Warning: session_start(): open(/tmp/sess_3800d08d31724fb90e736a74c7259e4b, O_RDWR) failed: Read-only file system (30) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 675

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 676

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 677

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 678

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 679

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/filestore/classes/fileupload_class_inc.php on line 329

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/filestore/classes/fileupload_class_inc.php on line 334
ࡱ> #` bjbj\.\. 5>D>D/Q%FFF\  I84\\xUe;z":::::::$<hG?Z ; A@AA ; ;555A  :5A:55&' <, 5$)' t+dX,5;0e;+d@"@<,@ <,5 ; ;e;AAAAxUxUxUxUxUxU4   p   COMMUNICATION CULTURE WITHIN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES: GENDER DIMENSIONS, OBSTACLES AND INFLUENCE ON THE WORK-ROLE OF THE ACADEMICS By Dr. Elizabeth U. Anyakoha Department of Vocational Education University of Nigeria, Nsukka Mrs. Anthonia O. Uzuegbunam Department of Sociology University of Nigeria, Nsukka Mrs. Kodilichukwu S. Ezeike Registrars Department University of Nigeria, Nsukka  ABSTRACT This study was designed to investigate the existence and utilisation of communication channels between academics and administration in Nigerian universities, with a view to determining their influence on the work-roles and welfare of academics, and evolving ways of enhancing the use of the channels. The study covered those formal channels through which academics and administration ought to communicate on issues relating to selected aspects of the work-role and welfare of the academics. The study population included academic and administrative staff in Nigerian universities. Questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were used. The findings of the study include, among others, information on (53) channels of communication; levels at which the subjects are aware and utilise the channels; and levels at which channels meet the information needs of the academics. Specifically, findings relate to possible new channels of communication, gender related factors that influence the utilisation of channels; ways by which existence and utilisation of channels can influence the work-roles and welfare of academics; obstacles to utilisation of channels and strategies for enhancing utilisation of channels. Based on the findings, policy recommendations for improving communication between academics and administration are made. 1. INTRODUCTION Culture represents the collective, mutually shaping patterns of norms, values, practices... that guide the behaviours of individuals and groups (Kuh and Whitt, 1988). Institutional culture denotes those norms, values, practices, beliefs and assumptions that direct the behaviour of the individuals and groups in a given institution. It involves the institutions own ways of doing things, its knowledge, body of traditions, values and orientation. Clark (1983) noted that cultural issues revolve around how groups of people, such as academics, construct meaning. The shared norms and values are influential within a university setting in achieving co-operative activity and survival of the universities (Dill, 1992). Communication, with its channels, constitutes a vital aspect of university culture. It permeates all the activities in an organisation and is a thread that holds the various interdependent parts of the institution together (Rogers and Agawala-Rogers, 1976). Effective communication within the university is crucial because it enables the various actors within the institution to clarify individual perceptions and discern institutional precepts. It also helps individuals to produce the co-operation needed to reach institutional goals. As an important aspect of culture, communication within the university affects the academic staff in all they do, as they organise and establish goals for their work, interact with students, balance their diverse responsibilities, participate in institutional affairs, and proceed through their careers. Many conflictual situations that characterise universities in Africa have, however, been attributed to poor communication among the various actors within the university community (Saint, 1992; Okafor, 1992 and National Universities Commission (NUC), 1996). Nigerian universities are characterised by internal conflicts, including those between administration and academics. Some of these often lead to work stoppage or even closure of universities. Since these conflicts often stem from poor communication, it is necessary to seek ways of enhancing communication among the actors within the universities. The communication must necessarily occur through channels. Hence NUC has on occasion issued circulars on the problem of channels of communication within the Nigerian universities (Ikoku, 1990). Academics, by virtue of their crucial positions as builders, members of the committee system upon which the administration of the university is based, members of an organised union within the university, should constitute a vital part of the communication network and information flow within the university community. Therefore, appropriate channels of communication must necessarily exist between the academics and other groups within the university, including the administration. Such channels should also meet the information needs of the academics. There is no doubt that various channels of communication presently exist between academics and administration in Nigerian Universities. However, what is unclear at present is the status of the communication channels and their utilisation. Consequently, the following questions arise: to what extent is the communication between academics and administration actually fluid? What channels of communication exist between academics and administration, and how functional are the channels? To what extent do academics and administration utilise the channels? What is the influence of these on the work-role of the academics? 1.1 Objectives The study was designed to investigate the present status of the existence and utilisation of communication channels between academics and administration in Nigerian universities, with a view to determining the influence of these on the work-role and welfare of the academics, and evolving ways of enhancing the use of the communication channels. Specifically, the study sought to determine:- the specific channels of communication that presently exist between individual academics and the university administration on issues relating to the work-role and welfare of the academics; whether or not the academics and administration are aware of the communication channels, and the extent to which they utilise them; the extent to which the existing channels of communication meet the information needs of the academics; the extent to which gender issues influence the academics' awareness and utilisation of the channels of communication between the university administration and the academics; other possible channels of communication that could be established between academics and administration within Nigerian universities; the ways by which the existence, and utilisation (effective or otherwise), of existing channels of communication can influence the work-role and welfare of the academics; the obstacles to the effective utilisation of the channels of communication between academics and administration, in Nigerian universities; possible strategies for enhancing the communication between academics and administration in Nigerian universities. The policy implications of objectives 1 - 8 for university management. 1.2 Hypotheses The study tested the following hypotheses at the 0.05 level of significance:- The academics' awareness of the existence of channels of communication between them and the administrators is independent of their institutions, status, sex, qualifications, years of experience and faculties/fields of specialisation. There are no significant differences in the academics' mean ratings of the extent to which they utilise the channels of communication with reference to their institutions, status, sex, qualification, years of experience and faculties/field of specialisation. 1.2 Significance of the Study It is expected that the findings of this study would be utilised by the relevant policy makers, both within the university and outside it (such as NUC), to sensitise academics and university administrators on the crucial importance of the communication channels. Policy makers can utilise the findings to develop workable policy guidelines to enhance the effectiveness, and utilisation, of existing communication channels. Consequently, the study's findings provide a basis for the university administration to continuously inform academics on crucial issues affecting them and the university. It is anticipated that the findings will enhance the participation of academics in decision making within the university. 1.3 Research Scope The study targeted all the Nigerian universities. There are presently 36 universities (24 federal-owned and 12 state-owned) in the country and a Military University (Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna). There are three generations of federal universities (5 first, 8 second and 11 third generations). Most of the second and third generation universities started as campuses of the first generation universities and would be expected to have inherited some cultural norms, including those relating to communication, from their prime universities. Four universities were purposively selected for the study. The communication process involves the sending of messages (on issues relating to the work-role and welfare of the academics), between the university administration and academics through established formal channels. This study covered those formal channels through which the academic staff and university administration ought to communicate on issues relating to: (i) work-roles of the academics - teaching, advising and supervising students; research and publishing; (ii) welfare of academics - promotion/appraisal and salaries/allowances. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW This review covers studies related to university culture and communication in the university. It also indicates gaps in the discourse on communication culture in Nigerian universities, gaps this study seeks to fill. 2.1 University Culture: The university is a complex organisation (Sanda, 1992), whose characteristics include division of labour, power and communication responsibilities (Etzioni, 1964). It also has a unique culture. Elements that contribute to a university's unique culture are its institutional mission and purpose, its size, complexity, age, location, the way in which authority is conceived and structured, the organisation of work (especially teaching and inquiry), the curricular structure and academic standards, student and faculty characteristics and the physical environment (Clark, 1983; Kuh and Whitt, 1988). Through their missions, organisation, expectations and rewards, university cultures reflect the responsibilities, workload and priorities of academics. Kuh and Whitt (1988) pointed out that cultures or interpretative frameworks in which faculty (academics) live and work affect them in all they do as they organise and establish goals for their work, interact with students, balance their diverse responsibilities, participate in institutional affairs, and their careers. Faculty members work in and experience several cultures simultaneously (Austin, 1992). Four dominant cultures affect faculty members. These include disciplinary cultures; institutional culture; cultures of national systems; and the culture of the academic profession (Clark, 1987a & b; Austin, 1992). Communication, with its relevant channels, plays a dominant role within and across these cultures. While the various cultural beliefs and values loosely unite faculty across the profession, their meanings and the ways in which they play out in faculty members' work and behaviours differ depending on the discipline, institution, and national system (Austin, 1992). The understanding of the nature of faculty cultures requires recognition that the values and commitments of these cultures sometimes conflict. Consequently, the nature of a faculty member's professional life is forged out of the accommodations, trade-offs, and choices made in response to sometimes conflicting cultural imperatives. Clark (1986) and Rice (1986) reported that loss of faculty morale, trust, and community could develop through the clash of cultures. Institutions seeking to minimise the tensions that faculty members may experience from the conflicting cultural values, must make institutional priorities clear, open avenues through which members from different disciplinary cultures can understand each other, clarify evaluation and reward systems, and go about their work-role (Austin, 1992). This makes effective communication between the faculty and the university administration crucial. 2.1 Communication in the University Communication is the "lifeblood of an organisation"; it permeates all activities in an organisation, represents an important work-role, and integrates the various sub-units (Rogers and Agawala-Rogers, 1976). The importance of communication in the university has been variously stressed (Alele-Williams, 1989). Communication seems to be the most crucial factor in smoothing relationships between all component units within the university community (Akinkugbe, 1983). Sanda (1992) observed that formal and informal lines of communication between the differentiated groups in the university, and between the university, and the micro-and macro-environment of the Nigerian society, often serve to enhance the complexity of the Nigerian University. These lines of communication also define the institutions goals, absorb its outputs, and either alleviate or complicate the university's problems. Various channels of communication exist between administration and academics within Nigerian universities (Ikoku, 1990; Ukpabi, 1992; NUC, 1996). These channels include, among others, the written, oral (face to face) and electronic channels. In spite of these channels, various conflictual situations attributable to ineffective communication have continued to plague Nigerian universities (Ikoku 1990). Saint (1992) reported that many of the problems that had led to the closure of many African universities in recent years could have been avoided by more effective communication among the contending parties. These problems (conflictual relationships) abound among the various groups of actors in the Nigerian universities (Okafor, 1992; Obineme, 1995; Afolabi, Olaosebikan and Adebisi, 1995). In spite of existing channels of communication within the universities, these problem situations have continued to constitute various forms of crises within universities. While a lot of attention has been focused on communication between university students and administration, much less attention appears to be directed to that between academics and administration. For instance, various studies have examined, and made suggestions on, ways of enhancing communication between students and administration in Nigerian universities (Anyakoha, Uzuegbunam and Ezeike, 1995; Okoewo 1988; Saint 1992). A recent study on academic staff in African universities, including Nigeria, focused on academic staff loss and retention at selected African universities, with a view to identifying areas which may be suitable for policy interventions to improve academic staff retention (Blair and Jordan, 1995). However, this study did not cover the status of communication between academics and administration, and its influence on the work-roles of the academic staff. This constitutes a gap which this study attempts to fill. 3. METHODOLOGY 3.1 Population of the Study: The study population was made up of two categories of subjects within Federal universities in Nigeria: i. Academic staff ; and, ii. University administrators - these are persons who are expected to relate with the academic staff in any administrative capacity, and may be involved in making decisions that influence their work-roles and/or welfare. Examples include academic administrators (Heads of academic Departments, Deans of Faculties, Directors of Institutes, Vice-chancellors and Deputy Vice-chancellors, and non-academic administrators. 3.2 Sample for the Study: Four federal universities were purposively selected from the first and second-generation universities. These included two first generation universities, (University of Ibadan (UI) and University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN)); and two second generation universities, (University of Jos (UNIJOS) and University of Port-Harcourt (UNIPORT)). The purposive selection reflected the geographical spread of the country. Stratified random sampling technique was utilised to select the subjects from the selected universities in order to ensure that the sample was representative of the population in terms of such critical factors as sex, faculties, years of experience and rank. One hundred and thirty (130) academic staff and one hundred (100) administrators (40 each of academic administrators, and 60 each of administrative officers and secretaries) were selected from each of the four universities. These gave a total of 520 academics and 400 administrators (920 subjects). 3.3. Instrument for Data Collection: The study relied on two data collection instruments; first, two questionnaire surveys, one among academics and the other among administrators), and second, focus group discussions (FGD). Draft questionnaires were developed and validated by two specialists in industrial relations. Thereafter the instruments were modified and field-tested prior to use. 3.4 Data Collection and analysis: A total of 920 copies of the questionnaires (520 and 400 for academics and administrators respectively) were distributed. Seven hundred and sixty-six (423 and 343 from academics and administrators respectively) were properly completed and returned (77.47%). Eight focus group discussion sessions were held, two in each of the four institutions, (one for academics and one for administrators). Each group was representative of the population. Data analysis techniques included descriptive statistics (means, proportions and percentages), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and Chi-square. The unit of analysis was the individual channel of communication. Data analysis was carried out using the statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The Focus Group discussions were summarised and grouped. