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ࡱ> #` bjbj\.\. )>D>D%YddH(aaa8(b$d(2d( e".e.e.ey|W}l$h.H9qy@y9.e.eCNt.e.e4 ?.ed ^Wa>Dd05 v{v|?v?}{:H}}}991d}}}((();D&(((;((( Teacher education models and their implications for teacher training at the School of Education, Makerere University Ssentamu-Namubiru Proscovia (PhD); lecturer at the School of Education, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Abstract Teacher education is affected by changes in priorities regarding the requirements and expectations associated with education and upbringing; and such changes have as much to do with teacher professional efficiency and government policies for teacher preparation, as with the existing socio-political climate. In this paper, the UK and Germany teacher education models are reviewed in light of improving teacher education in Uganda. Uganda XE "Uganda"  pursues a one-phased concurrent model where two-thirds of the training time is spent at university and less than a third at school for practice. As a result, there has been public outcry concerning the quality of teachers prepared, arguing that these are more theoretical and less practical (MISR XE "MISR"  2001; Namubiru 2000; Abidi 1991). On the other hand, England pursues a one-phased concurrent and integrated model in which for instance, beginning teachers pursuing a Post Graduate Certificate in Education spend two-thirds of their training in partner schools. Germany XE "Germany Perspective"  XE "Germany"  pursues a two-phased consecutive model in which university-based studies provide a theoretical background and orientation to the professional studies at teacher study seminaries. This paper was borne out of a review of sampled primary and secondary literature, to explore the best relationship between university (theory) and school (practice) in teacher education, and design a teacher education model for Uganda. It was found out that while the UK model had metamorphosed into a more liberal and practical-oriented model, the Ugandan model still reflected the old British model 45 years after independence; a model that could not measure to the many changes introduced in primary and secondary schools, where trained teachers would be posted after graduation. Phase 2 of the Germany model had a strong attachment to schools (mentorship) where teachers had autonomy regarding the subject matter they taught. Drawing from this review, an integrated model was proposed for Uganda with the hope that it would promote quality pre-service and in-service teacher education to enhance the MDGs reflected in Ugandan schools. INTRODUCTION The achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially universal primary education has a lot to do with the quality of teachers. As stated in the Government White Paper on Education XE "Education"  (1992: 152): no education system can be better than the quality of its teachers, nor can a country be better than the quality of its education. Hence, it is the quality of teachers which ultimately determines the lot of the nation. With this statement, it is clear that the Uganda XE "Uganda"  Government acknowledges the importance that must be attached to the quality of its teachers and recognises the key role of leadership and service they play in implementing education policies and programs. According to the EPRC (1989: 97) teachers play a key role in proper implementation of various education polices and programs including: skilfully imparting of knowledge to help the learners develop both the desire and ability to learn; encouraging the development of the students individual personality and guiding him/her in forming positive and acceptable social values; promoting the spirit of collective responsibility of the school and the teaching profession; and bridging the gap between educational institutions and the community to ensure proper fulfilment of the functions of the schools and colleges towards the community. Despite government recognition of teachers roles, it is debatable how much effort she has put into ensuring that the quality of teacher training is improved. Uganda XE "Uganda"  being a former British colony designed and implemented its educational programs following the then British model. Although in England, this model has undergone massive changes over time and been replaced by models of modern competences in teacher training (Gardner 1995), many aspects in teacher training in Uganda still reflect the old British model even after 45 years of political independence. Generally, it has been documented that the current tertiary curriculum structure is no longer relevant to Ugandan society as most of its features and structures have not been updated since 1970 (Uganda Government 2003: 12). There have been efforts towards improving policy making in the primary education sector including the training of primary school teachers and their curriculum in direct relation to the commitment towards the attainment of Education For All (EFA) and the MDGs. According to Murphy (2003), it is undeniable that Uganda has made significant progress in reaching out to all primary school aged children by improving pupil: teacher ratio and pupil: textbook ratio, the curriculum and its distribution, sustaining and improving teacher training and support, as well as improving systems to monitor and measure the quality of primary education. However, the policies and programs put in place to ensure quality Universal Secondary Education (USE) seem out of phase with the MDGs, since much of it still reflects the old British model where there is a separation of theory from practice; and theory takes three quarters of the entire teacher education program. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- There are a variety of ways in which initial teacher training is organised and structured. For instance, as a concurrent model, in which the different components of teacher training are studied parallel to one another. It may also be organised as an integrated model in which educational components are not only offered at the same time, but in an integrated way, mainly focusing on professionally relevant topics and integrating theoretical as well as practical studies. Unlike concurrent models, in consecutive models, prospective teachers first study academic disciplines and sometimes the science of the teaching profession followed by professional studies and teaching practice. Most training for teachers at secondary level is organised basing on consecutive models. Furthermore, teacher training may follow modularised models which offer clearly defined modules so that prospective teachers have to decide the study sequence to follow. Yet, another popular structural distinction in teacher training is the one based on phases. For instance, in the one-phased model, the successful completion of initial teacher training permits prospective teachers to apply for a teaching post. On the other hand, in a two-phased model, they first have to complete (mainly) theoretical studies at teacher training institutions before embarking on practical studies at school. A teacher training