f00430065006e007400720065002f0049006d0061006700650073002f0045005300520043005f00520065005f004500740068006900630073005f00460072006100 6d0065005f00740063006d0036002d00310031003200390031002e00700064006600000000000000}}}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs19\ul\cf2\insrsid5898580 http://www.esrcsocietytoday.ac.uk/ESRCInfoCentre/Images/ESRC_Re_Ethics_Frame_tcm6-11291.pdf}}}\sectd \psz1\pgnrestart\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 )}{\rtlch\fcs1 \ab\af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \b\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Sarantakos, S. (2005). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Social Research}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Pelgrave Macmillan{\*\xmlclose}, {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}New York{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}. 3}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \super\insrsid5898580 rd}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Edition. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Kothari, C. R. (2005). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Research Methodology}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 : }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Methods and Techniques}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . New Age International (P) Ltd Publishers, {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}New Delhi{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}. 2}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \super\insrsid5898580 nd}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Edition. \par }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0\afs16 \ltrch\fcs0 \fs16\insrsid5898580 \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 Resnik, D. B. (2005). }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 What is Ethics in Research and Why is It Important}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 ? National {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}Institute{\*\xmlclose} of {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}} Environmental Health Sciences{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose}, Mail Drop, NH\endash 06; }{\field{\*\fldinst {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 HYPERLINK "http://dir.niehs.nih.gov/ethics/home.htm" }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid11677619 {\*\datafield 00d0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b02000000170000002900000068007400740070003a002f002f006400690072002e006e0069006500680073002e006e00690068002e0067006f0076002f006500740068006900630073002f0068006f006d0065002e00680074006d000000e0c9ea79f9bace118c8200aa004ba90b 5200000068007400740070003a002f002f006400690072002e006e0069006500680073002e006e00690068002e0067006f0076002f006500740068006900630073002f0068006f006d0065002e00680074006d00000000000000}}}{\fldrslt {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \cs19\ul\cf2\insrsid5898580 http://dir.niehs.nih.gov/ethics/home.htm}}}\sectd \psz1\pgnrestart\linex0\endnhere\sectlinegrid360\sectdefaultcl\sftnbj {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . \par }\pard \ltrpar\qj \li0\ri0\sl360\slmult1\widctlpar\wrapdefault\aspalpha\aspnum\faauto\adjustright\rin0\lin0\itap0 {\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 \par Royal ollege of Nursing (2004) }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 Research Ethics}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 . }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 RCN Guidance for Nurses. }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 RCN,}{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \ul\insrsid5898580 }{\rtlch\fcs1 \af0 \ltrch\fcs0 \insrsid5898580 {\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}{\*\xmlopen\xmlns2{\factoidname City}}London{\*\xmlclose}{\*\xmlclose} \par }}
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