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The following findings were made based on the specific objectives of the study: A total of 53 channels of communication were identified relating to the selected aspects of academics' work roles (teaching, advising and supervising students, and research/publication), and welfare (promotion/ appraisal and salaries/allowances), as well as general channels. These findings are represented in Tables 1 5. These findings confirm the fact that channels of communication between administration and academics exist in Nigerian universities. This is consistent with the evidence in literature (Anyakoha et. al., 1995; Ikoku, 1990; Sanda, 1992; Ukpabi, 1992). 4.1 Awareness and Utilisation of Communication Channels by Academics and the extent to which these channels meet the information needs of academics The findings are organised in Tables 1 5, each representing one of the five groups of channels, namely: (I) teaching, advising, and supervising students (ii) research and publishing; (iii) promotion/appraisal; (iv) salaries/allowances; and (v) general channels. Each of the five tables reveals the subjects (administrators and academics) awareness and extent of utilisation of each channel, as well as the extent to which the channels meet the information needs of the academics. The following scales were used for making decisions on the channels. < 40 per cent = Very low awareness of existence of channel 40 49 per cent = Low awareness 50 69 per cent = High awareness 70 per cent and above = Very high awareness <2.00 (() = Minimally utilised/Never meets information needs 2.00 2.49 = Occasionally utilised/Meets information need 2.50 3.00 = Utilised whenever required/Always meets information needs Table 1: Responses of Subjects on Channels Related to Teaching, Advising and Supervising Students Channels Related to Teaching, Student Advising and SupervisionA Awareness %B Utilisation (()C Information Needs (() (for Academics only)AcaAdmAcaAdmHead of Department (HOD) (informs academic on work-role Dean of Faculty (informs academic on work-role) Course description/Departmental Handbook (indicates course content) Departmental Time-Table (shows schedule for lectures) Organised circulars/letters Examination Time-Table Result/Grade sheets Departmental Format/guidelines for project presentation/reports Students' course registration sheets/forms Departmental/Faculty Board Meetings Departmental/Faculty Committees Faculty Administrative officers (AO) Department/Faculty Orientation & induction course for new staff Departmental/Faculty Secretary Departmental/Faculty Messenger Staff letter box in the department/mail box Departmental/Faculty notice board Departmental float file for academic staff Departmental annual situation report Telephone Faculty Handbook  97.0 71.2 95.3 99.5 93.5 98.0 94.6 73.3 95.8 98.3 92.2 89.1 27.8 92.5 90.3 92.3 94.6 56.8 29.8 20.2 54.7 98.0 90.0 98.5 97.3 89.3 98.0 94.8 82.5 93.5 98.3 93.3 87.3 49.0 95.3 93.5 91.0 94.0 57.8 49.0 46.5 70.8 2.73 2.20 2.71 2.83 2.50 2.73 2.69 2.24 2.57 2.66 2.42 2.25 1.39 2.41 2.25 2.50 2.42 1.80 1.34 1.24 1.74 2.64 2.45 2.60 2.74 2.45 2.82 2.73 2.40 2.65 2.66 2.58 2.36 1.68 2.51 2.49 2.54 2.43 1.81 1.64 1.54 2.04 2.48 2.05 2.56 2.76 2.42 2.42 2.57 2.17 2.50 2.43 2.25 2.12 1.35 2.23 2.11 2.37 2.23 1.69 1.31 1.20 1.64Column A = % Responses on Awareness of existence of channels. Column B = Mean (() responses on Utilisation of channels by administrators Column C = Mean (() responses by academics on the extent to which channels meet their information needs. Table 2: Responses of Subjects on Channels Related to Research and Publication Channels Related to Research and PublicationA Awareness %B Utilisation (()C Information Needs (() (for Academics only)AcaAdmAcaAdmDeputy Vice-Chancellor Academics Faculty/Deans/HODs Circulars Faculty Research Grants and Publications Committees Senate Research Grant Committee University Publications Committee/Press Notice Boards/bulletins Information and Public Relations Department (PRO)66.8 85.5 71.8 82.8 63.8 86.5 81.390.8 92.8 84.5 91.5 86.5 94.0 91.81.69 2.23 1.91 1.99 1.52 2.06 1.811.93 2.35 2.11 2.22 1.88 2.33 2.161.59 2.14 1.79 1.87 1.50 1.97 1.77Column A = % Responses on Awareness of existence of channels. Column B = Mean (() responses on Utilisation of channels. Column C = Mean (() responses on extent to which channels meet the information needs of academics. Table 3: Responses of Subjects on Channels Related to Promotion/Appraisal of Academics Channels Related to Promotion/AppraisalA Awareness %B Utilisation (()C Information Needs (() (for Academics only)AcaAdmAcaAdmCall circular for appraisals (from Personnel Services) Academics Staff Appraisal Forms Departmental/Faculty circulars/letter (on Appraisal issues) Personal contact with HOD/Dean of Faculty Personal contact with Personnel Officer University guidelines for Appointments and Promotions of Academic Staff (Yellow Book) University Appointments and Promotions/Appraisal Committees Vice-chancellor (VC)81.8 87.5 82.3 95.5 60.0 70.0 88.5 80.894.5 89.5 89.8 96.0 82.3 88.0 94.0 79.52.23 2.36 2.21 2.53 1.76 1.97 2.00 1.782.65 2.56 2.42 2.50 2.09 2.34 2.43 1.892.10 2.22 1.12 2.41 1.63 1.83 1.87 1.67Column A = % Responses on Awareness of existence of channels. Column B = Mean (() responses on Utilisation of channels. Column C = Mean (() responses on extent to which channels meet the information needs of academics. Table 4: Responses of Subjects on Channels Related to Salaries and Allowances of Academics Channels Related to Salaries and AllowancesA Awareness %B Utilisation (()C Information Needs (() (for Academics only)AcaAdmAcaAdmSalaries scale sheet Appointment letter/conditions of service Staff Salary Ledger Academics staff personal emolument (PE) Office Organised circulars/letter Pay slip Personal contact with the Bursar/Bursary Staff83.8 93.5 62.0 61.0 61.5 95.0 81.593.0 97.0 75.3 65.0 65.5 98.0 85.02.11 2.50 1.66 1.56 1.84 2.72 2.132.40 2.61 2.06 1.96 1.94 2.71 2.152.08 2.35 1.63 1.17 1.76 2.63 1.93Column A = % Responses on Awareness of existence of channels. Column B = Mean (() responses on Utilisation of channels. Column C = Mean (() responses on extent to which channels meet the information needs of academics. Table 5: Responses of Subjects on General Channels Related to both Work-Role and Welfare General Channels dealing with both Work-role and welfare of AcademicsA Awareness %B Utilisation (()C Information Needs (() (for Academics only)AcaAdmAcaAdmUniversity Bulletin (Weekly) University Calendar (Yearly) Academic Regulations for Staff and students Staff Handbook (Rules and Regulations) University Administrative Procedures (Guide to New Staff) Staff Letter box at the Central Potters Lodge/Administration Building University Central Bulletin Board Institutions Time-table of Events Faculty Representative in the Senate Opinion boxers established by administration at strategic point in the campus52.8 66.0 54.3 39.8 21.0 70.5 53.0 60.8 85.0 14.062.5 78.5 70.8 64.3 37.3 90.8 72.5 82.0 87.3 79.01.66 1.76 1.72 1.43 1.23 1.85 1.54 1.76 1.86 1.111.76 1.93 1.99 1.89 1.50 2.14 1.83 2.16 2.08 1.911.88 1.69 1.66 1.43 1.24 1.82 1.56 1.77 1.80 1.18Column A = % Responses on Awareness of existence of channels. Column B = Mean (() responses on extent of Utilisation of channels. Column C = Mean (() responses on extent to which channels meet the information needs of academics. Tables 1 5 deal with the five groups of channels namely, teaching, advising, and teaching students; research and publication; salaries/allowances; promotion/appraisal and the general channels dealing with both work-role and welfare of academics. Columns A, B and C of tables 1 5 deal with findings on Awareness (%), Utilisation (() and Extent to which channels meet information needs of academics. Column A of each Table shows that most (70% and above) of subjects (academics and administrators) are highly aware of most of the channels. However, the tables also show that 70 per cent and more of the administrators are highly aware of 44 (83.0%) of the total of 53 channels, while a similar percentage of the academics are aware of only 34 (64.2%) of the channels. This suggests that administrators are aware of more channels than the academics. This finding could be a reflection of the fact that in most cases the administrators are custodians of the channels (Ikoku 1990). On the extent of utilisation, columns B of Tables 1 5 reveal that only 12 and 15 (22.6% and 28.3%) of the channels are utilised by the academics and administrators, respectively, whenever required. The columns also show that while 15 (28.3%) of the channels are utilised occasionally by the academics, 22 (41.5%) are utilised "occasionally" by the administrators. These findings, while they suggest that administrators utilised more of the channels, also show that the very high level of awareness of the channels by both groups of subjects is not matched by a corresponding high level of utilisation. On the extent to which the 53 channels meet the information needs of the academics, (Columns C of Tables 1 5 reveal that only 5 (9.4%) channels always meet the information needs of the academics. Further 18 (34.0%) of the channels meet their information needs occasionally, while 30 (56.6%) never meet the information needs of the academics. These findings suggest that even though academics might utilise channels either occasionally or whenever required, the channels generally fail to always meet their information needs. Thus utilisation does not guarantee the meeting of information needs. Hypothesis 1 (HO1) The first hypothesis was that academics' awareness of the existence of channels of communication between them and the administrators is independent of their institutions, status, sex, qualifications, years of experience and faculties/fields of specialisation. In order to test the null hypothesis, Chi-square computations were carried out using the awareness frequencies for each group of channels, namely: 1) Teaching, advising, and supervising students channels 2) Research and publications channels 3) Promotion/Appraisal channels 4) Salaries and Allowances channels 5) General channels The results are summarised in Table 6. Table 6: Chi-square ((2) Results for HOI for each of the five groups of Channels PRIVATE Variables TeachResearchPromotionSalariesGeneralTable (2DF1Institutions 1, 2, 3 & 41.49312.345*22.021*8.624*8.801*7.8232Status3.0777.72715.141*10.966*1.9967.8233Sex0.5490.6942.5520.6761.0283.8114Qualification4.7844.6364.8417.2795.2737.8235Year of Experience2.7614.02415.158*8.530*10.994*5.0926Faculty1.2423.4421.7922.8692.3247.823P = 0.05; * = Cases where Table (2 values are higher than the calculated values. The findings in Table 6 reveal the factors that are significant at 0.05 level of significance for each of the five groups of channels. These factors include institution, status and years of experience. The Ho was thus rejected for these three factors. In other words, the finding on institution could be attributed to specific cultures that characterise each specific institution. Clark (1987a) observed that while faculty members are socially embedded in the cultures of the respective disciplines, they still encounter the pressure of institutional cultures. Such cultures could influence the existence of channels and academics awareness of the channels. Again, years of experience and status relate. People who have spent longer time in the university are likely to be senior academics (high in status). These persons are also likely to be aware of more channels of communication. Hypothesis 2 (HO2) Restated, the second hypothesis stated that there are no significant differences in the academics mean rating of the extent to which they utilise the channels of communication with reference to their: institutions, status, sex qualification, years of experience, faculty/field of specialisation. This HO2 was tested for each of the five groups of channels at 0.05 level of significance using ANOVA (not shown). The findings as with HO1 show that institution, years of experience and status were significant factors at the 0.05 level of significance, with regard to the academics utilisation of the channels of communication. 4.2 Possible New channels of communication between academics and administration in Nigerian Universities (Innovations in Channels) Both the academics and the administrators suggested a total of 10 possible new channels of communication (on issues relating to the work-roles and welfare of academics). The channels are as follows:- Constant/regular meetings between academics and administration/Dialogue Provision of Intercoms\telephones for academics and administration Lecturer-Student Information guide Instrument for assessing academics' performance in the class Regular University bulletin Information Centre for academics Academic Staff Welfare programme Opinion boxes for academic staff Comprehensive manual on academic work-role, which should be subject to regular review Special complaints committee on academic staff welfare. 4.3 Gender issues influencing the academics awareness and utilisation of Channels of communication Gender is a socio-cultural and historical construct, which denotes qualities, behaviours and roles ascribed by different societies/cultures to men and women. Gender discrimination involves different treatments to individuals on the grounds of their gender (UNICEF 1994). Gender discrimination occurs in various facets of the Nigerian society including the education system (Alele-Williams 1993). This study thus identified issues related to gender that could influence the academics awareness and utilisation of channels of communication. The findings are summarised in column A of Table 7. The study also determined those factors that are advantageous to the academics; these are presented in column B of Table 7. Table 7: Responses of Academics on Gender related Factors Influencing the Academics' Awareness and Utilisation of Channels of Communication Possible Gender Related Factors Affecting Awareness and Utilisation of Channels(A) Extent Of Influence Of Factors (()(B) Advantage (Yes %)AcaAdmAcaAdm1. Sex of the academics2.412.7743.045.02. Age of the academic2.742.9554.574.03. Professional rank of the academic3.613.6385.392.04. Number of years the academic has spent in the University3.373.5482.385.85. The area of specialisation/faculty of the academic2.702.8252.548.36. The fact that the academic had held an administrative post/elected post before3.323.5383.886.37. The academic is a woman2.272.4433.021.58. The academic is a man2.552.6036.536.39. The academic is married2.172.3632.021.510. The academic is single/ divorced/ separated/ widowed2.112.0829.511.0Aca = Academics; Adm = Administrators; Column A = Mean scores on extent of influence of factors; Column B = "Yes" % for Advantages; Factors with mean scores of 2.49 and below have no influence, while those with 2.50 3.49 have moderate influence, and those with 3.50 4.00 have high influence. Column A of Table 7 shows that four of the factors have high influence. These are also the factors that have high advantage scores of 82.5 92.0 per cent. These factors (Nos. 3, 4, and 6) are professional rank of the academic, number of years the academic has spent in the university and the fact that the academic has held an administrative post/elected post before. These factors relate to rank/status and they are relevant to gender. This is because there are abundant evidence that women are found at the lower professional ranks, unable to progress to seniority at the same pace as their male colleagues (Alele-Williams, 1993). By virtue of their lower ranks many women might not have held administrative/elected posts before. These situations are likely to be disadvantages to women and could influence their awareness and utilisation of channels of communication. The subjects also gave seven other factors that could influence the academics awareness and utilisation of channels as free responses. These responses are summarised as follows: Religious affiliation State/Ethnic origin/tribe Personal relationships, e.g. Old Boy/Girls Association, Club/Association Memberships Academics (female) husband on campus Rank of female academics husband Academic married to senior administrative staff Academics desire to acquire information 4.4 Ways in which the existence and effective utilisation or otherwise of the channels can influence the work-roles and welfare of academics Tables 8 and 9 show the findings on the ways by which the existence and utilisation of the channels can influence the work-roles and welfare of academics. Table 8: Mean Responses of Academics on ways by which the Existence and Effective Utilisation or otherwise of the Channels can influence their Work-role Ways Channels can Influence Work-Role of AcademicsMean Responses on Influence of Channels (()1234(A1Academic could be unaware of work-role/responsibility3.223.223.002.903.092Academic could fail to carry out work-role3.813.123.413.153.373Academic may refuse to carry out work-role3.512.843.233.013.154Work-role could be carried out below expected/stated standard3.693.363.763.703.635Execution of responsibility could be delayed3.793.824.084.023.936Expected result might not be achieved3.773.544.113.973.851 = UNIJOS (102 SS); 2 = UNIPORT (100 SS); 3 = UNN (112 SS); 4 = UI (109 SS); Grand Mean (A = Means of the mean responses. Table 9: Mean Responses of Academics on ways by which the Existence and Utilisation (effective or otherwise) of the Channels can influence their Welfare. Ways Channels can Influence Work-Role of AcademicsMean Responses on Influence of Channels (()1234(A 1Academic may: Fail to complete appraisal forms 3.52 3.13 3.55 2.99 3.302Not be appraised/promoted as and at when due3.953.824.103.733.903Be wrongly assessed4.033.424.083.503.764Be denied/fail to obtain entitlements/allowances, e.g. housing/transport allowance3.673.673.913.293.545be paid wrong salary scale/wrong placement on salary scale3.993.993.683.623.646suffer emotional stress/frustration/work stoppage/desire to quit4.194.194.153.763.987spend unnecessary time in pursuing his/her legitimate rights/ entitlements4.184.184.334.174.168suffer heath problems3.873.873.963.803.869fail to obtain office space that is conductive to academic work3.873.874.213.844.0010express resentment toward university administration4.184.184.083.804.0011Antagonise students3.703.703.472.893.3012development negative attitude towards work/lose the zeal to participate3.863.864.083.683.8513resort to absenteeism3.743.743.403.183.4314express withdraw behaviour3.823.823.693.433.631 = UNIJOS (102 SS); 2 - UNIPORT (100 SS) ; 3 = UNN (112 SS); 4 = UI (109 SS) (A = Means of the mean responses; Table 8 shows six ways, in which the work-role of the academics can be influenced, while Table 9 shows fourteen ways in which their welfare can be influenced. The tables show that each way obtained grand mean scores of 3.00 and above. This indicates high influence of the existence and effective utilisation or otherwise of the channels on the work-role and welfare of the academics, with respect to those channels indicated in Tables 8 and 9. 