programme may combine one or more of the discussed models. In this paper, the one-phased concurrent model in Uganda XE "Uganda" , the one-phased concurrent and integrated model in England and the two-phased consecutive model in Germany XE "Germany Perspective"  XE "Germany"  are reviewed. The aim is to explore how educational theory and practice have been understood and are being implemented to improve quality of teacher education; and what lessons can be learnt to improve teacher training in Uganda. The One-Phased Concurrent Model XE "Model"  - Uganda XE "Uganda"  The major route into teaching in Uganda XE "Uganda"  is the concurrent study of specialised subjects and initial teacher training leading to either a Bachelor of Arts degree with Education XE "Education"  (BA/Ed.) or a Bachelor of Science degree with Education (BSc./Ed.). In this three-year program, in addition to professional foundation courses, prospective teachers take two teaching subjects either from the arts or science-based disciplines. In order to prepare competent teachers, the BA/BSc./Ed. degree programme is made up of four major components, namely: Education XE "Education"  foundation courses; professional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  disciplines to assist prospective teachers in the development of classroom competences such as Curriculum XE "Curriculum"  Studies, Educational Technology XE "Technology" , Educational Administration and Management; Special and General Methods of Teaching XE "Teaching" ; as well as the practicum where prospective teachers practically demonstrate in school what they have acquired during their training. School XE "School"  practice XE "School practice"  is done in two blocks at the end of second and third year of their training, and normally, each block lasts between 4-6 weeks.  XE "Uganda" The theory and practice relationship in teacher training is one major aspect that has been overlooked since independence, leading to public outcry regarding the quality of teachers prepared in terms of skills XE "skills"  and professionalism. According to Abidi (1991) and MISR XE "MISR"  (2001), the University XE "University"  has been criticised for producing theoretical graduates who can neither solve on-job problems nor meet the practical needs of the country. Educational theory in university teacher training is derived from disciplines such as psychology and sociology and then applied to educational practice in a priori fashion. It provides prospective teachers with a systematic ordered understanding of historical and theoretical education literature. According to Mortimore (1997: 31): the contribution of theory to the study of education is vital if we are to solve any of the difficult issues we face: why do children vary in their learning skills XE "skills" ? Why are there such differences in the effectiveness of so many schools and departments? Why do girls and boys differ so much in their behaviour and achievement?only theory can suggestand indicate the potential value of further research intoplausible explanations. Hence, educational theory enables prospective teachers to appreciate that they do not work in a vacuum, but are part of a community of teachers within a school engaged in a wide variety of educational aims and objectives beyond those demonstrated within the school curriculum. Apart from their teaching duty, they can also enhance their knowledge concerning the ways in which school has to interact with and respond to government requirements, parental demands, as well as their public image, moral and professional obligations. Ideally, such perception subjects their views and actions to the criticism and discussion by others, and thus leads to new perspectives and self-understandings. At Makerere University XE "Makerere University"  XE "University"  however, there are a number of challenges to the realization of these and many other advantages accruing to educational theory including: emphasis on educational theory or preconceived educational ideas and principles seems to predispose prospective teachers to see the challenge of pedagogy in narrowed ways, rather than view teaching as a lived experience, to which they can orient themselves in a given context. awareness is neither created among prospective teachers to reflect on the educational theory itself and appreciate its usefulness, nor sensitise them about how they can use theory to improve on practice. educational theory is presented in a rather generalised fashion using the lecture approach; and from a historical rather than a contemporary viewpoint. there is an absence of micro or peer teaching sessions during training curtailing the role of special subject methods in promoting skills XE "skills" -based learning that is closely linked with prospective teachers work in classrooms and embedded in the everyday life of teaching. educational theory and practice is construed by both prospective teachers and lecturers in light of examination and assessment. Once the latter have sat and passed the examinations, the door to educational theory seems to be from then onwards closed. the presence of so many subjects on the teacher curriculum which are un-coordinated and not synchronised with the school curriculum where prospective teachers eventually go to teach. during school practice, there is limited opportunity for prospective teachers to reflect on their experiences, since there is a rigid lesson plan and scheme of work format to be followed as well as a specific school practice assessment form, which lecturers/supervisors have to strictly follow during lesson observation. Educational theory is valid and relevant in a lived experience of the pedagogical encounter, that is, in the life of learners being taught. However, when there is an inadequate intimate union between theory and practice, teachers cannot experience this awareness during the pedagogical encounter. A One-Phased Concurrent and Integrated Model XE "Model"  England England is another example with a one-phased teacher training model, but unlike Uganda, she has undergone changes in her initial teacher education. In Bells (1981) research, teacher training institutions in England went through three broad phases indicated by their changing nomenclature, namely: Teacher Training XE "Training" , College of Education XE "Education" , and Institute of Higher Education. At each stage and in each institution, the structure, culture, organisation of knowledge and typical modes of social interaction were different. He also observes that these changes correspond with Webers three ideal types of education, namely: charismatic education (which aimed at producing the good teacher), education of the cultivated person (which aimed at producing the educated persons), and specialised expert training. However, from the 1980s onwards, the role of the specialised expert came under challenge because universities were seen as elitist and remote from practice. The claim was that standards in schools had fallen and teacher educators were to blame for failure to prepare teachers for real classroom situations (Ball 1995). It was felt that too much time was devoted to theoretical studies, often based upon dubious sociological and philosophical premises (Alastair & Humes 1998), and that such studies were ideologically biased towards the left (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994), giving insufficient time and attention to the primary task of helping children to learn the basics. Since then, government through a string of reforms successfully controlled teacher training and suppressed the expert. Such a move has led to proposals that schools should play the key influential role in a much closer partnership with university education departments, and that university-based parts of teacher training should be fully relevant to classroom practice. One of the routes into teacher training in England is the one-year Post Graduate Certificate of Education XE "Post Graduate Certificate of Education"  XE "Education"  (PGCE) course XE "Bachelor of Education" , which normally includes the academic study of one or more subjects related to the age range one intends to teach. As a result of changes in the structure of teacher training, education foundation disciplines are no longer taught at university under their respective names. Rather, they have been replaced by professional methods studies, which are considered more directly related to classroom teaching. These studies are taught at university prior to teaching experience or, in school, during actual teaching practice (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994). The use of the term theory to describe the latter is, however, less common. The English model appears to be integrated because the demarcation between theory and practice is not clear. The Anglo-American XE "Anglo-American"  tradition of close links between higher-education institutions and practice schools, including the exchange of personnel has blurred this distinction, resulting in some overlap. For instance, the PGCE at the University XE "University"  of London is a nine-months program intended for graduates who are interested in teaching either in primary or secondary school. Its curriculum includes subject studies concerned with the knowledge, understanding, and teaching of particular subjects. The program also includes professional studies, which are concerned with teachers professional roles and cover key issues in education, including cross-subject aspects of classroom teaching, individual learning differences and provision for Special Educational Needs, Classroom Management, Information & Communications Technology XE "Technology"  (ICT), Language and Learning XE "Learning" , Equalities Issues in Education, Assessment Issues, and the National Curriculum, among others XE "Curriculum" . Attempts are made to link each of these topics with the requirements at University XE "University"  and in schools where prospective teachers are placed to teach. Educational theory is seen in light of the attainment of specified competences and skills XE "skills" , as well as issues concerning the broader educational role of universities with education departments (University of London, Secondary PGCE Handbook 1999). The third curriculum component is the practical teaching experience, which involves developing prospective teachers classroom competences to a standard described in national legislation, and ensuring that they are equipped to contribute effectively to worthwhile learning. The theory-practice relationship in England can be construed through what is termed as the Partnership-in-Training XE "Training"  scheme, in which the University XE "University"  works in close partnership with schools to provide: an effective link between learning communities inschooland in higher education. For the schools and the Institute of Education XE "Education" , the Partnership opens up a wide range of possibilities forcollaboration in research and development projects, continuity between initial training and induction programmes for new teachers, the continuing professional development of individual teachers and whole-school strategies for school development (op cit.: 7). Prospective teachers XE "Prospective Teachers, Prospective teacher"  spend nearly two thirds of their training at school practicing. Practice XE "Practice, Definition, Sources, Levels"  is done in two schools in two blocks. Earlier in the course, they are based in School XE "School"  1 for four days per week, and five days per week in School 2. The remaining time is spent studying subject and professional studies at the University XE "University" . Among the advantages of a partnership in training are: a strong professional ethos, the whole-school context, the notion of reflective practice among teachers, tutors and students, and the congruence of work carried out on university and school sites (McCulloch & Fidler 1994). Theory XE "Theory, Theories, Definition, Sources, Characteristics, Role"  combines a study of particular forms of knowledge with matters relating to pedagogy and classroom application, and school practice provides the practical opportunity to apply insights gained at university in real settings. Hence, there is an attempt to avoid fragmentation in training by linking theoretical knowledge with school practice, and testing the validity of prospective teachers thinking (Alastair & Humes 1998). Despite such arrangement, a number of criticisms have been directed towards initial teacher education in England including: over concentration on the teaching of subject matter to the virtual exclusion of the context in which subject lessons take place (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994) reduction of university responsibility to teaching subjects (where required), validation and accreditation requirements, as well as the responsibility for arranging students placements the reduction of the amount of time university tutors spend in schools to supervise prospective teachers, since through the TTA, responsibility to train prospective teachers has been given to school the renaissance of the outdated apprenticeship model rather than a professional induction (Daly 1997, Buchberger 1996) the increased move towards competences and performance indicators resulting into too much centralisation of teacher training, namely standardisation (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994: 70). The criterion for assessment is a catalogue of 70 discrete, narrowly defined standards, which are intended to provide a reliable means to assess teacher competence (Jones 2000: 20). incompatibility between the structures of the education system maintained by the state and the views of other agents involved, such as those of the professional associations and teachers trade unions, result into a crisis. school mentor-role being regarded as that of managing the training and information processing with focus on learning new skills XE "skills"  rather than the preparation of professionals (Jones 2000). In literature elsewhere, they are described as craft masters of old who usually produced replicas of themselves, rather than independent and reflective