4.5 Obstacles to effective utilisation of channels of communication by academics and administrators The study identified 10 and 11 obstacles to the effective utilisation of channels of communication by academics and administrators respectively, through structured and unstructured responses. Through the unstructured responses, the respondents were requested to indicate the most serious obstacles to their effective utilisation of the channels. The findings are summarised in Tables 10 and 11. Table 10: Mean Responses of Academics and Administrators on Obstacles to Effective Utilisation of the Communication channels between the Administrators and Academics (Structured Responses) Possible obstacles to Effective Utilisation of Channels of CommunicationMean Responses (()AcaAdmNon-availability of channels to academics Academics unaware of channels Administration unaware of channels Channels not accessible to academics Refusal/failure/unwillingness of academics to utilise channels Ineffectiveness of channels Ambiguity of content of circular and letters Delay in utilisation of channels by administration Non-utilisation of channels by administration Lack of co-operation between administration and academics3.14 2.96 2.88 3.17 2.68 3.34 3.16 3.29 3.30 3.353.16 3.19 3.08 3.74 3.05 3.23 3.14 3.27 3.32 3.53Aca = Academics; Adm = Administrators Table 11: Mean Responses of Academics and Administrators on Obstacles to Effective Utilisation Most Serious Obstacles (Unstructured Responses) Resentment of academics by administrators and vice versa/lack of co-operation/conflict between academics and administrators/lack of trust. Inappropriate ways of sending circulars Ambiguity of circulars, memos, etc. Ineffectiveness of channels Non-availability of channels to the academics Lack of consistency by administration in the utilisation of channels Poor work ethics of the operators of the channels Academics unawareness of some channels Delay in utilisation of channels by administration Selfish use of channels by the administration. Lack of maintenance of channels Each of the items in Table 10 obtained mean scores ranging from 2.68 3.53 on a 4-point scale; each item is therefore an obstacle. The unstructured responses (Table 11) represent what the subjects (academics and administrators) consider the most serious obstacles. Some of the obstacles in Table 11 are consistent with those in Table 10. Table 10 also shows that the obstacle with highest scores of 3.35 and 3.53 from academics and administrators respectively, is lack of co-operation between administration and academic. It is also the first obstacle in the unstructured responses. This finding could be an indication of the extent of the seriousness of this problem. This lack of cooperation, will apparently render the best channels ineffective, hence prevent appropriate utilization. This probably explains, in part, the finding that 56.6 per cent of the channels (30 out of 53) never meet the information needs of academics. Some of the findings are also consistent with those identified by Anyakoha et. al. (1995), as obstacles that militate against the effective utilisation of communication channels between university administration and students. 4.6 Strategies for enhancing the utilisation of channels of communication between Academics and administration in Nigerian Universities The study identified a total of 22 strategies for enhancing the utilisation of channels of communication between the academics and administration. These are based on both structured (i) and unstructured responses (ii). These 22 strategies represent 13 and 9 administration- and academic-related strategies, respectively, as follows: (i) Administration-Related Strategies Respect academics/co-operate with academics Utilise established channels whenever necessary/promptly Constant dialogue with academics/rapport Updating obsolete handbooks/channels Be sensitive to the needs of academics Review existing channels for effectiveness Make existing channels available accessible to all staff Create new channels Involve academics in decision making about channels Organise staff orientation/give each new staff (academic and administration) orientation on communication channels. Establish opinion boxers Reduce/avoid bureaucracy 13. Provide every staff with a staff handbook (ii) Academics-Related Strategies Be prepared to utilise all existing channels, e.g. read all circulars Respond promptly to needed information Share information with colleagues/co-operate with colleagues Respect administration/co-operate with them Adhere to established channels Express/exhibit high sense of responsibility always Learn rudiments of administration Adopt consultation rather than confrontation with administration/dialogue Enquire for information when necessary/demand rights as and when due The findings on the strategies are consistent with the contentions of Alele-Williams (1989), Ukpabi (1992), and Ikoku (1992). They are also consistent with some of the findings by Anyakoha et. al. (1995) on the strategies for enhancing the effectiveness of communication channels between university administration and students in Nigerian universities. 4.7 Findings from Focus group discussions (FGDs): Case Studies of experiences of academics and administrators with channels and suggestions for enhancement The FGDs focused on actual experiences of the academics and administrators with the channels of communication, the problems associated with the experiences/utilisation and consensus of opinions on strategies for enhancing the utilisation of the channels and thereby promoting communication between the two groups. In general participants observed that the channels of communication exist but that the problem of utilisation lies with the operators. Others expressed total disillusionment with the entire university system, observing that there is a total downward gravitation in all issues relating to their universities, including the channels of communication. Yet the majority of respondents in the two groups (academics and administrator alike), pointed accusing fingers at each other. Each group blamed the other for non-utilisation and ineffectiveness of the channels. Numerous experiences were expressed, and problems identified by the participants. Strategies for enhancing the use of channels of communication were also identified and agreed upon. A few of the actual experiences, problems, and strategies are presented in the following sections. 4.7.1 Experiences of Academics The academics generally agreed that the administrators control the channels of communication and use them as they desire. An academic said when an issue concerns the administrators, channels are appropriately employed, but when it concerns academics, they make mistakes. Another said, the academics are at the mercy of administrators, even when academics become administrators they forget their colleagues. Another said, there is hostility on the part of the administrators. There was a case of some academics who reported that they heard about a possible change in the university's reopening date while riding in a taxi. They reported that a student was telling a taxi driver of the new date in their presence. The academics accused their university administration for not informing them appropriately about the resumption date. Another academic recalled that as a new staff member he had problems getting himself organised to carry out his work-role of teaching and advising students, as there were no appropriate guidelines on how to go about these work-roles. Thus, for him, figuring out what to do with the students assigned to him was a challenge. He said, there should be a way of familiarising a new academic with the system. On A Welfare Issue: An academic said, I am still expecting the letter of my promotion that had been signed about three months ago. He blamed the ineffectiveness of the channels on the operators, who, according to him need to be begged to employ the channels. In another case, an academic reported that he could not be appraised for promotion because he could not afford to produce the 30 copies of the required appraisal forms from his meagre salary. He said, there was no way I could afford it at that time. When it concerns academics appraisal forms become scarce, but the administrators always have their own. 4.7.2 Administrators experiences The non-academics generally agreed that the academics look down on them. They believed that academics exhibit a feeling of superiority and discriminate against administrators. One participant said, in fact there is a cold war between academics and administrators. This situation no doubt affects the utilisation of the channels of communication. An academic administrator (Dean of a Faculty) reported that on an occasion he used approved channels to communicate with an academic on a problem involving students. The academic failed to use the channels and rather confronted the Dean personally. The Dean said, the utilisation of channels of communication has created enmity between me and my colleagues. I annoy them in my attempt to follow the instructions. He also reported that often scarcity of funds makes it difficult for administrators to make channels functional. He cited a case in which a Head of Department could not produce academic staff appraisal forms owing to lack of funds. In another case, an administrator reported that there was a clash in the departmental timetable and the lecturer involved was very bitter about this. Although the administrator offered the lecturer an explanation, according to the administrator, the lecturer left in anger after pouring abuses on me. Five obstacles/problems that militate against the use of the channels were identified through the FGD. These include, lack of motivation and general apathy among academics and administrators. A participant said, the channels are indeed adequate but the ineffectiveness results from the fact that nobody is happy to do his work both administrators and academics. The conditions for services are not conducive for such. The staff are not comfortable anywhere in their work place, in their home... The five obstacles identified through the FGD are consistent with those identified through the questionnaire survey. 5. CONCLUSIONS From the findings it is evident that channels of communication between academics and administration exist in the Nigerian universities sampled. Most academics are aware of the existence of these channels. However, many of the channels are not utilised by the academics "whenever required" and most of the channels fail to "always" meet the information needs of the academics. Thus there is an apparent communication gap between academics and administrators in terms of utilising the existing channels to meet the formers' information needs. This situation calls for some action. The study has also shown that this situation could affect the work role and welfare of the academics in various ways. Work roles could be carried out below expected/stated standards, unnecessary time might be spent pursuing legitimate rights/entitlements, resulting in frustration and possible work stoppage. This situation cannot move the universities forward in an era when these institutions are expected to improve efficiency, show continued relevance, and respond to changing needs of the society. The study has also revealed numerous obstacles that militate against effective utilisation of the channels of communication between academics and administrators. Prominent among the obstacles is the apparent "cold war" between the academics and the administrators. They could in fact be described as "strange bed fellows". This situation can hinder communication even when the communication channels are excellent. It can also affect other aspects of university management, culture, and programmes, and it requires urgent attention. Since students are the "blocks, the academics, the builders and administrators the "facilitating elements" (Ikoku 1992), the various groups must necessarily work together as a team in order to move universities forward. In this teamwork, communication (with its channels) serves as a thread that holds the groups together. Therefore, it becomes necessary to adopt strategies of enhancing communication between the academics and the administration. This study has identified these strategies. 6. POLICY IMPLICATIONS There is need to revamp the existing communication channels between the academics and administrators in Nigerian universities, with a view to enhancing their effectiveness. In this direction, the strategies identified by this study could be utilised in different universities as applicable. It is crucial to seek ways of establishing cordial relationship between academics and administrators. Such a relationship should be marked by mutual respect. In this direction, the strategies identified by this study, (as the academic related and administrator related strategies) should be exploited. It might be necessary for universities to evolve ways of encouraging dialogue and consultation between academics and administration rather than the current approach of antagonism and "cold war". The new channels identified in this study could serve as a source from which institutions could select and modify channels to suit their circumstances. It is vital for universities to put in place workable orientation programmes for both academics and administrators. There should be effective orientation programmes for new academics, administrators and first-time academic administrators (Head of Departments, Heads of Units etc). There should also be a way of keeping the old staff abreast of the existing as well as possible new channels. The universities should as a necessity equip the academics and administrators with staff handbooks. Such handbooks should include, among other things, information on the communication channels that exist between the academics and administration and the modalities for their effective utilisation. Such handbooks should be reviewed regularly to ensure continued relevance. Both the academics and the administrators have enormous responsibilities in enhancing the effectiveness of the communication channels between them. Both groups should therefore be made aware of this fact in various fora such as workshops, seminars, and conferences. REFERENCES Afolabi, F.; Olaosebikan, D. and Adebisi, M. (1995). The Clouds over Nigerian Universities. Nigerian Vanguard, Wednesday, March 22, p. 26. Akinkugbe, O.O. (1983) "Random Thoughts on the Emerging Nigerian University". In Chizea, C.A. (ed.) (1983) 20 Years of University Education in Nigeria, National Universities Commission (NUC), Lagos, p. 57 - 61. Alele-Williams, G. (1993). Women in Higher Education Management: The Nigerian Context. In UNESCO (1993), Women in Higher Education Management. Paris, UNESCO. Alele-williams, G. (1988). The Politics of Administering a Nigerian University, In NUC (1988) 25 Years of Centralised University Education in Nigeria, (NUC), Lagos, p. 35 - 36. Anyakoha, E.U.; Uzuegbunam, A. and Ezeike, K.S. (1995). Channels of Communication Between Students and Administration in Nigeria Universities: Obstacles, Enhancement Strategies and Implications for University Governance. Research Report, Social Science Council of Nigeria/FORD FOUNDATION National Research Programme on University Governance in Nigeria. Austin, A.E. (1992) Academic Tribes and Territories: Intellectual Enquiry and the Cultures of Disciplines. Buckingham, SRHE/Open University Press. Becher, T. (1984) The Cultural View. In Clark, P.R. (ed.) (1984) Perspectives on Higher Education: Eight Disciplinary and Comparative Views, Berkeley California. University of California Press. Blair, R. and Jordan, J. (1995). Staff Dilemma in African Universities, West Africa. May 29 - June 4. Clark, B.R. (1987) The Academic Life: Some World, Different Worlds. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Princeton, New Jersey. Clark, B.R. (1987b) (ed.) The Academic Profession: National, Disciplinary, and Institutional Settings. Berkeley, California, University of California Press. Clark, B.R. (1983). The Higher Education System: Academic Organization in Cross-National Perspective, Berkeley, California, University of California Press. Clark, S.M. (1986). The academic profession and career: perspective and problems. Teach Social. 14 (1). Commission on the Review of Higher Education in Nigeria (1992). Higher Education in the Nineties and Beyond. Federal Republic of Nigeria. Dill, D.d. (1992). Organization and administration of Higher Education. In Aikin, M.C. (ed.) Encyclopaedia of Educational Research. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, p. 933 - 940. Etzioni, A. (1964) Modern Organization, New Jersey. Prentice-Hall Inc. Ikoku, C. (1990) (ed.) Structures and Challenges in University Management: The University Of Nigeria Model. Nsukka: University of Nigeria Press, p. 1 - 7. Kuh, G.D. and Whitt, E.J. (1988). The Invisible Tapestry: Culture in American Colleges and Universities. Ashe-Eric High Education Report, No. 1, Association for the Study of Higher Education. Washington DC, p. 12 - 13. National Universities Commission (NUC) (1995). Nigerian University System: A Parastatal's Past, Present and Future. Nigeria, NUC, p. 3 - 4. National Universities Commission (NUC) (1996) Draft Manual on University Management. Nigeria. NUC. Obineme, J. (1995) Leadership Crisis in Our Universities. The Light, Nigeria, November 3, p. 5. Okafor, N. (1992) The Academic in Administration. In Eze, F.C. & Ejiofor, P.N. (1992) (eds.). Towards Efficiency in University Administration. Nigeria. Summer Education Pub. Ltd. Okoewo, S. (1988). Student Unionism on Nigerian University Campus: A Course or Blessing. In NUC (1988) op cit. p. 89 - 97. Rice, R.E. (1986). The Academics Profession in Transition: Toward a New Social Fiction. Teach. Sociol. 14(1) 12 - 23. Rogers, E.M. and Agawale-Rogers, R. (1976). Communications in Organization. New York: The Free Press, p. 7 - 14. Saint, W.S. (1992) Universities in Africa: Strategies for Stabilisation and Rentalisation. Washington, The World Bank. Sanda, W.S. (1992). Managing Nigerian Universities. Ibadan, Spectrum Books Ltd. Snow, C.P. (1964). The Two Cultures: And a Second Look. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Ukpabi, S.C. (1992) Human resource management in Nigerian University System with Special Reference to the Promotion of Institutional Goals. In Eze, F.C. & Ejiofor P.N. (1992) (eds.) Towards Efficiency in University Administration. Nigeria. Summer Education Pub. Ltd. UNICEF (1994) Gender Equity and Womens Empowerment. NY: UNICEF.  This is so because the conflict-laden situations often attributable to poor communication between groups, in this case between academics and administration in Nigerian universities, continues unabated.  Individuals who share a culture have "common habits, common assumptions, and a common way of life (Snow, 1964) and "a shared way of thinking and a collective way of behaving". (Becher, 1984).  Furthermore, seven strategies for enhancing the utilisation of communication channels were identified. These are also consistent with those identified through the use of the questionnaires.     