practitioners (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994). The inadequate professional relationship between universities and partner schools engaged in the training of teachers. The varying differences in the way universities and schools construe and implement teacher training due to their different stages of development, value systems, arrangement of courses as well as pedagogy and assessment practices (Verrall 1995: 17) To this effect, inspectors from Ofsted and HMI have found the work of many experienced teachers less satisfactory, which raises questions about their ability to carry out teacher training. Neither criticisms cited here and elsewhere are in favour of narrowing the theory-practice gap, nor do they encourage holistic teacher education and professional development. The Two-Phased Consecutive Model XE "Model"  - Germany XE "Germany Perspective"  XE "Germany"  By the 19th century in Germany, the state had already started playing a major role in teacher education. However, with the state licensure conferred to all German professions later on, teachers obtained the autonomy to practice within the states legal and administrative framework. According to Westbury (1995), Didaktik XE "Didaktik"  emerged to provide languages within which professional teachers could discuss and defend the appropriateness of their interpretation of the syllabus as the authoritative administrative framework for teaching. To date Didaktik XE "Didaktik"  is presented as a scientific discipline in Phase 1 and as a type of craft in Phase 2. Modern German Didaktik is centred on the teacher as a professional practitioner who works within, but is not directed by the framework provided by the syllabus and the objective content of the classroom curriculum. Didaktik seeks to model forms of teacher thinking that might direct teachers to systematic reflection about ways in which classroom environments might support personal subjective encounter and relationship with the educative content represented in the curriculum and the ultimate forms of social life. Westbury (op cit.) further observes that the result is a tradition of educational and pedagogical thought which addresses questions and problems that have no analogue in the English-speaking countries. For instance, while curriculum development aims at the construction of ordered sequences of learning experiences related to the intended objectives, Didaktik does not begin with how students learn or what they should be able to do or know, instead, the teacher looks first for the point of perspective object of learning in terms of the idea of education, asks what it can and should signify to students and how students can themselves experience this significance (Knzli 1994). Both the theory and the practice of Didaktik according to Westbury (1995) represent a sustained attempt to work out what it means for teachers to be responsible curriculum theorists through reflective practice. Knzli points out that within Didaktik: practice itself [is] the starting point and the referential framework for theory (rflexion engage) and the mediation of both theory and practice [is transposed] into the educated (gebildet) individual [teacher]The concept of education (Bildung) has proved to be a stable source of orientation for this approach. Therefore, in Didaktik XE "Didaktik" , teaching is at its core an interpretative process, and the teacher by engaging in reflection is the theorist and maker of the classroom curriculum. Drawing upon this background, German teacher education provides a unique example of a two-phased consecutive model where Phase 1 held at university is fully autonomous, while school and professional education, which takes place in Phase 2 is more directly controlled by government agencies. Prospective teachers are exposed early to school practice in what is called orientation practicum. Evidence of orientation is required before they join university. At university (Phase 1), prospective teachers XE "Prospective Teachers, Prospective teacher"  study three major components, namely: at least two subjects or subject areas, basic educational science (general and school pedagogy, and psychology), plus possible options (philosophy and sociology/political science or theology), and some practical work in school which is organised by university teacher educators and experienced school teachers. Practical work is in four blocks spread across semester 2 to semester 5. In the first two blocks, prospective teachers are orientated to school pedagogy and subject methods for a particular school type or level. In the third and fourth blocks, they have accompanied in-school experiences particularly in their subject methods as well as in the Didaktik XE "Didaktik"  of the various school types or levels. Generally, block practicum is aimed at enabling prospective teachers familiarise themselves with subject-specific tasks and objectives of the respective syllabi, the instruction process in relation to the learning situation, how individual learning can be promoted, how different experiences can lead to the attainment of instructional objectives, how instructional media works, and how to successfully control the instruction processes. Teacher education is guided by two official teacher examination syllabi, which provide the structural framework of the curriculum. For instance, it is upon successful completion of Phase 1 examinations that prospective teachers can enrol for Phase 2. Phase 2 of teacher training is interdependent since it is run in accordance with government guidelines making it subject to control and state supervision. It is two-year practical training run by the school administration in special teacher study seminaries, and has close contact to school reality. This phase is regarded as probation in that it is ideally a mixture of pre- and in-service teacher training aimed at enabling prospective teachers acquire practical-pedagogical habits. It can be regarded as the more professional component of teacher training in which prospective teachers use the theory they have acquired at university in the day-to-day teaching-learning process. Prospective teachers XE "Prospective Teachers, Prospective teacher"  are paid a trainees salary, and have to conduct school lessons, which are partly guided and directed, but increasingly independent. Following the second states examination syllabus, prospective teachers have to demonstrate their planning and performing abilities in a real classroom setting. They too regularly attend the local teacher seminary courses in which they are acquainted with the curriculum for their subjects, obtain instructions on how to plan lessons and reflect on their teaching practice experience. They also engage in discussions about professional and ethical problems, as well as the social context of teaching. It is upon successful fulfilment of the requirements of the second states examinations that prospective teachers get teaching jobs. Three years after their second state examination and after having passed a short assessment, these new teachers get the status of civil servants with