PAGE  PAGE 1  9 U 78U##$#%#ƸƜƸsg_Q__IC h=q^Jh=qCJ^Jjh=q0JCJU^Jh=qCJ^Jh=qCJOJQJ^Jh=q56CJOJQJ^Jh=q6CJOJQJ^Jh=q5CJOJQJ^Jh=q@CJOJQJ^Jh=q@CJOJQJ^Jh=q@CJOJQJ^Jh=q5@CJOJQJ^Jh=q5@CJOJQJ^Jh=q@OJQJ^Jh=q5@CJOJQJ^J4  7 8 9 U l $ 0$*$Ifa$$ H$*$Ifa$ $ 0*$a$ $ H*$a$/ ;{{q $ 0*$a$` $dh`a$$dha$ $d<a$$a$Zkd$$Ifl4FxH \     4 la. &U 3!!j""$#%#4##l$o%p%%%[(\(o(`$dha$  & F*^* $ 0*$a$  & F*^*dh%#4##o%p%%%\(o(p(,,---..V8{8rCsCCCCDEEEIII1KQKRKwNNN$P%PPֳ~uuuu~gh=q@CJOJQJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q5CJ^J h=q5^Jjh=q0JCJU^Jh=q56CJ^Jh=qCJOJQJ^Jh=q5CJOJQJ^Jh=q^JmH sH h=q@OJQJ^J h=q^Jh=qCJOJQJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=qCJ^J'o(*,,----03V8W8{8N:;?rCsCCCD#D  @>^`>d`` $dh`a$$dha$$a$`#DEE{GII1KUKMvNwNNN%PQQQQd d^`$ 0dh<*$a$   `   \ ` \ `   `  ^`PPQQQS^T_TTTLUUU V V$V%VVBVFVJVNVOViZZZZZZ 8d$Ifkd~$$Ifl4\&"``04 laf4OVPVVVV3WC1111$ & F 0$*$Ifa$kd$$Ifl4ֈ&" *vvv 04 laf43WOWfWzWWW X)XNXXXXXYGYlYvYYYYYYYYYY 8d$If$ & F 0$*$Ifa$YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYZZ Z ZZZ 8d$IfZZZZ$Z)Z.Z3Z8Z9Z>ZCZHZMZRZWZ\ZaZfZgZlZmZrZsZxZyZ~ZZZ 8d$IfZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 8d$IfZZ[[ [[[[[![&[+[0[5[:[?[D[E[J[K[P[Q[V[W[\[a[f[k[l[ 8d$Ifl[q[v[{[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 8d$If[[[>\\A<</ $8^8`a$$a$kd2$$Ifl4ֈ&"*vvv04 laf4\\\\\\)]+]7]9]I]K]a]v] 8d$If 88d^8`  $ !a$$a$ \\\\\)]F]G]^]_]v]w]]]^?_@_____``u``````````b\c]ccccc8d;dddddddee$e%eeffff2gǼǼDzDzDzǼǼDzDzDzǼǼDzDzDz j0h=q6CJ^Jh=q6CJ^Jh=q@OJQJ^Jh=qOJQJ^J j0h=qCJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qOJQJ^JmH sH 9v]w]x]|]]]]]iZZZZZZ 8d$Ifkd$$Ifl4\"`F`04 laf4]]]C/$ & F! 0x$*$Ifa$kd$$Ifl4ֈdP" vvv 04 laf4]]]^F^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 8d$If 8dx$If$ & F! 0h$*$Ifa$^^^^^^__ ____!_&_+_0_5_:_?_ 8dx$If 8d$If?_@_~__`A<</ $8^8`a$$a$kdt$$Ifl4UֈdP"vvv04 laf4``t`u````````` 8d$If 8hd$If^h 88d^8`$`a$ ````````iZZZZZZ 8d$Ifkd $$Ifl4\H4"``04 laf4``5aUaaaC////$ & F" 0h$*$Ifa$kd $$Ifl4ֈHd4P" v 04 laf4aa9bubbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb 8d$If$ & F" 0h$*$Ifa$bbbbbbbbcc cccc!c"c'c(c-c2c7cl?lmpvrtttuvvvw+w?wgwhwwwwww $$Ifa$$ 000*$]0^0a$ @d^@``$a$$a$wwwwxxxx xOxPxxxxxxx$y%yTyUyuyvywyyy}/}0}2}c~d~~~,T"#Եɕypphh=qCJ^Jh=qCJH*^Jh=q5CJH*^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q6H*^J h=q6^Jh=qOJQJ^J h=q^Jh=q5OJQJ^Jh=q5H*^J j0h=qCJ^J h=q5^Jjh=q5U^Jj h=q5U^Jh=q5^J(wwwwwxx $$Ifa$x x kd$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >a x x$x*x2x:xAxHxMxOx $$Ifa$ OxPx kd$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >aPxRxYx_xexmxux{xxx $$Ifa$ xx kd"$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >axxxxxxxxxx $$Ifa$ xx kd\$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >axxxxxxxxxx $$Ifa$ xx kd$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >axxxyyyyy"y$y $$Ifa$ $y%y kd$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >a%y'y/y5y;yAyGyMyRyTy $$Ifa$ TyUy kd $$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >aUyyy;|}}2}+,<߁=^$ & F&dh^`a$d`d^ 0d^`0`$a$*TU"#'+6> $8$If^8a$ $$Ifa$ `d^``d`vd^v vd^v``#*$%&>?PQ~9:!"PQωЉTU<ː̐ho^_abklmnoOǸۍh=qOJQJ^J h=qH*^Jh=q5OJQJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q6CJ^J h=q^Jh=q@OJQJ^Jh=qCJ^J j0h=qCJ^J h=q5^Jh=q6CJ^Jh=q5CJ^J3>?@DHLP $$Ifa$[kdR$$If04F<t"`8    4 0a0f4PQjoty~}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd$$If04rlX t" vv4 0a0f4~}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd $$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4ׇ҇܇}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kdG!$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4%*/49}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd!$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f49:qv{}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd"$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4ۈ}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd<#$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4 !}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd#$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4!"<AFKP}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd$$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4PQmrw|}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd1%$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4ʼnʉω}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd%$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4ωЉTUc,F}vqkkeQQQ & F' x^`#`#`$a$$xa$kd&$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4 <=ː̐gh5]a $$Ifa$ |d^`|`d` vd^v` v^v` & F' x^` abcegikn $$Ifa$Ekd4'$$Ifl0Zd# x4 lanoqmddddddd $$Ifa$kd'$$If0ֈZlX #&vvvv4 0aÒZQQQQQQQ $$Ifa$kdO($$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0a 6;@EJOZQQQQQQQ $$Ifa$kd)$$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0aOPRZQQQQQQQ $$Ifa$kd)$$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0aOP45M@ABce"Ǿyld\Sh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q@H*OJQJ^J j0h=qCJOJQJ^Jh=q@OJQJ^Jh=q5OJQJ^J j0h=qCJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q5@CJ^Jh=q6CJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q6CJH*^J j0h=q6CJ^Jh=q6CJ^J h=q^Jh=qOJQJ^J ٓޓZQQQQQQQ $$Ifa$kd*$$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0a %*/4ZQQQQQQQ $$Ifa$kdK+$$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0a45MZUUUDD *|d^`|$a$kd ,$$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0aMN$ 0$*$Ifa$Ekd,$$Ifl0Z" 4 la d$If Εm\\\\\\\\\$ 0<$*$Ifa$kdI-$$If0ֈZ "4 0a  =Ikd.$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$=BGLQVWYmGkd.$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$mrw|ܖGkd/$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$ܖ3Gkd0$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$38=BGLMOGkd1$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$Gkds2$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$ *GkdR3$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$*/49>CDFGkd14$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$טGkd5$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$טܘGkd5$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$ !"%mGkd6$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$mrw|Gkd7$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$ؙGkd8$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$ؙݙ@GB$a$kdk9$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$@cd!"Ԟ՞-1 $ $Ifa$$ x$Ifa$$ ^`a$d` vd^v` $dh`a$$dha$$a$ !Ԟ՞./12;<STz{ SKQkHpqKM OӵϺ>a˵ۭwnwh=q>*CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q6CJ^Jh=q6CJ^Jh=qOJQJ^J h=q^Jh=qCJOJQJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q5OJQJ^J j0h=qCJ^J h=q5^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q56CJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^J)1237; $ $Ifa$okdX:$$Ifl40Zf!`p04 laf4;<f̟ 'T|o]]]]]]]]$ & F) hV$Ifa$ $ & F)$Ifa$kd2;$$Ifl4FZf! 0    4 laf4  !&+05:?DINS $ $Ifa$$ & F) hV$Ifa$STz{ŢnfnUCC$ & F* 88^8a$$ & F* 88^8a$$dha$$ ^`a$kd<$$IflFZf!0    4 la3xѣ4TUklK$ & F- h^a$$ dh^`a$`d` vd^v`$ dh`a$$ a$$ & F* 88^8a$Kt$8lHIqޭG$ & F. ``^`a$$ & F. ``^`a$$ dh^`a$ $ h^ha$$ & F- h^`a$$ & F- h^a$GfKLM0NOӵԵԷ`d`vd^v vd^v`$ dh`a$ $ ^a$$ & F. ``^`a$ԷϺк>?aEv:367Nrf & F$ dh`a$ $ dha$`67Nr9wCQ3:#oA(~fir ]-l <` /ɽh=q6CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q@OJQJ^Jh=q^JmH sH  h=q5^J h=q^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jjh=q0JCJU^JDvw./&'-. Pd^`P$ 000*$]0^0a$tu[\9:-.HI>?*+|} Pd^`P-./~ &`#$&`#$$ a$ Pd^`P/0~Ͻϧςh=qCJ^J!h=q0JCJOJQJmHnHuh=q0JCJOJQJjh=q0JCJOJQJU h=q0Jjh=q0JUjh=qUh=q h=qCJjh=q0JCJUh=qCJOJQJjh=q0JCJOJQJU Pd^`P30&P P- @!"#$% |$$If.!vh5¶ 55\ #v #v#v\ :V l45 55\ 4a.$$If!vh5555#v#v#v#v:V l40++5555/ / / / / 4f4$$If!vh55*5v5v5v5#v#v*#vv#v:V l40++5*5v/ / / / / /  /  / / /  / /  / / / 4f4$$If!vh55*5v5v5v5#v#v*#vv#v:V l4055*5v5/  / /  / / /  / / / / /  / / 4f4$$If!vh55F55#v#vF#v#v:V l40++55F55/ / / / / 4f4$$If!vh555v5v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V l40++55v/ / / / / /  /  / / /  / /  / / / 4f4$$If!vh555v5v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V l4U0555v5/  / /  / / /  / / / / /  / / 4f4$$If!vh5555#v#v#v#v:V l40++5555/ / / / / 4f4$$If!vh55555v5#v#v#v#v#vv#v:V l40++5555v/ / / / / /  /  / / /  / /  / / / 4f4$$If!vh55555v5#v#v#v#v#vv#v:V l45 055555v5/  / /  / / /  / / / / /  / / 4f4$$If!vh5555#v#v#v#v:V l40++5555/ / / / / 4f4$$If!vh55*5555#v#v*#v#v:V l40++5*5/ / / / / /  /  / / /  / /  / / / 4f4$$If!vh55*5555#v#v*#v#v:V l4U055*55/  / /  / / /  / / / / /  / / 4f4 $$If!vh5L55F5#vL#v#vF#v:V l40++5L55F5/ /  / / / / 4f4$$If!vh5L5*5v5v55#vL#v*#vv#v#v:V l4V0++5*5v5/  / /  / /  /  / / /  / /  / / / 4f4$$If!vh5L5*5v5v55#vL#v*#vv#v#v:V l4 05L5*5v55/  / / / / /  / / / / /  / / 4f4dDphoenixxT$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / / / /  44 >aF$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / /  / 44 >a8$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / /  44 >a8$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / /  44 >a8$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / /  44 >a8$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / /  44 >aF$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / / /  44 >a$$If0!vh5558#v#v#v8:V 04+5558/ 44 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04+55v5/ 44 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v5/ 44 0a0f4p$$If!vh5 5x#v #vx:V l5 5x/ 4a$$If!vh5&5v5v5v5v5#v&#vv#v:V 05&5v5/ 44 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b544 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b544 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b544 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b544 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b544 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b5/ 44 0ap$$If!vh55 #v#v :V l55 / 4a$$If!vh555555#v#v#v#v#v#v:V 0555555/ 44 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h5455555/ 44 0a$$If!vh55p#v#vp:V l40+55p/ / / / 4af4$$If!vh555#v#v#v:V l40+55/  / / / 4af4$$If!vh555#v#v#v:V l0555/  4a8@8 Normal_H mH sH tH DA@D Default Paragraph FontVi@V  Table Normal :V 44 la (k@(No List DOD text$dh*$a$@CJOJQJjOj topic2&$ 00*$^`0a$5@CJOJQJmH sH u4 @4 Footer  !.)@!. Page NumberB"@B CaptionCJOJQJmH sH u>OB> table *$ 0 @OJQJ4@R4 Header  !6@b6  Footnote Text@&@q@ Footnote ReferenceH*XOX topic1$ H*$a$5@CJOJQJmH sH u7&޼PS     OPPS  t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t" ;$/91CLT9\_jrzKϲ\N [Dw$P  Z r  ;v>$ 4789Ul ;&U3j$%4lop[ \ o "$$%%%%(+V0W0{0N237r;s;;;<#<=={?AA1CUCEvFwFFF%HIIIIKKLNBNFNJNONPNNNN3OOOfOzOOO P)PNPPPPPQGQlQvQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQRR R RRRRRR$R)R.R3R8R9R>RCRHRMRRRWR\RaRfRgRlRmRrRsRxRyR~RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRSS SSSSS!S&S+S0S5S:S?SDSESJSKSPSQSVSWS\SaSfSkSlSqSvS{SSSSSSSSSSSSSSS>TTTTTT)U+U7U9UIUKUaUvUxU|UUUUUUUUVFV^VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVWW WWWW!W&W+W0W5W:W?W@W~WWXXtXuXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX5YUYYYY9ZuZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ[[ [[[[!["['[([-[2[7[<[A[F[K[L[Q[R[W[\[][[[:\;\\\\\\\\\\]]]]]$]%]:]c]w]]]]]]^^ ^^^^!^&^+^0^5^:^?^D^I^N^S^X^]^b^g^l^q^v^{^^^^^^^^^^^^!____'`)`5`7`G`I`_`t`v`z`~```````aOaaaabNbSbXb]bbbcbhbibnbsbxb}b~bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbcccc ccccc"c'c,c1c6c7cd?dehvjlllmnnno+o?ogohooooooooop p p$p*p2p:pApHpMpOpPpRpYp_pepmpup{ppppppppppppppppppppppppppqqqqq"q$q%q'q/q5q;qAqGqMqRqTqUqqq;tuu2uwww+x,xx@DHLPQjoty~%*/49:qv{ۀ !"<AFKPQmrw|ŁʁρЁTUc,F<=ˈ̈gh5]abcegiknoqÊ 6;@EJOPRًދ %*/45MN΍ =BGLQVWYmrw|܎38=BGLMO */49>CDFאܐ !"%mrw|ؑݑ@cd!"ԖՖ-137;<f̗ 'T !&+05:?DINSTz{Ś3xћ4TUklKt$8lHIqޥGfKLM0NOӭԭԯϲв>?aEv:367Nrfvw./&'-.tu[\9:-.HI>?*+|}-./~    v: v: v:  v: v: s s s  s s s ss s s s s        , .B $ Jb s B Jb B p    p   p     v:  B p     v: R! B  j μ     B B R! R! y3    Jb , ,   B Z {  B Jb μ B Jb B  Jb B  B I  ث s s  B V V V { ~ V  V Vjjjj~j~jRjjjjijjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj)&6 j " Z$ j v: B V(v:nv:nv:v:0v:00v:v:v:v:v:t(v:(v:(v:(v:(v:(v:(v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:7 j ~ ~  V Vv:v:v:v:0v:00v:Dv:v:Dv:v:tv:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:D( j " " v: V Vv:"v:"v:v:~0v:00v:Rv:v:v:v:`v:v:v:v:v:v:v:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:" j " " V Vtv:v:v:nv:n~0v:00v:Rv:v:v:v:`tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:l! j " " v: v: NBNFNJNNNONPNNNN3OOOfOzOOO P)PNPPPPPQGQlQvQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQRR R RRRRRR$R)R.R3R8R9R>RCRHRMRRRWR\RaRfRgRlRmRrRsRxRyR~RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRSS SSSSS!S&S+S0S5S:S?SDSESJSKSPSQSVSWS\SaSfSkSlSqSvS{SSSSSSSSSSSSSSS>TTTTTTT)U+U7U9UIUKUaUvUwUxU|UUUUUUUUUVFV^VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVWW WWWW!W&W+W0W5W:W?W@W~WWXXtXuXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX5YUYYYY9ZuZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ[[ [[[[!["['[([-[2[7[<[A[F[K[L[Q[R[W[\[][[[8\:\;\\\\\\\\\\]]]]]]#]$]%]:]c]w]]]]]]^^ ^^^^!^&^+^0^5^:^?^D^I^N^S^X^]^b^g^l^q^v^{^^^^^^^^^^^^!_____'`)`5`7`G`I`_`t`u`v`z`~````````aOaaaabNbSbXb]bbbcbhbibnbsbxb}b~bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbcccc ccccc"c'c,c1c6c7cd?dehvjlllmnnno+o?ogohoooooooooopp p p$p*p2p:pApHpMpOpPpRpYp_pepmpup{ppppppppppppppppppppppppppqqqqq"q$q%q'q/q5q;qAqGqMqRqTqUqqq;tuu2uwww+x,xx?@DHLPQjoty~%*/49:qv{ۀ !"<AFKPQmrw|ŁʁρЁTUc,F<=ˈ̈gh5]abcegiknoqÊ 6;@EJOPRًދ %*/45MN΍ =BGLQVWYmrw|܎38=BGLMO */49>CDFאܐ !"%mrw|ؑݑ@cd!"ԖՖ-1237;<f̗ 'T !&+05:?DINSTz{Ś3xћ4TUklKt$8lHIqޥGfKLM0NOӭԭԯϲв>?aEv:367Nrfvw./&'-.tu[\9:-.HI>?*+|}-./~00000000000000000 0 0000 000000000000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000 0 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00 00 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000 0 000000000 00 00 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ! 0! 0! 0! 0! 0! 0! 0 0000000 0000000 0000000 0000000 0000000 0 0000000 00 00 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 " 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0 00000000 00 00 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 # 0# 0# 0# 0# 0# 0# 0 0000000 0000000 0000000 0000000 0000000 0 0000000 00 00 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 $ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0  0000000000000 0000000000000 0000000000000 0000000000000 0000000000000 0 00000000000000000000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000000000000& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0 000000000 000 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00000' 0' 0' 0' 0' 0' 0' 00000000 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000000000000 00 0 0 0 0 0 ) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0  0000000000 0000000000 0 000* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0 * 0 0000000- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0 - 0 - 0 000. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 00000000000000000000000000000000 0 0 0 0 0 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000h0000h00h0 0h0 0h0 0h0 h0 h0 h0 00h0h0 $$$'%#P\2gw#O/uz} o(#DQP~9!PωanO4M=mܖ3*טmؙ@1;SKGԷvxy{|~w  '!!8@N(  VB  C D"VB  C D"B S  ?^LSc0ct22t~@\@@@@@T@@4@L@T @\P @| @D@O@\@@Ti@ܛ@To@DN@@@@@K@T@|@|L@~@{@| @!@LS"@#@ $@L %@&&@,''@l')@'*@,(,@l(-@'.@(0@,)1@l)3@)4@(5@)6@,*7@l*8@*9@*:@,+;@l+<@,=@,>@-?@D-@@-A@-B@.C@D.D@.E@.G@D/H@/I@/J@/K@0L@D0N@0O@1P@0Q@D1R@1S@1T@2V@2W@2X@D2Y@3Z@D3[@3\@3]@4^@D4_@4`@4a@|5b@5c@5d@<6e@|6f@6g@6h@<7i@|7j@7k@7l@<8m@|8n@8o@8p@<9q@|9r@9s@9t@<:u@|:v@:w@:x@<;y@|;z@;{@;|@<<~@<@<@|<@<=@DF@F@F@G@DG'llz: ! !!!'!0!0!n*n*,,O3O3X399;;>>>%syyy2ccT]%%//SS\hhvpp{'^^\\ 44B)iirtt##qqz??      "!#%$&'()*+,-./0123465798:;<>=?@ABDCEFGHJIKLMNOPQRSTUWVXZY[]\^`_acbdefghijklnmopqrstuvwxzy{|}#..v@ !!!&!.!6!6!t*t*,,W3b3b399<<>>>*syyy9hh\g,,55[ffry,eedd"">II(++q||%%{{**yEE  "!#%$&'()*+,-./0123465798:;<>=?@ABDCEFGHJIKLMNOPQRSTUWVXZY[]\^`_acbdefghijklnmopqrstuvwxzy{|}9G*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsStateBd*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagscountry-region8m*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsCity=|*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceName=}*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceType9~*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplace ( ~}|~}|~}|~~|}||}~m~m~m~|}~d~d~}|~~|}~|}mdd~m|}d~m~d~m~mG~}|~~~mG~mG~}|~mG~}|~d|}~d~G~G~}|~}|~|}~mG~|}~d~d~d~d~|}~m~G~|}~m~mG~d06>JNTtw  0!6!;$<$&#&&&7(:(((51<111<2E2N2S2e4j4r4x45555m6x6666666677 7,94969@9E9K9S9Y9< <>>>>HHHHIIII>NANBNENFNINJNMNxU{U|UUUUUUUUXXXXXXXX]]]]]]]"]v`y`z`}`~````h h||@CDGHKLOЁӁ^c367:TWehBJ#$§ ۨߨSW"-6=w|& u|+1\_.5IO'-PW +0`fmpy./x|jr05<<==LLLL?dEdhkzkkkk lmmnnqrvvww*{5{̈fKM 2=d!3ǷʷKN(IJp4&-h6n%%,.mo(\}(,!-BCGI['.?jl@_hj /W::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::.//E:Y*W:y=pQ{;IpQEDD|:SZ :3a T:z:opQ GΌlUD|iJ M$k %D|R%pQ5i&& :j+ yX/,yl/:h=/D|="4b;b4 ¥B@v`CxACbaGYMJG+,Of9+QpQnQD|guuSpQi `Y0\pQK ]D|6^ HqEa:reBJaL[~a b\ـLb ':g:npQarpQ{t:5v.TLD|hh^h`56.hh^h`o(.@P^`P.@P^`P.@^`.hh^h`56.hh^h`o(.0^`0o()hh^h`56.hh^h`o(.@P^`P. 0 ^ `0o(.@^`.0^`0o(.@^`.@P^`P.P^`Po(.hh^h`.@@@^@`()hh^h`o(.@^`. II^I`56o( ^`56o(. P0P^P`056o(..  0 ^ `056o(... 8 8 ^8 `56o( .... xx^x`56o( .....  ` ^ ``56o( ......  ```^```56o(.......  ^`56o(........0^`0o(.::^:`5o(::^:`5o(.0^`05o(..0^`05o(... 88^8`5o( .... 88^8`5o( ..... `^``5o( ...... `^``5o(....... ^`5o(........@P^`P)hh^h`o(.0^`0o(.|^`|o(.^`o(.@P^`P.@^`.@P^`P.0^`0o(()@P^`P.@^`.  ^ `o(.::^:`o(.@P^`P. hh^h`OJQJo(h^`.hpp^p`.h@ L@ ^@ `L.h^`.h^`.hL^`L.h^`.hPP^P`.h L ^ `L. ^`OJQJo(()^`o(.@P^`P.@P^`P.hh^h`56.^`o(.@^`./o\aG5v:gi `YAC:nBJay=yX/K ]Uh=/$k %guuSnQL`C+QarB4R%{;IHqEa6^Lb :j+ G="4Ez{tiEDYMJ3a SZ ,OY*Wayl/5i&b//=q89LMMMMMNNBNFNJNNNONPNQQfRRDSSSTTT)U7UIUvUwUxU|UUUUUUVVVVW?W@WXtXuXXXXXXXXXXXXXZZZ[2[\[][;\\\\\\]]]]]]#]$]%]]^?^b^^^^___'`5`G`t`u`v`z`~`````Nbbbb"cWcXchoooooooooopp p p$p*p2p:pApHpMpOpPpRpYp_pepmpup{ppppppppppppppppppppppppppqqqqq"q$q%q'q/q5q;qAqGqMqRqTqUq"~#~~'>?@DHLPQjoty~%*/49:qv{ۀ !"<AFKPQmrw|ŁʁρЁh5abcegiknoqÊ 6;@EJOPRًދ %*/45M =BGLQVWYmrw|܎38=BGLMO */49>CDFאܐ !"%mrw|ؑݑԖՖ1237;<!ST/@,@@UnknownG: Times New Roman5Symbol3& ‡: ArialG WP MathBSymbolCFComic Sans MS71 Courier"1h3&3&F)!q)!q!24d3HX)?=q2COMMUNICATION CULTURE WITHIN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES: GENDER DIMENSIONS, OBSTACLES AND INFLUENCE ON THE WORK-ROLE OF THE ACADEMICSChuzy Obinna Anyakohauwc/                           ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . Oh+'0$0P\l x    COMMUNICATION CULTURE WITHIN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES: GENDER DIMENSIONS, OBSTACLES AND INFLUENCE ON THE WORK-ROLE OF THE ACADEMICSChuzy Obinna AnyakohaNormaluwc2Microsoft Office Word@Ik@O@|j)@|j))!՜.+,0 hp  e University of Nigeria, Nsukkaq COMMUNICATION CULTURE WITHIN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES: GENDER DIMENSIONS, OBSTACLES AND INFLUENCE ON THE WORK-ROLE OF THE ACADEMICS Title  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~     !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~Root Entry F()Data <1Table iAWordDocument5SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjq  FMicrosoft Office Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q
Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 23

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 24

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 25

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 26
ࡱ> #` bjbj\.\. 5>D>D/Q%FFF\  I84\\xUe;z":::::::$<hG?Z ; A@AA ; ;555A  :5A:55&' <, 5$)' t+dX,5;0e;+d@"@<,@ <,5 ; ;e;AAAAxUxUxUxUxUxU4   p   COMMUNICATION CULTURE WITHIN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES: GENDER DIMENSIONS, OBSTACLES AND INFLUENCE ON THE WORK-ROLE OF THE ACADEMICS By Dr. Elizabeth U. Anyakoha Department of Vocational Education University of Nigeria, Nsukka Mrs. Anthonia O. Uzuegbunam Department of Sociology University of Nigeria, Nsukka Mrs. Kodilichukwu S. Ezeike Registrars Department University of Nigeria, Nsukka  ABSTRACT This study was designed to investigate the existence and utilisation of communication channels between academics and administration in Nigerian universities, with a view to determining their influence on the work-roles and welfare of academics, and evolving ways of enhancing the use of the channels. The study covered those formal channels through which academics and administration ought to communicate on issues relating to selected aspects of the work-role and welfare of the academics. The study population included academic and administrative staff in Nigerian universities. Questionnaires and Focus Group Discussions (FGD) were used. The findings of the study include, among others, information on (53) channels of communication; levels at which the subjects are aware and utilise the channels; and levels at which channels meet the information needs of the academics. Specifically, findings relate to possible new channels of communication, gender related factors that influence the utilisation of channels; ways by which existence and utilisation of channels can influence the work-roles and welfare of academics; obstacles to utilisation of channels and strategies for enhancing utilisation of channels. Based on the findings, policy recommendations for improving communication between academics and administration are made. 1. INTRODUCTION Culture represents the collective, mutually shaping patterns of norms, values, practices... that guide the behaviours of individuals and groups (Kuh and Whitt, 1988). Institutional culture denotes those norms, values, practices, beliefs and assumptions that direct the behaviour of the individuals and groups in a given institution. It involves the institutions own ways of doing things, its knowledge, body of traditions, values and orientation. Clark (1983) noted that cultural issues revolve around how groups of people, such as academics, construct meaning. The shared norms and values are influential within a university setting in achieving co-operative activity and survival of the universities (Dill, 1992). Communication, with its channels, constitutes a vital aspect of university culture. It permeates all the activities in an organisation and is a thread that holds the various interdependent parts of the institution together (Rogers and Agawala-Rogers, 1976). Effective communication within the university is crucial because it enables the various actors within the institution to clarify individual perceptions and discern institutional precepts. It also helps individuals to produce the co-operation needed to reach institutional goals. As an important aspect of culture, communication within the university affects the academic staff in all they do, as they organise and establish goals for their work, interact with students, balance their diverse responsibilities, participate in institutional affairs, and proceed through their careers. Many conflictual situations that characterise universities in Africa have, however, been attributed to poor communication among the various actors within the university community (Saint, 1992; Okafor, 1992 and National Universities Commission (NUC), 1996). Nigerian universities are characterised by internal conflicts, including those between administration and academics. Some of these often lead to work stoppage or even closure of universities. Since these conflicts often stem from poor communication, it is necessary to seek ways of enhancing communication among the actors within the universities. The communication must necessarily occur through channels. Hence NUC has on occasion issued circulars on the problem of channels of communication within the Nigerian universities (Ikoku, 1990). Academics, by virtue of their crucial positions as builders, members of the committee system upon which the administration of the university is based, members of an organised union within the university, should constitute a vital part of the communication network and information flow within the university community. Therefore, appropriate channels of communication must necessarily exist between the academics and other groups within the university, including the administration. Such channels should also meet the information needs of the academics. There is no doubt that various channels of communication presently exist between academics and administration in Nigerian Universities. However, what is unclear at present is the status of the communication channels and their utilisation. Consequently, the following questions arise: to what extent is the communication between academics and administration actually fluid? What channels of communication exist between academics and administration, and how functional are the channels? To what extent do academics and administration utilise the channels? What is the influence of these on the work-role of the academics? 1.1 Objectives The study was designed to investigate the present status of the existence and utilisation of communication channels between academics and administration in Nigerian universities, with a view to determining the influence of these on the work-role and welfare of the academics, and evolving ways of enhancing the use of the communication channels. Specifically, the study sought to determine:- the specific channels of communication that presently exist between individual academics and the university administration on issues relating to the work-role and welfare of the academics; whether or not the academics and administration are aware of the communication channels, and the extent to which they utilise them; the extent to which the existing channels of communication meet the information needs of the academics; the extent to which gender issues influence the academics' awareness and utilisation of the channels of communication between the university administration and the academics; other possible channels of communication that could be established between academics and administration within Nigerian universities; the ways by which the existence, and utilisation (effective or otherwise), of existing channels of communication can influence the work-role and welfare of the academics; the obstacles to the effective utilisation of the channels of communication between academics and administration, in Nigerian universities; possible strategies for enhancing the communication between academics and administration in Nigerian universities. The policy implications of objectives 1 - 8 for university management. 1.2 Hypotheses The study tested the following hypotheses at the 0.05 level of significance:- The academics' awareness of the existence of channels of communication between them and the administrators is independent of their institutions, status, sex, qualifications, years of experience and faculties/fields of specialisation. There are no significant differences in the academics' mean ratings of the extent to which they utilise the channels of communication with reference to their institutions, status, sex, qualification, years of experience and faculties/field of specialisation. 1.2 Significance of the Study It is expected that the findings of this study would be utilised by the relevant policy makers, both within the university and outside it (such as NUC), to sensitise academics and university administrators on the crucial importance of the communication channels. Policy makers can utilise the findings to develop workable policy guidelines to enhance the effectiveness, and utilisation, of existing communication channels. Consequently, the study's findings provide a basis for the university administration to continuously inform academics on crucial issues affecting them and the university. It is anticipated that the findings will enhance the participation of academics in decision making within the university. 1.3 Research Scope The study targeted all the Nigerian universities. There are presently 36 universities (24 federal-owned and 12 state-owned) in the country and a Military University (Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna). There are three generations of federal universities (5 first, 8 second and 11 third generations). Most of the second and third generation universities started as campuses of the first generation universities and would be expected to have inherited some cultural norms, including those relating to communication, from their prime universities. Four universities were purposively selected for the study. The communication process involves the sending of messages (on issues relating to the work-role and welfare of the academics), between the university administration and academics through established formal channels. This study covered those formal channels through which the academic staff and university administration ought to communicate on issues relating to: (i) work-roles of the academics - teaching, advising and supervising students; research and publishing; (ii) welfare of academics - promotion/appraisal and salaries/allowances. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW This review covers studies related to university culture and communication in the university. It also indicates gaps in the discourse on communication culture in Nigerian universities, gaps this study seeks to fill. 2.1 University Culture: The university is a complex organisation (Sanda, 1992), whose characteristics include division of labour, power and communication responsibilities (Etzioni, 1964). It also has a unique culture. Elements that contribute to a university's unique culture are its institutional mission and purpose, its size, complexity, age, location, the way in which authority is conceived and structured, the organisation of work (especially teaching and inquiry), the curricular structure and academic standards, student and faculty characteristics and the physical environment (Clark, 1983; Kuh and Whitt, 1988). Through their missions, organisation, expectations and rewards, university cultures reflect the responsibilities, workload and priorities of academics. Kuh and Whitt (1988) pointed out that cultures or interpretative frameworks in which faculty (academics) live and work affect them in all they do as they organise and establish goals for their work, interact with students, balance their diverse responsibilities, participate in institutional affairs, and their careers. Faculty members work in and experience several cultures simultaneously (Austin, 1992). Four dominant cultures affect faculty members. These include disciplinary cultures; institutional culture; cultures of national systems; and the culture of the academic profession (Clark, 1987a & b; Austin, 1992). Communication, with its relevant channels, plays a dominant role within and across these cultures. While the various cultural beliefs and values loosely unite faculty across the profession, their meanings and the ways in which they play out in faculty members' work and behaviours differ depending on the discipline, institution, and national system (Austin, 1992). The understanding of the nature of faculty cultures requires recognition that the values and commitments of these cultures sometimes conflict. Consequently, the nature of a faculty member's professional life is forged out of the accommodations, trade-offs, and choices made in response to sometimes conflicting cultural imperatives. Clark (1986) and Rice (1986) reported that loss of faculty morale, trust, and community could develop through the clash of cultures. Institutions seeking to minimise the tensions that faculty members may experience from the conflicting cultural values, must make institutional priorities clear, open avenues through which members from different disciplinary cultures can understand each other, clarify evaluation and reward systems, and go about their work-role (Austin, 1992). This makes effective communication between the faculty and the university administration crucial. 2.1 Communication in the University Communication is the "lifeblood of an organisation"; it permeates all activities in an organisation, represents an important work-role, and integrates the various sub-units (Rogers and Agawala-Rogers, 1976). The importance of communication in the university has been variously stressed (Alele-Williams, 1989). Communication seems to be the most crucial factor in smoothing relationships between all component units within the university community (Akinkugbe, 1983). Sanda (1992) observed that formal and informal lines of communication between the differentiated groups in the university, and between the university, and the micro-and macro-environment of the Nigerian society, often serve to enhance the complexity of the Nigerian University. These lines of communication also define the institutions goals, absorb its outputs, and either alleviate or complicate the university's problems. Various channels of communication exist between administration and academics within Nigerian universities (Ikoku, 1990; Ukpabi, 1992; NUC, 1996). These channels include, among others, the written, oral (face to face) and electronic channels. In spite of these channels, various conflictual situations attributable to ineffective communication have continued to plague Nigerian universities (Ikoku 1990). Saint (1992) reported that many of the problems that had led to the closure of many African universities in recent years could have been avoided by more effective communication among the contending parties. These problems (conflictual relationships) abound among the various groups of actors in the Nigerian universities (Okafor, 1992; Obineme, 1995; Afolabi, Olaosebikan and Adebisi, 1995). In spite of existing channels of communication within the universities, these problem situations have continued to constitute various forms of crises within universities. While a lot of attention has been focused on communication between university students and administration, much less attention appears to be directed to that between academics and administration. For instance, various studies have examined, and made suggestions on, ways of enhancing communication between students and administration in Nigerian universities (Anyakoha, Uzuegbunam and Ezeike, 1995; Okoewo 1988; Saint 1992). A recent study on academic staff in African universities, including Nigeria, focused on academic staff loss and retention at selected African universities, with a view to identifying areas which may be suitable for policy interventions to improve academic staff retention (Blair and Jordan, 1995). However, this study did not cover the status of communication between academics and administration, and its influence on the work-roles of the academic staff. This constitutes a gap which this study attempts to fill. 3. METHODOLOGY 3.1 Population of the Study: The study population was made up of two categories of subjects within Federal universities in Nigeria: i. Academic staff ; and, ii. University administrators - these are persons who are expected to relate with the academic staff in any administrative capacity, and may be involved in making decisions that influence their work-roles and/or welfare. Examples include academic administrators (Heads of academic Departments, Deans of Faculties, Directors of Institutes, Vice-chancellors and Deputy Vice-chancellors, and non-academic administrators. 3.2 Sample for the Study: Four federal universities were purposively selected from the first and second-generation universities. These included two first generation universities, (University of Ibadan (UI) and University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN)); and two second generation universities, (University of Jos (UNIJOS) and University of Port-Harcourt (UNIPORT)). The purposive selection reflected the geographical spread of the country. Stratified random sampling technique was utilised to select the subjects from the selected universities in order to ensure that the sample was representative of the population in terms of such critical factors as sex, faculties, years of experience and rank. One hundred and thirty (130) academic staff and one hundred (100) administrators (40 each of academic administrators, and 60 each of administrative officers and secretaries) were selected from each of the four universities. These gave a total of 520 academics and 400 administrators (920 subjects). 3.3. Instrument for Data Collection: The study relied on two data collection instruments; first, two questionnaire surveys, one among academics and the other among administrators), and second, focus group discussions (FGD). Draft questionnaires were developed and validated by two specialists in industrial relations. Thereafter the instruments were modified and field-tested prior to use. 3.4 Data Collection and analysis: A total of 920 copies of the questionnaires (520 and 400 for academics and administrators respectively) were distributed. Seven hundred and sixty-six (423 and 343 from academics and administrators respectively) were properly completed and returned (77.47%). Eight focus group discussion sessions were held, two in each of the four institutions, (one for academics and one for administrators). Each group was representative of the population. Data analysis techniques included descriptive statistics (means, proportions and percentages), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), and Chi-square. The unit of analysis was the individual channel of communication. Data analysis was carried out using the statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The Focus Group discussions were summarised and grouped. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The following findings were made based on the specific objectives of the study: A total of 53 channels of communication were identified relating to the selected aspects of academics' work roles (teaching, advising and supervising students, and research/publication), and welfare (promotion/ appraisal and salaries/allowances), as well as general channels. These findings are represented in Tables 1 5. These findings confirm the fact that channels of communication between administration and academics exist in Nigerian universities. This is consistent with the evidence in literature (Anyakoha et. al., 1995; Ikoku, 1990; Sanda, 1992; Ukpabi, 1992). 