tenure. Despite such an arrangement, a number of criticisms have been raised against they way teachers are trained using this model, among the most pertinent ones include the following: the separation of theoretical studies from practical work. Phase 1 (university) training inadequately responds to the more pragmatic job-specific concerns in the same way Phase 2 practical training inadequately responds to a reflection on theory Fuchs (2001:257). After the theoretical examination, prospective teachers are likely to forget theory and its relevance in daily school experiences, and yet Phase 2 of teacher training and development is criticised for its failure to complete what was left and/or a tendency to repeat what was covered in Phase 1, lack of transparency regarding the organisation, structure and perspectives about the aims of the study programs (Plger & Anhalt 1999: 13), the presence of many fragmented university subjects without a bridge to job-requirements, the disappearing or narrowed component of educational studies in comparison to the entire teacher program, which component also contributes a very small percentage to the entire examination grade (Waschler 2001: 195,198), the seemingly gradual move towards teacher and pupil competences, which according to Oelkers XE "Oelkers, Author"  (2003: 112-113) under Didaktik XE "Didaktik"  underscore the aims of education and upbringing, as these only test performance of given tasks based on certain standards which are too general to respond to specific cases, the transition shock or Praxisschock which prospective teachers are confronted with a situation revealing that teachers pass through a distinct attitudinal shift during their first year of teaching, creating an adjustment to current practices in schools and not to recent scientific insights into learning and teaching (Sander 1996), and different ministries and departments concerned with teacher training and within them a bureaucratic culture (Herrmann 2001: 565-583; Terhart XE "Terhart, Author"  2000: 28). Wunder (1999: 47) quotes Phase 2 seminar teacher educators who say to the prospective teachers: forget what you have learned at university, we do not need it now. Similar instances have been cited by Herrmann (2001: 573) who notes that upon entering the teacher seminaries, (Gymnasium) prospective teachers are told to forget their subject-identification and orient themselves to school knowledge and to teaching. During school practice, mentors tell them to forget what the seminary teachers told them about classic examples and solutions, and after the second state examination, they can forget everything. From this day onwards, Herrmann adds, newly trained teachers learn to survive on their own as individual fighters. It therefore seems that each phase seeks to handle its own challenges independent of the other. In summing up the problems confronting German teacher training, it can be noted that it is one of differences. A Re-conceptualisation of the Theory XE "Theory, Theories, Definition, Sources, Characteristics, Role" -Practice Relationship XE "Theory-Practice Relationship"  From the above review, different countries understand and implement initial teacher education differently, with a lot of internal and external factors playing in the same field. The solutions to the question concerning how teacher education ought to be organized and conducted are varied, however, it cannot be denied that prospective teachers need to have hands-on practical experience drawing on theoretical knowledge and from their own personal experience. In this section, an attempt to discuss possible solutions to the challenges met in initial teacher education in Uganda is made in light of the theory-practice relationship, the organization of content and the delivery process, as well as institutional organization XE "Uganda" . a) The Hermeneutic-Dialectical XE "Dialectical"  Thinking in Teacher Education XE "Education"  The hermeneutic-dialectical theoretical model for teacher education is highly recommended. The hermeneutic cycle was primarily used to explain the relationship between the general meaning of a text and its component parts. To understand the entire text, readers had to understand its individual parts and vice versa. Wholeness and parts related to each other in a circular/spiral form. Later on, the contents and meaning of the hermeneutic cycle were expanded to refer to relationships between the readers mind, the authors life, the entire historical epoch of the author and the text, as well as the social milieu in which the text was written. The art and freedom of interpreting experience, as well as understanding as a method were very important in the hermeneutic interpretation of educational reality. Relating this understanding to educational thought, in order for one to know, there must be previous knowledge which forms the basis on which future knowledge is constructed. Hence, interpretations of meaning are reinterpreted through new encounters with the text. In teacher education, this assumption holds since prospective teachers already have certain knowledge and preconceptions about teaching before they enroll on the teacher education program. It is upon such knowledge that new interpretation and understanding of what professional theory and practice entail is built. During a pedagogical encounter, knowledge and practice continually develop themselves through interpreting and explaining the experience arising from them in a spiral manner as illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1 The Hermeneutic-Dialectical XE "Dialectical"  Cycle  SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT Developed from: Murphy (2003) In Figure 1, the term text in the case of education means among others, pedagogical reality and action, learners, or syllabus. The practitioners main objective is to interpret and understand this reality. At the beginning, practitioners attempt to interpret educational reality in a realistic and unconstrained manner, with the aim of reconstructing and improving their knowledge and practice. It is realistic in that they do not imitate, but through reflection attempt interpretation depending on a particular setting, which may be referred to as their degree of freedom in practice. Each time they confront a new situation, they derive new interpretations, therefore, interpretation spirals out. Each spiral is integrated with both theoretical and practical knowledge. Pedagogical reality in this case is only accessible in terms of how practitioners understand and interpret it. The term dialectic here is important because practitioners engage in critical analyses of their mental processes as they interpret and reflect on educational reality. In this process, new interpretations are built on feedback from previous knowledge and increase in complexity. According to Buck (1981: 35) a practitioners education is always incomplete and remains open for new experiences. To prevent interpretation of reality from spiralling out of control, certain limits are imposed on the spiral, thus narrowing it. The spiral limit, whether reached or not, is the principle of objectivity and reality. Among others, such limit is imposed through a reflection on theory, the syllabus, class age, social or political pressure, with an intention to avoid irrationality, intellectual dishonesty, self-interest, ambiguity or wrongfulness. At the same time, such limit may give practitioners a range of possibilities for selection, decision-making and action. However, this necessitates reflection and inquiry into the range of possibilities and weighing them against practitioners own experiences and knowledge, namely they have to strike a balance between objectivism and subjectivism. For instance in a teaching-learning situation, teachers engage in reflection by asking themselves what a particular theory about teaching means for a particular learning experience of real individual learners. In this sense, pedagogical theory provides an essential context for their activities, and their core work centres on relating this abstract theory to the immediate needs of learners. Theoretical knowledge is background to the actual teaching activity, but issues concerning the teaching of content, as well as the social and cultural context of the learners and their dispositions and capacities are issues dealing with practical teaching. Pedagogical theory has the task of modelling how to think about practice that must begin with the here-and-now. Taking an example of a learner who is always disorderly and loud in class, a teacher might ask himself how such a learner can be helped, and how the teacher can interpret his situation and help him in relation to the theoretical dispositions underpinning such action. When the teacher is successful in finding a practical solution with the help of pedagogical theory, a useful theory-practice union would have been reached. How this qualified teacher does this is a matter of his or her expert self-confrontation, criticism and determination. These aspects are not read anywhere and should not be scripted in the syllabus. In this way, the hermeneutic-dialectic thinking enables (prospective) teachers to look at their learners in a pedagogical manner, with level-headed consciousness, and perceive the content to be taught in a pedagogical manner, as well as use pedagogical tact in handling unique class situations. Hence, the formulation of new orientations of action in practice arises from a successful reflection on theory which leads to an improvement of practice. In this way, practitioners draw from their interpretation as well as from reality in order to understand a particular setting, content or learner. Engaging in reflection implies that problem-solving strategies are not regarded in a linear fashion, but from various perspectives. This is because practice offers surprises and brings forward unpredictable developments (Duncker 2002), calling for an open and flexible teaching-learning process that demands teacher personal input and judgement. Through such thought process, teacher educators could take on new responsibilities as mentors, guides and colleagues mediating the learning process and environment. The teacher curriculum could present tentative constructions of the content to be learned, thereby encouraging prospective teachers to actively participate in self-driven learning. By providing them with freedom to participate in the construction of the conceptual language defining pedagogical reality, the hermeneutic-dialectic orientation would increase (prospective) teachers possibilities to act in accordance with their own insights in line with the designed curriculum. For instance, it would create in them the awareness that teachers are not only knowledge users but also knowledge producers. b) Institutional Organisation University XE "University"  Role in Teacher Education XE "Education"  Generally, university plays a prime role as a centre for research and teaching, with scientific knowledge and methods as its stronghold. It offers fundamental systematic scientific knowledge and mediates in the acquisition of this knowledge through up-to-date methods and approaches. Apart from its academic authority, university also acts as a key place in fostering a social culture not easily found elsewhere. In the case of teacher preparation, the role of university in teacher education cannot be underestimated. It is the conditio sine qua non for the education of teachers for the modern school. The central function of university teacher education is its institutionalisation, systematic development and mediation of scientific knowledge. This knowledge enables prospective teachers to think about the function and relevance of pedagogy in the teaching-learning process, analyse and reflect on practical problems, attempt at finding possible alternatives, and generally question the function and limitations surrounding scientific knowledge itself (Oevermanns 1996). However, this knowledge alone is inadequate as a basis for teacher education. That is why the overriding criticism of university teacher training has been its concentration on scientific (academic-oriented) knowledge to the neglect of non-scientific knowledge, professional competence and practice (Buchberger 1996). Current reform stresses a form of teacher education based on job-specific training and professional development (Fuchs 2001; Terhart XE "Terhart, Author"  2000). This implies that university teacher education ought not only to embrace research methods and theories, but also relevant forms of knowledge acquisition of job-related skills XE "skills" . Practice XE "Practice, Definition, Sources, Levels"  ought to be integrated as much and as relevantly as possible with theory. During the teaching-learning process, there is need to ensure that prospective teachers acquire general and specific pedagogical methods of enacting the curriculum. Since these disciplines are theory-guided, problem-oriented and not chanceful or even limited to routine work but fully systematic, they qualify teaching as a scientific discipline. However, to qualify these disciplines as professionally relevant, they have to be pragmatically grounded in practice. To do this, there is need to bridge the theory-practice gap by partnering with schools in the education of teachers. School XE "School"  is the place where the interactive theory-practice relationship fundamental to all education and the interplay between experience and reflection are concretised (Klafki 1995). This relationship and interplay is evident through reflective decisions for planning teaching and learning. One cannot talk about teacher education without relating it to school and vice versa. University XE "University" -school partnership in teacher training has existed since the formal training of teachers started, in some instances, university has dominated such partnership and school has acted as the site for the practical training. More recently, for instance in England, school has assumed even more exclusive responsibility for prospective teachers during their practical preparation. However it has been noted that this form of partnership raises fundamental questions