4.1 Awareness and Utilisation of Communication Channels by Academics and the extent to which these channels meet the information needs of academics The findings are organised in Tables 1 5, each representing one of the five groups of channels, namely: (I) teaching, advising, and supervising students (ii) research and publishing; (iii) promotion/appraisal; (iv) salaries/allowances; and (v) general channels. Each of the five tables reveals the subjects (administrators and academics) awareness and extent of utilisation of each channel, as well as the extent to which the channels meet the information needs of the academics. The following scales were used for making decisions on the channels. < 40 per cent = Very low awareness of existence of channel 40 49 per cent = Low awareness 50 69 per cent = High awareness 70 per cent and above = Very high awareness <2.00 (() = Minimally utilised/Never meets information needs 2.00 2.49 = Occasionally utilised/Meets information need 2.50 3.00 = Utilised whenever required/Always meets information needs Table 1: Responses of Subjects on Channels Related to Teaching, Advising and Supervising Students Channels Related to Teaching, Student Advising and SupervisionA Awareness %B Utilisation (()C Information Needs (() (for Academics only)AcaAdmAcaAdmHead of Department (HOD) (informs academic on work-role Dean of Faculty (informs academic on work-role) Course description/Departmental Handbook (indicates course content) Departmental Time-Table (shows schedule for lectures) Organised circulars/letters Examination Time-Table Result/Grade sheets Departmental Format/guidelines for project presentation/reports Students' course registration sheets/forms Departmental/Faculty Board Meetings Departmental/Faculty Committees Faculty Administrative officers (AO) Department/Faculty Orientation & induction course for new staff Departmental/Faculty Secretary Departmental/Faculty Messenger Staff letter box in the department/mail box Departmental/Faculty notice board Departmental float file for academic staff Departmental annual situation report Telephone Faculty Handbook  97.0 71.2 95.3 99.5 93.5 98.0 94.6 73.3 95.8 98.3 92.2 89.1 27.8 92.5 90.3 92.3 94.6 56.8 29.8 20.2 54.7 98.0 90.0 98.5 97.3 89.3 98.0 94.8 82.5 93.5 98.3 93.3 87.3 49.0 95.3 93.5 91.0 94.0 57.8 49.0 46.5 70.8 2.73 2.20 2.71 2.83 2.50 2.73 2.69 2.24 2.57 2.66 2.42 2.25 1.39 2.41 2.25 2.50 2.42 1.80 1.34 1.24 1.74 2.64 2.45 2.60 2.74 2.45 2.82 2.73 2.40 2.65 2.66 2.58 2.36 1.68 2.51 2.49 2.54 2.43 1.81 1.64 1.54 2.04 2.48 2.05 2.56 2.76 2.42 2.42 2.57 2.17 2.50 2.43 2.25 2.12 1.35 2.23 2.11 2.37 2.23 1.69 1.31 1.20 1.64Column A = % Responses on Awareness of existence of channels. Column B = Mean (() responses on Utilisation of channels by administrators Column C = Mean (() responses by academics on the extent to which channels meet their information needs. Table 2: Responses of Subjects on Channels Related to Research and Publication Channels Related to Research and PublicationA Awareness %B Utilisation (()C Information Needs (() (for Academics only)AcaAdmAcaAdmDeputy Vice-Chancellor Academics Faculty/Deans/HODs Circulars Faculty Research Grants and Publications Committees Senate Research Grant Committee University Publications Committee/Press Notice Boards/bulletins Information and Public Relations Department (PRO)66.8 85.5 71.8 82.8 63.8 86.5 81.390.8 92.8 84.5 91.5 86.5 94.0 91.81.69 2.23 1.91 1.99 1.52 2.06 1.811.93 2.35 2.11 2.22 1.88 2.33 2.161.59 2.14 1.79 1.87 1.50 1.97 1.77Column A = % Responses on Awareness of existence of channels. Column B = Mean (() responses on Utilisation of channels. Column C = Mean (() responses on extent to which channels meet the information needs of academics. Table 3: Responses of Subjects on Channels Related to Promotion/Appraisal of Academics Channels Related to Promotion/AppraisalA Awareness %B Utilisation (()C Information Needs (() (for Academics only)AcaAdmAcaAdmCall circular for appraisals (from Personnel Services) Academics Staff Appraisal Forms Departmental/Faculty circulars/letter (on Appraisal issues) Personal contact with HOD/Dean of Faculty Personal contact with Personnel Officer University guidelines for Appointments and Promotions of Academic Staff (Yellow Book) University Appointments and Promotions/Appraisal Committees Vice-chancellor (VC)81.8 87.5 82.3 95.5 60.0 70.0 88.5 80.894.5 89.5 89.8 96.0 82.3 88.0 94.0 79.52.23 2.36 2.21 2.53 1.76 1.97 2.00 1.782.65 2.56 2.42 2.50 2.09 2.34 2.43 1.892.10 2.22 1.12 2.41 1.63 1.83 1.87 1.67Column A = % Responses on Awareness of existence of channels. Column B = Mean (() responses on Utilisation of channels. Column C = Mean (() responses on extent to which channels meet the information needs of academics. Table 4: Responses of Subjects on Channels Related to Salaries and Allowances of Academics Channels Related to Salaries and AllowancesA Awareness %B Utilisation (()C Information Needs (() (for Academics only)AcaAdmAcaAdmSalaries scale sheet Appointment letter/conditions of service Staff Salary Ledger Academics staff personal emolument (PE) Office Organised circulars/letter Pay slip Personal contact with the Bursar/Bursary Staff83.8 93.5 62.0 61.0 61.5 95.0 81.593.0 97.0 75.3 65.0 65.5 98.0 85.02.11 2.50 1.66 1.56 1.84 2.72 2.132.40 2.61 2.06 1.96 1.94 2.71 2.152.08 2.35 1.63 1.17 1.76 2.63 1.93Column A = % Responses on Awareness of existence of channels. Column B = Mean (() responses on Utilisation of channels. Column C = Mean (() responses on extent to which channels meet the information needs of academics. Table 5: Responses of Subjects on General Channels Related to both Work-Role and Welfare General Channels dealing with both Work-role and welfare of AcademicsA Awareness %B Utilisation (()C Information Needs (() (for Academics only)AcaAdmAcaAdmUniversity Bulletin (Weekly) University Calendar (Yearly) Academic Regulations for Staff and students Staff Handbook (Rules and Regulations) University Administrative Procedures (Guide to New Staff) Staff Letter box at the Central Potters Lodge/Administration Building University Central Bulletin Board Institutions Time-table of Events Faculty Representative in the Senate Opinion boxers established by administration at strategic point in the campus52.8 66.0 54.3 39.8 21.0 70.5 53.0 60.8 85.0 14.062.5 78.5 70.8 64.3 37.3 90.8 72.5 82.0 87.3 79.01.66 1.76 1.72 1.43 1.23 1.85 1.54 1.76 1.86 1.111.76 1.93 1.99 1.89 1.50 2.14 1.83 2.16 2.08 1.911.88 1.69 1.66 1.43 1.24 1.82 1.56 1.77 1.80 1.18Column A = % Responses on Awareness of existence of channels. Column B = Mean (() responses on extent of Utilisation of channels. Column C = Mean (() responses on extent to which channels meet the information needs of academics. Tables 1 5 deal with the five groups of channels namely, teaching, advising, and teaching students; research and publication; salaries/allowances; promotion/appraisal and the general channels dealing with both work-role and welfare of academics. Columns A, B and C of tables 1 5 deal with findings on Awareness (%), Utilisation (() and Extent to which channels meet information needs of academics. Column A of each Table shows that most (70% and above) of subjects (academics and administrators) are highly aware of most of the channels. However, the tables also show that 70 per cent and more of the administrators are highly aware of 44 (83.0%) of the total of 53 channels, while a similar percentage of the academics are aware of only 34 (64.2%) of the channels. This suggests that administrators are aware of more channels than the academics. This finding could be a reflection of the fact that in most cases the administrators are custodians of the channels (Ikoku 1990). On the extent of utilisation, columns B of Tables 1 5 reveal that only 12 and 15 (22.6% and 28.3%) of the channels are utilised by the academics and administrators, respectively, whenever required. The columns also show that while 15 (28.3%) of the channels are utilised occasionally by the academics, 22 (41.5%) are utilised "occasionally" by the administrators. These findings, while they suggest that administrators utilised more of the channels, also show that the very high level of awareness of the channels by both groups of subjects is not matched by a corresponding high level of utilisation. On the extent to which the 53 channels meet the information needs of the academics, (Columns C of Tables 1 5 reveal that only 5 (9.4%) channels always meet the information needs of the academics. Further 18 (34.0%) of the channels meet their information needs occasionally, while 30 (56.6%) never meet the information needs of the academics. These findings suggest that even though academics might utilise channels either occasionally or whenever required, the channels generally fail to always meet their information needs. Thus utilisation does not guarantee the meeting of information needs. Hypothesis 1 (HO1) The first hypothesis was that academics' awareness of the existence of channels of communication between them and the administrators is independent of their institutions, status, sex, qualifications, years of experience and faculties/fields of specialisation. In order to test the null hypothesis, Chi-square computations were carried out using the awareness frequencies for each group of channels, namely: 1) Teaching, advising, and supervising students channels 2) Research and publications channels 3) Promotion/Appraisal channels 4) Salaries and Allowances channels 5) General channels The results are summarised in Table 6. Table 6: Chi-square ((2) Results for HOI for each of the five groups of Channels PRIVATE Variables TeachResearchPromotionSalariesGeneralTable (2DF1Institutions 1, 2, 3 & 41.49312.345*22.021*8.624*8.801*7.8232Status3.0777.72715.141*10.966*1.9967.8233Sex0.5490.6942.5520.6761.0283.8114Qualification4.7844.6364.8417.2795.2737.8235Year of Experience2.7614.02415.158*8.530*10.994*5.0926Faculty1.2423.4421.7922.8692.3247.823P = 0.05; * = Cases where Table (2 values are higher than the calculated values. The findings in Table 6 reveal the factors that are significant at 0.05 level of significance for each of the five groups of channels. These factors include institution, status and years of experience. The Ho was thus rejected for these three factors. In other words, the finding on institution could be attributed to specific cultures that characterise each specific institution. Clark (1987a) observed that while faculty members are socially embedded in the cultures of the respective disciplines, they still encounter the pressure of institutional cultures. Such cultures could influence the existence of channels and academics awareness of the channels. Again, years of experience and status relate. People who have spent longer time in the university are likely to be senior academics (high in status). These persons are also likely to be aware of more channels of communication. Hypothesis 2 (HO2) Restated, the second hypothesis stated that there are no significant differences in the academics mean rating of the extent to which they utilise the channels of communication with reference to their: institutions, status, sex qualification, years of experience, faculty/field of specialisation. This HO2 was tested for each of the five groups of channels at 0.05 level of significance using ANOVA (not shown). The findings as with HO1 show that institution, years of experience and status were significant factors at the 0.05 level of significance, with regard to the academics utilisation of the channels of communication. 4.2 Possible New channels of communication between academics and administration in Nigerian Universities (Innovations in Channels) Both the academics and the administrators suggested a total of 10 possible new channels of communication (on issues relating to the work-roles and welfare of academics). The channels are as follows:- Constant/regular meetings between academics and administration/Dialogue Provision of Intercoms\telephones for academics and administration Lecturer-Student Information guide Instrument for assessing academics' performance in the class Regular University bulletin Information Centre for academics Academic Staff Welfare programme Opinion boxes for academic staff Comprehensive manual on academic work-role, which should be subject to regular review Special complaints committee on academic staff welfare. 4.3 Gender issues influencing the academics awareness and utilisation of Channels of communication Gender is a socio-cultural and historical construct, which denotes qualities, behaviours and roles ascribed by different societies/cultures to men and women. Gender discrimination involves different treatments to individuals on the grounds of their gender (UNICEF 1994). Gender discrimination occurs in various facets of the Nigerian society including the education system (Alele-Williams 1993). This study thus identified issues related to gender that could influence the academics awareness and utilisation of channels of communication. The findings are summarised in column A of Table 7. The study also determined those factors that are advantageous to the academics; these are presented in column B of Table 7. Table 7: Responses of Academics on Gender related Factors Influencing the Academics' Awareness and Utilisation of Channels of Communication Possible Gender Related Factors Affecting Awareness and Utilisation of Channels(A) Extent Of Influence Of Factors (()(B) Advantage (Yes %)AcaAdmAcaAdm1. Sex of the academics2.412.7743.045.02. Age of the academic2.742.9554.574.03. Professional rank of the academic3.613.6385.392.04. Number of years the academic has spent in the University3.373.5482.385.85. The area of specialisation/faculty of the academic2.702.8252.548.36. The fact that the academic had held an administrative post/elected post before3.323.5383.886.37. The academic is a woman2.272.4433.021.58. The academic is a man2.552.6036.536.39. The academic is married2.172.3632.021.510. The academic is single/ divorced/ separated/ widowed2.112.0829.511.0Aca = Academics; Adm = Administrators; Column A = Mean scores on extent of influence of factors; Column B = "Yes" % for Advantages; Factors with mean scores of 2.49 and below have no influence, while those with 2.50 3.49 have moderate influence, and those with 3.50 4.00 have high influence. Column A of Table 7 shows that four of the factors have high influence. These are also the factors that have high advantage scores of 82.5 92.0 per cent. These factors (Nos. 3, 4, and 6) are professional rank of the academic, number of years the academic has spent in the university and the fact that the academic has held an administrative post/elected post before. These factors relate to rank/status and they are relevant to gender. This is because there are abundant evidence that women are found at the lower professional ranks, unable to progress to seniority at the same pace as their male colleagues (Alele-Williams, 1993). By virtue of their lower ranks many women might not have held administrative/elected posts before. These situations are likely to be disadvantages to women and could influence their awareness and utilisation of channels of communication. The subjects also gave seven other factors that could influence the academics awareness and utilisation of channels as free responses. These responses are summarised as follows: Religious affiliation State/Ethnic origin/tribe Personal relationships, e.g. Old Boy/Girls Association, Club/Association Memberships Academics (female) husband on campus Rank of female academics husband Academic married to senior administrative staff Academics desire to acquire information 4.4 Ways in which the existence and effective utilisation or otherwise of the channels can influence the work-roles and welfare of academics Tables 8 and 9 show the findings on the ways by which the existence and utilisation of the channels can influence the work-roles and welfare of academics. Table 8: Mean Responses of Academics on ways by which the Existence and Effective Utilisation or otherwise of the Channels can influence their Work-role Ways Channels can Influence Work-Role of AcademicsMean Responses on Influence of Channels (()1234(A1Academic could be unaware of work-role/responsibility3.223.223.002.903.092Academic could fail to carry out work-role3.813.123.413.153.373Academic may refuse to carry out work-role3.512.843.233.013.154Work-role could be carried out below expected/stated standard3.693.363.763.703.635Execution of responsibility could be delayed3.793.824.084.023.936Expected result might not be achieved3.773.544.113.973.851 = UNIJOS (102 SS); 2 = UNIPORT (100 SS); 3 = UNN (112 SS); 4 = UI (109 SS); Grand Mean (A = Means of the mean responses. Table 9: Mean Responses of Academics on ways by which the Existence and Utilisation (effective or otherwise) of the Channels can influence their Welfare. Ways Channels can Influence Work-Role of AcademicsMean Responses on Influence of Channels (()1234(A 1Academic may: Fail to complete appraisal forms 3.52 3.13 3.55 2.99 3.302Not be appraised/promoted as and at when due3.953.824.103.733.903Be wrongly assessed4.033.424.083.503.764Be denied/fail to obtain entitlements/allowances, e.g. housing/transport allowance3.673.673.913.293.545be paid wrong salary scale/wrong placement on salary scale3.993.993.683.623.646suffer emotional stress/frustration/work stoppage/desire to quit4.194.194.153.763.987spend unnecessary time in pursuing his/her legitimate rights/ entitlements4.184.184.334.174.168suffer heath problems3.873.873.963.803.869fail to obtain office space that is conductive to academic work3.873.874.213.844.0010express resentment toward university administration4.184.184.083.804.0011Antagonise students3.703.703.472.893.3012development negative attitude towards work/lose the zeal to participate3.863.864.083.683.8513resort to absenteeism3.743.743.403.183.4314express withdraw behaviour3.823.823.693.433.631 = UNIJOS (102 SS); 2 - UNIPORT (100 SS) ; 3 = UNN (112 SS); 4 = UI (109 SS) (A = Means of the mean responses; Table 8 shows six ways, in which the work-role of the academics can be influenced, while Table 9 shows fourteen ways in which their welfare can be influenced. The tables show that each way obtained grand mean scores of 3.00 and above. This indicates high influence of the existence and effective utilisation or otherwise of the channels on the work-role and welfare of the academics, with respect to those channels indicated in Tables 8 and 9. 4.5 Obstacles to effective utilisation of channels of communication by academics and administrators The study identified 10 and 11 obstacles to the effective utilisation of channels of communication by academics and administrators respectively, through structured and unstructured responses. Through the unstructured responses, the respondents were requested to indicate the most serious obstacles to their effective utilisation of the channels. The findings are summarised in Tables 10 and 11. Table 10: Mean Responses of Academics and Administrators on Obstacles to Effective Utilisation of the Communication channels between the Administrators and Academics (Structured Responses) Possible obstacles to Effective Utilisation of Channels of CommunicationMean Responses (()AcaAdmNon-availability of channels to academics Academics unaware of channels Administration unaware of channels Channels not accessible to academics Refusal/failure/unwillingness of academics to utilise channels Ineffectiveness of channels Ambiguity of content of circular and letters Delay in utilisation of channels by administration Non-utilisation of channels by administration Lack of co-operation between administration and academics3.14 2.96 2.88 3.17 2.68 3.34 3.16 3.29 3.30 3.353.16 3.19 3.08 3.74 3.05 3.23 3.14 3.27 3.32 3.53Aca = Academics; Adm = Administrators Table 11: Mean Responses of Academics and Administrators on Obstacles to Effective Utilisation Most Serious Obstacles (Unstructured Responses) Resentment of academics by administrators and vice versa/lack of co-operation/conflict between academics and administrators/lack of trust. Inappropriate ways of sending circulars Ambiguity of circulars, memos, etc. Ineffectiveness of channels Non-availability of channels to the academics Lack of consistency by administration in the utilisation of channels Poor work ethics of the operators of the channels Academics unawareness of some channels Delay in utilisation of channels by administration Selfish use of channels by the administration. Lack of maintenance of channels Each of the items in Table 10 obtained mean scores ranging from 2.68 3.53 on a 4-point scale; each item is therefore an obstacle. The unstructured responses (Table 11) represent what the subjects (academics and administrators) consider the most serious obstacles. Some of the obstacles in Table 11 are consistent with those in Table 10. Table 10 also shows that the obstacle with highest scores of 3.35 and 3.53 from academics and administrators respectively, is lack of co-operation between administration and academic. It is also the first obstacle in the unstructured responses. This finding could be an indication of the extent of the seriousness of this problem. This lack of cooperation, will apparently render the best channels ineffective, hence prevent appropriate utilization. This probably explains, in part, the finding that 56.6 per cent of the channels (30 out of 53) never meet the information needs of academics. Some of the findings are also consistent with those identified by Anyakoha et. al. (1995), as obstacles that militate against the effective utilisation of communication channels between university administration and students. 4.6 Strategies for enhancing the utilisation of channels of communication between Academics and administration in Nigerian Universities The study identified a total of 22 strategies for enhancing the utilisation of channels of communication between the academics and administration. These are based on both structured (i) and unstructured responses (ii). These 22 strategies represent 13 and 9 administration- and academic-related strategies, respectively, as follows: (i) Administration-Related Strategies Respect academics/co-operate with academics Utilise established channels whenever necessary/promptly Constant dialogue with academics/rapport Updating obsolete handbooks/channels Be sensitive to the needs of academics Review existing channels for effectiveness Make existing channels available accessible to all staff Create new channels Involve academics in decision making about channels Organise staff orientation/give each new staff (academic and administration) orientation on communication channels. Establish opinion boxers Reduce/avoid bureaucracy 13. Provide every staff with a staff handbook (ii) Academics-Related Strategies Be prepared to utilise all existing channels, e.g. read all circulars Respond promptly to needed information Share information with colleagues/co-operate with colleagues Respect administration/co-operate with them Adhere to established channels Express/exhibit high sense of responsibility always Learn rudiments of administration Adopt consultation rather than confrontation with administration/dialogue Enquire for information when necessary/demand rights as and when due The findings on the strategies are consistent with the contentions of Alele-Williams (1989), Ukpabi (1992), and Ikoku (1992). They are also consistent with some of the findings by Anyakoha et. al. (1995) on the strategies for enhancing the effectiveness of communication channels between university administration and students in Nigerian universities. 4.7 Findings from Focus group discussions (FGDs): Case Studies of experiences of academics and administrators with channels and suggestions for enhancement The FGDs focused on actual experiences of the academics and administrators with the channels of communication, the problems associated with the experiences/utilisation and consensus of opinions on strategies for enhancing the utilisation of the channels and thereby promoting communication between the two groups. In general participants observed that the channels of communication exist but that the problem of utilisation lies with the operators. Others expressed total disillusionment with the entire university system, observing that there is a total downward gravitation in all issues relating to their universities, including the channels of communication. Yet the majority of respondents in the two groups (academics and administrator alike), pointed accusing fingers at each other. Each group blamed the other for non-utilisation and ineffectiveness of the channels. Numerous experiences were expressed, and problems identified by the participants. Strategies for enhancing the use of channels of communication were also identified and agreed upon. A few of the actual experiences, problems, and strategies are presented in the following sections. 4.7.1 Experiences of Academics The academics generally agreed that the administrators control the channels of communication and use them as they desire. An academic said when an issue concerns the administrators, channels are appropriately employed, but when it concerns academics, they make mistakes. Another said, the academics are at the mercy of administrators, even when academics become administrators they forget their colleagues. Another said, there is hostility on the part of the administrators. There was a case of some academics who reported that they heard about a possible change in the university's reopening date while riding in a taxi. They reported that a student was telling a taxi driver of the new date in their presence. The academics accused their university administration for not informing them appropriately about the resumption date. Another academic recalled that as a new staff member he had problems getting himself organised to carry out his work-role of teaching and advising students, as there were no appropriate guidelines on how to go about these work-roles. Thus, for him, figuring out what to do with the students assigned to him was a challenge. He said, there should be a way of familiarising a new academic with the system. On A Welfare Issue: An academic said, I am still expecting the letter of my promotion that had been signed about three months ago. He blamed the ineffectiveness of the channels on the operators, who, according to him need to be begged to employ the channels. In another case, an academic reported that he could not be appraised for promotion because he could not afford to produce the 30 copies of the required appraisal forms from his meagre salary. He said, there was no way I could afford it at that time. When it concerns academics appraisal forms become scarce, but the administrators always have their own. 4.7.2 Administrators experiences The non-academics generally agreed that the academics look down on them. They believed that academics exhibit a feeling of superiority and discriminate against administrators. One participant said, in fact there is a cold war between academics and administrators. This situation no doubt affects the utilisation of the channels of communication. An academic administrator (Dean of a Faculty) reported that on an occasion he used approved channels to communicate with an academic on a problem involving students. The academic failed to use the channels and rather confronted the Dean personally. The Dean said, the utilisation of channels of communication has created enmity between me and my colleagues. I annoy them in my attempt to follow the instructions. He also reported that often scarcity of funds makes it difficult for administrators to make channels functional. He cited a case in which a Head of Department could not produce academic staff appraisal forms owing to lack of funds. In another case, an administrator reported that there was a clash in the departmental timetable and the lecturer involved was very bitter about this. Although the administrator offered the lecturer an explanation, according to the administrator, the lecturer left in anger after pouring abuses on me. Five obstacles/problems that militate against the use of the channels were identified through the FGD. These include, lack of motivation and general apathy among academics and administrators. A participant said, the channels are indeed adequate but the ineffectiveness results from the fact that nobody is happy to do his work both administrators and academics. The conditions for services are not conducive for such. The staff are not comfortable anywhere in their work place, in their home... The five obstacles identified through the FGD are consistent with those identified through the questionnaire survey. 5. CONCLUSIONS From the findings it is evident that channels of communication between academics and administration exist in the Nigerian universities sampled. Most academics are aware of the existence of these channels. However, many of the channels are not utilised by the academics "whenever required" and most of the channels fail to "always" meet the information needs of the academics. Thus there is an apparent communication gap between academics and administrators in terms of utilising the existing channels to meet the formers' information needs. This situation calls for some action. The study has also shown that this situation could affect the work role and welfare of the academics in various ways. Work roles could be carried out below expected/stated standards, unnecessary time might be spent pursuing legitimate rights/entitlements, resulting in frustration and possible work stoppage. This situation cannot move the universities forward in an era when these institutions are expected to improve efficiency, show continued relevance, and respond to changing needs of the society. The study has also revealed numerous obstacles that militate against effective utilisation of the channels of communication between academics and administrators. Prominent among the obstacles is the apparent "cold war" between the academics and the administrators. They could in fact be described as "strange bed fellows". This situation can hinder communication even when the communication channels are excellent. It can also affect other aspects of university management, culture, and programmes, and it requires urgent attention. Since students are the "blocks, the academics, the builders and administrators the "facilitating elements" (Ikoku 1992), the various groups must necessarily work together as a team in order to move universities forward. In this teamwork, communication (with its channels) serves as a thread that holds the groups together. Therefore, it becomes necessary to adopt strategies of enhancing communication between the academics and the administration. This study has identified these strategies. 6. POLICY IMPLICATIONS There is need to revamp the existing communication channels between the academics and administrators in Nigerian universities, with a view to enhancing their effectiveness. In this direction, the strategies identified by this study could be utilised in different universities as applicable. It is crucial to seek ways of establishing cordial relationship between academics and administrators. Such a relationship should be marked by mutual respect. In this direction, the strategies identified by this study, (as the academic related and administrator related strategies) should be exploited. It might be necessary for universities to evolve ways of encouraging dialogue and consultation between academics and administration rather than the current approach of antagonism and "cold war". The new channels identified in this study could serve as a source from which institutions could select and modify channels to suit their circumstances. It is vital for universities to put in place workable orientation programmes for both academics and administrators. There should be effective orientation programmes for new academics, administrators and first-time academic administrators (Head of Departments, Heads of Units etc). There should also be a way of keeping the old staff abreast of the existing as well as possible new channels. The universities should as a necessity equip the academics and administrators with staff handbooks. Such handbooks should include, among other things, information on the communication channels that exist between the academics and administration and the modalities for their effective utilisation. Such handbooks should be reviewed regularly to ensure continued relevance. Both the academics and the administrators have enormous responsibilities in enhancing the effectiveness of the communication channels between them. Both groups should therefore be made aware of this fact in various fora such as workshops, seminars, and conferences. REFERENCES Afolabi, F.; Olaosebikan, D. and Adebisi, M. (1995). The Clouds over Nigerian Universities. Nigerian Vanguard, Wednesday, March 22, p. 26. Akinkugbe, O.O. (1983) "Random Thoughts on the Emerging Nigerian University". In Chizea, C.A. (ed.) (1983) 20 Years of University Education in Nigeria, National Universities Commission (NUC), Lagos, p. 57 - 61. Alele-Williams, G. (1993). Women in Higher Education Management: The Nigerian Context. In UNESCO (1993), Women in Higher Education Management. Paris, UNESCO. Alele-williams, G. (1988). The Politics of Administering a Nigerian University, In NUC (1988) 25 Years of Centralised University Education in Nigeria, (NUC), Lagos, p. 35 - 36. Anyakoha, E.U.; Uzuegbunam, A. and Ezeike, K.S. (1995). Channels of Communication Between Students and Administration in Nigeria Universities: Obstacles, Enhancement Strategies and Implications for University Governance. Research Report, Social Science Council of Nigeria/FORD FOUNDATION National Research Programme on University Governance in Nigeria. Austin, A.E. (1992) Academic Tribes and Territories: Intellectual Enquiry and the Cultures of Disciplines. Buckingham, SRHE/Open University Press. Becher, T. (1984) The Cultural View. In Clark, P.R. (ed.) (1984) Perspectives on Higher Education: Eight Disciplinary and Comparative Views, Berkeley California. University of California Press. Blair, R. and Jordan, J. (1995). Staff Dilemma in African Universities, West Africa. May 29 - June 4. Clark, B.R. (1987) The Academic Life: Some World, Different Worlds. The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Princeton, New Jersey. Clark, B.R. (1987b) (ed.) The Academic Profession: National, Disciplinary, and Institutional Settings. Berkeley, California, University of California Press. Clark, B.R. (1983). The Higher Education System: Academic Organization in Cross-National Perspective, Berkeley, California, University of California Press. Clark, S.M. (1986). The academic profession and career: perspective and problems. Teach Social. 14 (1). Commission on the Review of Higher Education in Nigeria (1992). Higher Education in the Nineties and Beyond. Federal Republic of Nigeria. Dill, D.d. (1992). Organization and administration of Higher Education. In Aikin, M.C. (ed.) Encyclopaedia of Educational Research. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York, p. 933 - 940. Etzioni, A. (1964) Modern Organization, New Jersey. Prentice-Hall Inc. Ikoku, C. (1990) (ed.) Structures and Challenges in University Management: The University Of Nigeria Model. Nsukka: University of Nigeria Press, p. 1 - 7. Kuh, G.D. and Whitt, E.J. (1988). The Invisible Tapestry: Culture in American Colleges and Universities. Ashe-Eric High Education Report, No. 1, Association for the Study of Higher Education. Washington DC, p. 12 - 13. National Universities Commission (NUC) (1995). Nigerian University System: A Parastatal's Past, Present and Future. Nigeria, NUC, p. 3 - 4. National Universities Commission (NUC) (1996) Draft Manual on University Management. Nigeria. NUC. Obineme, J. (1995) Leadership Crisis in Our Universities. The Light, Nigeria, November 3, p. 5. Okafor, N. (1992) The Academic in Administration. In Eze, F.C. & Ejiofor, P.N. (1992) (eds.). Towards Efficiency in University Administration. Nigeria. Summer Education Pub. Ltd. Okoewo, S. (1988). Student Unionism on Nigerian University Campus: A Course or Blessing. In NUC (1988) op cit. p. 89 - 97. Rice, R.E. (1986). The Academics Profession in Transition: Toward a New Social Fiction. Teach. Sociol. 14(1) 12 - 23. Rogers, E.M. and Agawale-Rogers, R. (1976). Communications in Organization. New York: The Free Press, p. 7 - 14. Saint, W.S. (1992) Universities in Africa: Strategies for Stabilisation and Rentalisation. Washington, The World Bank. Sanda, W.S. (1992). Managing Nigerian Universities. Ibadan, Spectrum Books Ltd. Snow, C.P. (1964). The Two Cultures: And a Second Look. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Ukpabi, S.C. (1992) Human resource management in Nigerian University System with Special Reference to the Promotion of Institutional Goals. In Eze, F.C. & Ejiofor P.N. (1992) (eds.) Towards Efficiency in University Administration. Nigeria. Summer Education Pub. Ltd. UNICEF (1994) Gender Equity and Womens Empowerment. NY: UNICEF.  This is so because the conflict-laden situations often attributable to poor communication between groups, in this case between academics and administration in Nigerian universities, continues unabated.  Individuals who share a culture have "common habits, common assumptions, and a common way of life (Snow, 1964) and "a shared way of thinking and a collective way of behaving". (Becher, 1984).  Furthermore, seven strategies for enhancing the utilisation of communication channels were identified. These are also consistent with those identified through the use of the questionnaires.     