about teacher education. Good teacher education depends on the quality of the partnership and not on the contractual agreement made. Therefore, a professional partnership borne out of collaboration between university and school, and not one forced from outside is more worthwhile. In such partnership, university and school are equal partners and their partnership contains mutual respect for differing roles. This partnership could flourish at a neutral point, where both university and school freely chart the way forward, that is, at an established Professional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  Teachers Centre XE "Professional Teachers Center" . c) The Professional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  Teachers Centre XE "Professional Teachers Center"  In light of the reviewed literature, there is need that university takes on more responsibility in teacher education. Such responsibility could be through a Professional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  Teachers Centre XE "Professional Teachers Center"  (PTC from here on words), in which both university and school are involved in the professional growth of prospective teachers as well as the further professional development of practising teachers. It should be clearly noted here that the PTC would not be intended to compete with the existing teacher training programme, but complement it. The rationale for the establishment of PTCs is that university XE "University"  education has been universalised to the extent that prospective teachers easily get lost among other student masses as well as the long lists of courses they have to take before qualifying as teachers. It is therefore quite easy for them to go through university with inadequate orientation regarding their future profession. At the school of Education, Makerere University, some prospective teachers drop out of the training program, or, if they complete, they look for jobs other than teaching. This may imply that they have gone through the process of teacher training, but the training process itself has not gone through them. Among the reasons why this may be so is because teachers, unlike doctors or lawyers, for instance, do not have a steadfast home of their own where it is obvious for them to practice what they have learned. A PTC that is professionally independent in designing, implementing and evaluating its programmes could be the best solution to such challenges. By dedicating itself to teacher education, it could contribute better to the educational identity and strongly bring in the centre of its education reflection on practice as well as prepare prospective teachers for their daily school tasks. Teacher education could be institutionalised to have a more effective platform in the promotion of a link among scientific subjects, educational disciplines and practice. The PTC could also act as a base providing prospective teachers with internship education and practicing teachers with continued and further professional development. As a home, prospective teachers could be regarded as individuals with unique abilities and talents to be developed. The ultimate aim of the PTC is to link educational theory with practice with the aim that prospective teachers acquire practical ability and skill and are professionally competently prepared. Ability and skill are implicit forms of knowledge, which through practice become explicit and can be reflected during practical experience. Teachers professional competence consists of an ability to reflect on the constituents of pedagogical reality, a readiness to make decisions required and identified in this reality, as well as act in accordance with these decisions. In order to be able to decide and take relevant action in an educational reality, such reflection ought to be carried out in practical situations. A study programme such as teacher education, whose point of departure is rooted in practice ought to bring the theory-practice relationship to the fore and manage it. In order to link theory with practice, the PTC could aim at: linking university and school, emphasising early practical experience and making practice a central element in teacher preparation complementing university studies. developing tailor-made professional programmes for prospective and in-service teachers, evolving around pedagogical disciplines, seeking to promote job-knowledge and skills XE "skills" . developing social competence among prospective and in-service teachers, namely their personality and virtues regarding commitment, sensitivity, emotional warmth and genuineness, ability to contain physical and psychological load, flexibility, toleration, authenticity, individuality, caution and empathy in dealing with critically argumentative people, optimism about human beings, joy in life and at work, ethos for service, as well as openness to all areas of life. developing a self-driven learning culture aimed at promoting individual thought, ability to make judgement and decisions concerning meta-cognitive, professional and personal situations, as well as an enthusiasm and sovereignty over knowledge and skill. developing a strong scientific base which will respond to the differences between scientific and practical knowledge, as well as initiate and strengthen empirical and qualitative research in teaching and learning. strengthening the position of subject methods in research and teaching as well as create a balance between subject-specific and general pedagogical knowledge. acting as a catalyst in stimulating and spearheading discussions and developments regarding the aims, structure, contents, and methods of teacher education at micro and macro levels. It is hoped that with the realisation of the above aims the transition or reality shock, which according to Seibert (2001) is as a result of the purely academic studies at university, which are not identical with on-job practical needs will be minimised as well. Through such aims, the PTC would also be able to promote the socialisation of prospective teachers by changing their basic outlook and perspective about teaching, learning and the entire school experiences. The PTC is also intended to act as a meeting point that fosters interaction among (prospective) teachers, teacher educators and researchers. Such interaction could enable them learn from one another as well as reflect on their and others professional and personal experiences. In summary, the programmes at the PTC ought among other things to enable (prospective) teachers organise and initiate the teaching-learning process, develop a conducive learning environment, be able to guide and supervise teaching-learning processes, care for individual learners, as well as participate in internal school reforms. The PTC could guide (prospective) teachers not only to apply knowledge, but more so, to interpret and make sense of it in order to solve complex structural problems in schools. It could enable them relay this knowledge in the language of their clients (learners). In order to fulfil these aims, the PTC could take on various responsibilities