PAGE  PAGE 1  9 U 78U##$#%#ƸƜƸsg_Q__IC h=q^Jh=qCJ^Jjh=q0JCJU^Jh=qCJ^Jh=qCJOJQJ^Jh=q56CJOJQJ^Jh=q6CJOJQJ^Jh=q5CJOJQJ^Jh=q@CJOJQJ^Jh=q@CJOJQJ^Jh=q@CJOJQJ^Jh=q5@CJOJQJ^Jh=q5@CJOJQJ^Jh=q@OJQJ^Jh=q5@CJOJQJ^J4  7 8 9 U l $ 0$*$Ifa$$ H$*$Ifa$ $ 0*$a$ $ H*$a$/ ;{{q $ 0*$a$` $dh`a$$dha$ $d<a$$a$Zkd$$Ifl4FxH \     4 la. &U 3!!j""$#%#4##l$o%p%%%[(\(o(`$dha$  & F*^* $ 0*$a$  & F*^*dh%#4##o%p%%%\(o(p(,,---..V8{8rCsCCCCDEEEIII1KQKRKwNNN$P%PPֳ~uuuu~gh=q@CJOJQJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q5CJ^J h=q5^Jjh=q0JCJU^Jh=q56CJ^Jh=qCJOJQJ^Jh=q5CJOJQJ^Jh=q^JmH sH h=q@OJQJ^J h=q^Jh=qCJOJQJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=qCJ^J'o(*,,----03V8W8{8N:;?rCsCCCD#D  @>^`>d`` $dh`a$$dha$$a$`#DEE{GII1KUKMvNwNNN%PQQQQd d^`$ 0dh<*$a$   `   \ ` \ `   `  ^`PPQQQS^T_TTTLUUU V V$V%VVBVFVJVNVOViZZZZZZ 8d$Ifkd~$$Ifl4\&"``04 laf4OVPVVVV3WC1111$ & F 0$*$Ifa$kd$$Ifl4ֈ&" *vvv 04 laf43WOWfWzWWW X)XNXXXXXYGYlYvYYYYYYYYYY 8d$If$ & F 0$*$Ifa$YYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYYZZ Z ZZZ 8d$IfZZZZ$Z)Z.Z3Z8Z9Z>ZCZHZMZRZWZ\ZaZfZgZlZmZrZsZxZyZ~ZZZ 8d$IfZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ 8d$IfZZ[[ [[[[[![&[+[0[5[:[?[D[E[J[K[P[Q[V[W[\[a[f[k[l[ 8d$Ifl[q[v[{[[[[[[[[[[[[[ 8d$If[[[>\\A<</ $8^8`a$$a$kd2$$Ifl4ֈ&"*vvv04 laf4\\\\\\)]+]7]9]I]K]a]v] 8d$If 88d^8`  $ !a$$a$ \\\\\)]F]G]^]_]v]w]]]^?_@_____``u``````````b\c]ccccc8d;dddddddee$e%eeffff2gǼǼDzDzDzǼǼDzDzDzǼǼDzDzDz j0h=q6CJ^Jh=q6CJ^Jh=q@OJQJ^Jh=qOJQJ^J j0h=qCJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qOJQJ^JmH sH 9v]w]x]|]]]]]iZZZZZZ 8d$Ifkd$$Ifl4\"`F`04 laf4]]]C/$ & F! 0x$*$Ifa$kd$$Ifl4ֈdP" vvv 04 laf4]]]^F^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 8d$If 8dx$If$ & F! 0h$*$Ifa$^^^^^^__ ____!_&_+_0_5_:_?_ 8dx$If 8d$If?_@_~__`A<</ $8^8`a$$a$kdt$$Ifl4UֈdP"vvv04 laf4``t`u````````` 8d$If 8hd$If^h 88d^8`$`a$ ````````iZZZZZZ 8d$Ifkd $$Ifl4\H4"``04 laf4``5aUaaaC////$ & F" 0h$*$Ifa$kd $$Ifl4ֈHd4P" v 04 laf4aa9bubbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbb 8d$If$ & F" 0h$*$Ifa$bbbbbbbbcc cccc!c"c'c(c-c2c7cl?lmpvrtttuvvvw+w?wgwhwwwwww $$Ifa$$ 000*$]0^0a$ @d^@``$a$$a$wwwwxxxx xOxPxxxxxxx$y%yTyUyuyvywyyy}/}0}2}c~d~~~,T"#Եɕypphh=qCJ^Jh=qCJH*^Jh=q5CJH*^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q6H*^J h=q6^Jh=qOJQJ^J h=q^Jh=q5OJQJ^Jh=q5H*^J j0h=qCJ^J h=q5^Jjh=q5U^Jj h=q5U^Jh=q5^J(wwwwwxx $$Ifa$x x kd$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >a x x$x*x2x:xAxHxMxOx $$Ifa$ OxPx kd$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >aPxRxYx_xexmxux{xxx $$Ifa$ xx kd"$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >axxxxxxxxxx $$Ifa$ xx kd\$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >axxxxxxxxxx $$Ifa$ xx kd$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >axxxyyyyy"y$y $$Ifa$ $y%y kd$$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >a%y'y/y5y;yAyGyMyRyTy $$Ifa$ TyUy kd $$If> Z(2 \ PX " *790$$$$4 >aUyyy;|}}2}+,<߁=^$ & F&dh^`a$d`d^ 0d^`0`$a$*TU"#'+6> $8$If^8a$ $$Ifa$ `d^``d`vd^v vd^v``#*$%&>?PQ~9:!"PQωЉTU<ː̐ho^_abklmnoOǸۍh=qOJQJ^J h=qH*^Jh=q5OJQJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q6CJ^J h=q^Jh=q@OJQJ^Jh=qCJ^J j0h=qCJ^J h=q5^Jh=q6CJ^Jh=q5CJ^J3>?@DHLP $$Ifa$[kdR$$If04F<t"`8    4 0a0f4PQjoty~}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd$$If04rlX t" vv4 0a0f4~}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd $$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4ׇ҇܇}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kdG!$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4%*/49}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd!$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f49:qv{}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd"$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4ۈ}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd<#$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4 !}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd#$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4!"<AFKP}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd$$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4PQmrw|}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd1%$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4ʼnʉω}lcccc $$Ifa$$8$If^8`a$kd%$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4ωЉTUc,F}vqkkeQQQ & F' x^`#`#`$a$$xa$kd&$$If04rlX t"vv4 0a0f4 <=ː̐gh5]a $$Ifa$ |d^`|`d` vd^v` v^v` & F' x^` abcegikn $$Ifa$Ekd4'$$Ifl0Zd# x4 lanoqmddddddd $$Ifa$kd'$$If0ֈZlX #&vvvv4 0aÒZQQQQQQQ $$Ifa$kdO($$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0a 6;@EJOZQQQQQQQ $$Ifa$kd)$$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0aOPRZQQQQQQQ $$Ifa$kd)$$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0aOP45M@ABce"Ǿyld\Sh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q@H*OJQJ^J j0h=qCJOJQJ^Jh=q@OJQJ^Jh=q5OJQJ^J j0h=qCJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q5@CJ^Jh=q6CJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q6CJH*^J j0h=q6CJ^Jh=q6CJ^J h=q^Jh=qOJQJ^J ٓޓZQQQQQQQ $$Ifa$kd*$$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0a %*/4ZQQQQQQQ $$Ifa$kdK+$$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0a45MZUUUDD *|d^`|$a$kd ,$$If0֞ZlD #Dvvvb4 0aMN$ 0$*$Ifa$Ekd,$$Ifl0Z" 4 la d$If Εm\\\\\\\\\$ 0<$*$Ifa$kdI-$$If0ֈZ "4 0a  =Ikd.$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$=BGLQVWYmGkd.$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$mrw|ܖGkd/$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$ܖ3Gkd0$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$38=BGLMOGkd1$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$Gkds2$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$ *GkdR3$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$*/49>CDFGkd14$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$טGkd5$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$טܘGkd5$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$ !"%mGkd6$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$mrw|Gkd7$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$ؙGkd8$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$ؙݙ@GB$a$kdk9$$If0֞Z "h44 0a$ 0<$*$Ifa$@cd!"Ԟ՞-1 $ $Ifa$$ x$Ifa$$ ^`a$d` vd^v` $dh`a$$dha$$a$ !Ԟ՞./12;<STz{ SKQkHpqKM OӵϺ>a˵ۭwnwh=q>*CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q6CJ^Jh=q6CJ^Jh=qOJQJ^J h=q^Jh=qCJOJQJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q5OJQJ^J j0h=qCJ^J h=q5^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q56CJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^J)1237; $ $Ifa$okdX:$$Ifl40Zf!`p04 laf4;<f̟ 'T|o]]]]]]]]$ & F) hV$Ifa$ $ & F)$Ifa$kd2;$$Ifl4FZf! 0    4 laf4  !&+05:?DINS $ $Ifa$$ & F) hV$Ifa$STz{ŢnfnUCC$ & F* 88^8a$$ & F* 88^8a$$dha$$ ^`a$kd<$$IflFZf!0    4 la3xѣ4TUklK$ & F- h^a$$ dh^`a$`d` vd^v`$ dh`a$$ a$$ & F* 88^8a$Kt$8lHIqޭG$ & F. ``^`a$$ & F. ``^`a$$ dh^`a$ $ h^ha$$ & F- h^`a$$ & F- h^a$GfKLM0NOӵԵԷ`d`vd^v vd^v`$ dh`a$ $ ^a$$ & F. ``^`a$ԷϺк>?aEv:367Nrf & F$ dh`a$ $ dha$`67Nr9wCQ3:#oA(~fir ]-l <` /ɽh=q6CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jh=q@OJQJ^Jh=q^JmH sH  h=q5^J h=q^Jh=q5CJ^Jh=qCJ^Jjh=q0JCJU^JDvw./&'-. Pd^`P$ 000*$]0^0a$tu[\9:-.HI>?*+|} Pd^`P-./~ &`#$&`#$$ a$ Pd^`P/0~Ͻϧςh=qCJ^J!h=q0JCJOJQJmHnHuh=q0JCJOJQJjh=q0JCJOJQJU h=q0Jjh=q0JUjh=qUh=q h=qCJjh=q0JCJUh=qCJOJQJjh=q0JCJOJQJU Pd^`P30&P P- @!"#$% |$$If.!vh5¶ 55\ #v #v#v\ :V l45 55\ 4a.$$If!vh5555#v#v#v#v:V l40++5555/ / / / / 4f4$$If!vh55*5v5v5v5#v#v*#vv#v:V l40++5*5v/ / / / / /  /  / / /  / /  / / / 4f4$$If!vh55*5v5v5v5#v#v*#vv#v:V l4055*5v5/  / /  / / /  / / / / /  / / 4f4$$If!vh55F55#v#vF#v#v:V l40++55F55/ / / / / 4f4$$If!vh555v5v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V l40++55v/ / / / / /  /  / / /  / /  / / / 4f4$$If!vh555v5v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V l4U0555v5/  / /  / / /  / / / / /  / / 4f4$$If!vh5555#v#v#v#v:V l40++5555/ / / / / 4f4$$If!vh55555v5#v#v#v#v#vv#v:V l40++5555v/ / / / / /  /  / / /  / /  / / / 4f4$$If!vh55555v5#v#v#v#v#vv#v:V l45 055555v5/  / /  / / /  / / / / /  / / 4f4$$If!vh5555#v#v#v#v:V l40++5555/ / / / / 4f4$$If!vh55*5555#v#v*#v#v:V l40++5*5/ / / / / /  /  / / /  / /  / / / 4f4$$If!vh55*5555#v#v*#v#v:V l4U055*55/  / /  / / /  / / / / /  / / 4f4 $$If!vh5L55F5#vL#v#vF#v:V l40++5L55F5/ /  / / / / 4f4$$If!vh5L5*5v5v55#vL#v*#vv#v#v:V l4V0++5*5v5/  / /  / /  /  / / /  / /  / / / 4f4$$If!vh5L5*5v5v55#vL#v*#vv#v#v:V l4 05L5*5v55/  / / / / /  / / / / /  / / 4f4dDphoenixxT$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / / / /  44 >aF$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / /  / 44 >a8$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / /  44 >a8$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / /  44 >a8$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / /  44 >a8$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / /  44 >aF$$If!v h55 5*57595555 #v#v #v*#v7#v9#v#v :V >055 5*575955 / / /  44 >a$$If0!vh5558#v#v#v8:V 04+5558/ 44 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04+55v5/ 44 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v544 0a0f4$$If0!vh555v5v5#v#v#vv#v:V 04555v5/ 44 0a0f4p$$If!vh5 5x#v #vx:V l5 5x/ 4a$$If!vh5&5v5v5v5v5#v&#vv#v:V 05&5v5/ 44 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b544 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b544 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b544 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b544 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b544 0a$$If!vh5D55v5v5v5b5#vD#v#vv#vb#v:V 05D55v5b5/ 44 0ap$$If!vh55 #v#v :V l55 / 4a$$If!vh555555#v#v#v#v#v#v:V 0555555/ 44 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h545555544 0a$$If!vh5h5455555#vh#v4#v#v#v#v#v:V 05h5455555/ 44 0a$$If!vh55p#v#vp:V l40+55p/ / / / 4af4$$If!vh555#v#v#v:V l40+55/  / / / 4af4$$If!vh555#v#v#v:V l0555/  4a8@8 Normal_H mH sH tH DA@D Default Paragraph FontVi@V  Table Normal :V 44 la (k@(No List DOD text$dh*$a$@CJOJQJjOj topic2&$ 00*$^`0a$5@CJOJQJmH sH u4 @4 Footer  !.)@!. Page NumberB"@B CaptionCJOJQJmH sH u>OB> table *$ 0 @OJQJ4@R4 Header  !6@b6  Footnote Text@&@q@ Footnote ReferenceH*XOX topic1$ H*$a$5@CJOJQJmH sH u7&޼PS     OPPS  t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t" ;$/91CLT9\_jrzKϲ\N [Dw$P  Z r  ;v>$ 4789Ul ;&U3j$%4lop[ \ o "$$%%%%(+V0W0{0N237r;s;;;<#<=={?AA1CUCEvFwFFF%HIIIIKKLNBNFNJNONPNNNN3OOOfOzOOO P)PNPPPPPQGQlQvQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQRR R RRRRRR$R)R.R3R8R9R>RCRHRMRRRWR\RaRfRgRlRmRrRsRxRyR~RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRSS SSSSS!S&S+S0S5S:S?SDSESJSKSPSQSVSWS\SaSfSkSlSqSvS{SSSSSSSSSSSSSSS>TTTTTT)U+U7U9UIUKUaUvUxU|UUUUUUUUVFV^VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVWW WWWW!W&W+W0W5W:W?W@W~WWXXtXuXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX5YUYYYY9ZuZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ[[ [[[[!["['[([-[2[7[<[A[F[K[L[Q[R[W[\[][[[:\;\\\\\\\\\\]]]]]$]%]:]c]w]]]]]]^^ ^^^^!^&^+^0^5^:^?^D^I^N^S^X^]^b^g^l^q^v^{^^^^^^^^^^^^!____'`)`5`7`G`I`_`t`v`z`~```````aOaaaabNbSbXb]bbbcbhbibnbsbxb}b~bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbcccc ccccc"c'c,c1c6c7cd?dehvjlllmnnno+o?ogohooooooooop p p$p*p2p:pApHpMpOpPpRpYp_pepmpup{ppppppppppppppppppppppppppqqqqq"q$q%q'q/q5q;qAqGqMqRqTqUqqq;tuu2uwww+x,xx@DHLPQjoty~%*/49:qv{ۀ !"<AFKPQmrw|ŁʁρЁTUc,F<=ˈ̈gh5]abcegiknoqÊ 6;@EJOPRًދ %*/45MN΍ =BGLQVWYmrw|܎38=BGLMO */49>CDFאܐ !"%mrw|ؑݑ@cd!"ԖՖ-137;<f̗ 'T !&+05:?DINSTz{Ś3xћ4TUklKt$8lHIqޥGfKLM0NOӭԭԯϲв>?aEv:367Nrfvw./&'-.tu[\9:-.HI>?*+|}-./~    v: v: v:  v: v: s s s  s s s ss s s s s        , .B $ Jb s B Jb B p    p   p     v:  B p     v: R! B  j μ     B B R! R! y3    Jb , ,   B Z {  B Jb μ B Jb B  Jb B  B I  ث s s  B V V V { ~ V  V Vjjjj~j~jRjjjjijjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjRjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj)&6 j " Z$ j v: B V(v:nv:nv:v:0v:00v:v:v:v:v:t(v:(v:(v:(v:(v:(v:(v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:7 j ~ ~  V Vv:v:v:v:0v:00v:Dv:v:Dv:v:tv:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:Dv:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:D( j " " v: V Vv:"v:"v:v:~0v:00v:Rv:v:v:v:`v:v:v:v:v:v:v:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:" j " " V Vtv:v:v:nv:n~0v:00v:Rv:v:v:v:`tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:tv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:Rv:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:0v:l! j " " v: v: NBNFNJNNNONPNNNN3OOOfOzOOO P)PNPPPPPQGQlQvQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQRR R RRRRRR$R)R.R3R8R9R>RCRHRMRRRWR\RaRfRgRlRmRrRsRxRyR~RRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRRSS SSSSS!S&S+S0S5S:S?SDSESJSKSPSQSVSWS\SaSfSkSlSqSvS{SSSSSSSSSSSSSSS>TTTTTTT)U+U7U9UIUKUaUvUwUxU|UUUUUUUUUVFV^VVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVWW WWWW!W&W+W0W5W:W?W@W~WWXXtXuXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX5YUYYYY9ZuZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ[[ [[[[!["['[([-[2[7[<[A[F[K[L[Q[R[W[\[][[[8\:\;\\\\\\\\\\]]]]]]#]$]%]:]c]w]]]]]]^^ ^^^^!^&^+^0^5^:^?^D^I^N^S^X^]^b^g^l^q^v^{^^^^^^^^^^^^!_____'`)`5`7`G`I`_`t`u`v`z`~````````aOaaaabNbSbXb]bbbcbhbibnbsbxb}b~bbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbbcccc ccccc"c'c,c1c6c7cd?dehvjlllmnnno+o?ogohoooooooooopp p p$p*p2p:pApHpMpOpPpRpYp_pepmpup{ppppppppppppppppppppppppppqqqqq"q$q%q'q/q5q;qAqGqMqRqTqUqqq;tuu2uwww+x,xx?@DHLPQjoty~%*/49:qv{ۀ !"<AFKPQmrw|ŁʁρЁTUc,F<=ˈ̈gh5]abcegiknoqÊ 6;@EJOPRًދ %*/45MN΍ =BGLQVWYmrw|܎38=BGLMO */49>CDFאܐ !"%mrw|ؑݑ@cd!"ԖՖ-1237;<f̗ 'T !&+05:?DINSTz{Ś3xћ4TUklKt$8lHIqޥGfKLM0NOӭԭԯϲв>?aEv:367Nrfvw./&'-.tu[\9:-.HI>?*+|}-./~00000000000000000 0 0000 000000000000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000 0 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 00 00 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0  0  0  0  0  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000 000000000000000000000000000 0 000000000 00 00 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ! 0! 0! 0! 0! 0! 0! 0 0000000 0000000 0000000 0000000 0000000 0 0000000 00 00 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 " 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0" 0 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0000000000 0 00000000 00 00 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 # 0# 0# 0# 0# 0# 0# 0 0000000 0000000 0000000 0000000 0000000 0 0000000 00 00 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 $ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0$ 0  0000000000000 0000000000000 0000000000000 0000000000000 0000000000000 0 00000000000000000000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000000000000& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0& 0 000000000 000 000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00000' 0' 0' 0' 0' 0' 0' 00000000 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 000000000000 00 0 0 0 0 0 ) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0) 0  0000000000 0000000000 0 000* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0* 0 * 0 0000000- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0- 0 - 0 - 0 000. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 00000000000000000000000000000000 0 0 0 0 0 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000h0000h00h0 0h0 0h0 0h0 h0 h0 h0 00h0h0 $$$'%#P\2gw#O/uz} o(#DQP~9!PωanO4M=mܖ3*טmؙ@1;SKGԷvxy{|~w  '!!8@N(  VB  C D"VB  C D"B S  ?^LSc0ct22t~@\@@@@@T@@4@L@T @\P @| @D@O@\@@Ti@ܛ@To@DN@@@@@K@T@|@|L@~@{@| @!@LS"@#@ $@L %@&&@,''@l')@'*@,(,@l(-@'.@(0@,)1@l)3@)4@(5@)6@,*7@l*8@*9@*:@,+;@l+<@,=@,>@-?@D-@@-A@-B@.C@D.D@.E@.G@D/H@/I@/J@/K@0L@D0N@0O@1P@0Q@D1R@1S@1T@2V@2W@2X@D2Y@3Z@D3[@3\@3]@4^@D4_@4`@4a@|5b@5c@5d@<6e@|6f@6g@6h@<7i@|7j@7k@7l@<8m@|8n@8o@8p@<9q@|9r@9s@9t@<:u@|:v@:w@:x@<;y@|;z@;{@;|@<<~@<@<@|<@<=@DF@F@F@G@DG'llz: ! !!!'!0!0!n*n*,,O3O3X399;;>>>%syyy2ccT]%%//SS\hhvpp{'^^\\ 44B)iirtt##qqz??      "!#%$&'()*+,-./0123465798:;<>=?@ABDCEFGHJIKLMNOPQRSTUWVXZY[]\^`_acbdefghijklnmopqrstuvwxzy{|}#..v@ !!!&!.!6!6!t*t*,,W3b3b399<<>>>*syyy9hh\g,,55[ffry,eedd"">II(++q||%%{{**yEE  "!#%$&'()*+,-./0123465798:;<>=?@ABDCEFGHJIKLMNOPQRSTUWVXZY[]\^`_acbdefghijklnmopqrstuvwxzy{|}9G*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsStateBd*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagscountry-region8m*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsCity=|*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceName=}*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceType9~*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplace ( ~}|~}|~}|~~|}||}~m~m~m~|}~d~d~}|~~|}~|}mdd~m|}d~m~d~m~mG~}|~~~mG~mG~}|~mG~}|~d|}~d~G~G~}|~}|~|}~mG~|}~d~d~d~d~|}~m~G~|}~m~mG~d06>JNTtw  0!6!;$<$&#&&&7(:(((51<111<2E2N2S2e4j4r4x45555m6x6666666677 7,94969@9E9K9S9Y9< <>>>>HHHHIIII>NANBNENFNINJNMNxU{U|UUUUUUUUXXXXXXXX]]]]]]]"]v`y`z`}`~````h h||@CDGHKLOЁӁ^c367:TWehBJ#$§ ۨߨSW"-6=w|& u|+1\_.5IO'-PW +0`fmpy./x|jr05<<==LLLL?dEdhkzkkkk lmmnnqrvvww*{5{̈fKM 2=d!3ǷʷKN(IJp4&-h6n%%,.mo(\}(,!-BCGI['.?jl@_hj /W::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::.//E:Y*W:y=pQ{;IpQEDD|:SZ :3a T:z:opQ GΌlUD|iJ M$k %D|R%pQ5i&& :j+ yX/,yl/:h=/D|="4b;b4 ¥B@v`CxACbaGYMJG+,Of9+QpQnQD|guuSpQi `Y0\pQK ]D|6^ HqEa:reBJaL[~a b\ـLb ':g:npQarpQ{t:5v.TLD|hh^h`56.hh^h`o(.@P^`P.@P^`P.@^`.hh^h`56.hh^h`o(.0^`0o()hh^h`56.hh^h`o(.@P^`P. 0 ^ `0o(.@^`.0^`0o(.@^`.@P^`P.P^`Po(.hh^h`.@@@^@`()hh^h`o(.@^`. II^I`56o( ^`56o(. P0P^P`056o(..  0 ^ `056o(... 8 8 ^8 `56o( .... xx^x`56o( .....  ` ^ ``56o( ......  ```^```56o(.......  ^`56o(........0^`0o(.::^:`5o(::^:`5o(.0^`05o(..0^`05o(... 88^8`5o( .... 88^8`5o( ..... `^``5o( ...... `^``5o(....... ^`5o(........@P^`P)hh^h`o(.0^`0o(.|^`|o(.^`o(.@P^`P.@^`.@P^`P.0^`0o(()@P^`P.@^`.  ^ `o(.::^:`o(.@P^`P. hh^h`OJQJo(h^`.hpp^p`.h@ L@ ^@ `L.h^`.h^`.hL^`L.h^`.hPP^P`.h L ^ `L. ^`OJQJo(()^`o(.@P^`P.@P^`P.hh^h`56.^`o(.@^`./o\aG5v:gi `YAC:nBJay=yX/K ]Uh=/$k %guuSnQL`C+QarB4R%{;IHqEa6^Lb :j+ G="4Ez{tiEDYMJ3a SZ ,OY*Wayl/5i&b//=q89LMMMMMNNBNFNJNNNONPNQQfRRDSSSTTT)U7UIUvUwUxU|UUUUUUVVVVW?W@WXtXuXXXXXXXXXXXXXZZZ[2[\[][;\\\\\\]]]]]]#]$]%]]^?^b^^^^___'`5`G`t`u`v`z`~`````Nbbbb"cWcXchoooooooooopp p p$p*p2p:pApHpMpOpPpRpYp_pepmpup{ppppppppppppppppppppppppppqqqqq"q$q%q'q/q5q;qAqGqMqRqTqUq"~#~~'>?@DHLPQjoty~%*/49:qv{ۀ !"<AFKPQmrw|ŁʁρЁh5abcegiknoqÊ 6;@EJOPRًދ %*/45M =BGLQVWYmrw|܎38=BGLMO */49>CDFאܐ !"%mrw|ؑݑԖՖ1237;<!ST/@,@@UnknownG: Times New Roman5Symbol3& ‡: ArialG WP MathBSymbolCFComic Sans MS71 Courier"1h3&3&F)!q)!q!24d3HX)?=q2COMMUNICATION CULTURE WITHIN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES: GENDER DIMENSIONS, OBSTACLES AND INFLUENCE ON THE WORK-ROLE OF THE ACADEMICSChuzy Obinna Anyakohauwc/                           ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . Oh+'0$0P\l x    COMMUNICATION CULTURE WITHIN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES: GENDER DIMENSIONS, OBSTACLES AND INFLUENCE ON THE WORK-ROLE OF THE ACADEMICSChuzy Obinna AnyakohaNormaluwc2Microsoft Office Word@Ik@O@|j)@|j))!՜.+,0 hp  e University of Nigeria, Nsukkaq COMMUNICATION CULTURE WITHIN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES: GENDER DIMENSIONS, OBSTACLES AND INFLUENCE ON THE WORK-ROLE OF THE ACADEMICS Title  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~     !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~Root Entry F()Data <1Table iAWordDocument5SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjq  FMicrosoft Office Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q
Warning: Unknown(): open(/tmp/sess_3800d08d31724fb90e736a74c7259e4b, O_RDWR) failed: Read-only file system (30) in Unknown on line 0

Warning: Unknown(): Failed to write session data (files). Please verify that the current setting of session.save_path is correct (/tmp) in Unknown on line 0