as outlined in Table 1 Table 1: Core Responsibilities of the PTC LevelActivityPlanning PTC-led with consultation of a small group of beneficiariesDocumentationStrongly emphasised, defining tasks for the PTC ContentPTC defines what prospective and in-service teachers should learn, often utilising a rather pragmatic rather than an explicit competence framework Evaluation and AssessmentPTC-led and definedPTC-School XE "School"  PartnershipProfessional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  with mutually agreed tasks and relationship responsibilitiesMentoring Mentors educated to be able to assist prospective teachers in areas the PTC defines as necessaryLegitimatingAcceptance of PTC-defined principles of pre-service and in-service, however with a high degree of autonomyAdapted from: The idealized features of the HEI-led model by Furlong XE "Furlong, Author"  et al. (2000: 118) Programmes and Activities of the PTC In this study, the PTC is considered to be the heart of teacher education, school development and continued/further professional development. As presented in Figure 2, there are four core programmes and activities of the PTC, namely: initial (pre-service) teacher education, in-service teacher programme, educational research and development, as well as general activities. Figure 2 Core Programmes and Activities of the PTC  SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT  The major aim of the PTC is to integrate the various programmes so as to promote holistic professionalism and school improvement. For instance, through integration, the initial teacher programme can benefit from research and development, the in-service programme, as well as from the general activities. The reason for integration is that each programme complements and builds on the other in a special way, a vital internal bond in linking theory with practice. For instance, the initial (pre-service) teacher education program XE "Education"  is aimed at promoting and strengthening the following competences: Practical competence: that is, skill, dexterity, agility, decision-making and responsibility could be emphasised and integrated with the other competences. Social competence: personality and social development (virtues, attitudes, morals, consideration of self and others, identity of self with others, coping skills XE "skills" , responsibility, creativity, etc). Professional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  competence: general pedagogy XE "Didaktik" , educational psychology and sociology. Among other things, these disciplines stress meta-cognition (individual improvement in the acquisition of knowledge and learning techniques), value education, guidance and counselling; and how these can be reflected upon in practice. Methods competence: this includes ability to plan, monitor and evaluate teaching and learning, reflect on practical experience so as to improve teaching and learning styles, communication and group dynamic processes; how to handle challenging situations, fear, insecurity and stress; conflict management and resolution; ability to diagnose and assess various teaching-learning situations; inter and multidisciplinary teaching; learner-centred teaching methods; individual, team and project work; basic education in media pedagogy and information technology. Academic competence: stressing the integration of subject matter knowledge with professional knowledge especially through subject methods. The above competences are conceived as an integrated body of knowledge, skills XE "skills"  and attitudes, and not a generalized catalogue of competences. As such they represent a potential for behaviour and not the behaviour itself. They are not about efficiency but about prospective (teachers) learning their tasks and preparing themselves for a fragile and volatile school environment. They are general, flexible and multidisciplinary, and (prospective) teachers can use them alongside their experience and school routine. It is also useful to note that these competences ought not to be taken as rigid behaviour for the ultimate measure of a good teacher, but as offering a sense of direction. These competences are also useful in the in-service program, and teacher educators ought to be models themselves in promoting them during their interaction with prospective and in-service teachers. Practice XE "Practice, Definition, Sources, Levels"  and a reflection on theory in practice are at the core of the pre-service programme at the PTC. In order to reflect on theory in practice, prospective teachers observe model lessons initially taught by teacher educators and experienced school teachers. During the lessons, they note interesting and peculiar aspects concerning lesson introduction, development and conclusion, and at the end, the lesson is discussed. With time, prospective teachers begin to participate in experimental teaching with the aim of developing some degree of experience and competence. Teaching XE "Teaching"  at this level ought to stress purposeful planning, organisation, evaluation as well as reflection on these activities. Through partnership with schools, the PTC could either ask for a class from school to visit the PTC for demonstration lessons, or partner schools could be visited to observe real lessons, carry out teaching experiments, as well as observe general school practices and how these relate to theory. Coming to the end of university studies, the PTC and its partner schools could help prospective/beginning teachers during their internship and early years of teaching. This helps to reduce the transition and reality shock new teachers experience at school. This PTC-partner school follow-up could continue during the professional years of the teachers. Conclusion The development of the future school requires reform in teacher education. However, in order to reform teacher education, up-to-date research is vital in providing information about current developments in school as well as those most likely to characterise the future school. It is also acknowledged that reforms in teaching and schooling imply new roles for teachers. This is why it is important that teacher education reform (initial and in-service) is coordinated with curriculum reform and whole-school improvement. To be prepared for their future job, prospective teachers need competences in subject matter, methodical, diagnostic, ability to guide and counsel, as well as to effectively communicate and promote teamwork. 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Wollenweber, H.: Das Berufsbild des Lehrers als Grundlage der Lehrerausbildung. In: D. Schulz & H.-W. Wollersheim. (Hrsg.): Lehrerbildung in der ffentlichen Diskussion: Neuzeitliche Gestaltungsformen in Theorie und Praxis XE "Praxis" . Neuwied/Kriftel: Luchterhand 1999: 11 - 23.  Universal Primary Education was introduced in 1996, and Uganda became one of the first African countries to see significant gains in achieving EFE goals. Since then, enrolment in primary education jumped from 2.7 million to approximately 7.2 million in 2002, moving Uganda closer to achieving UPE (Murphy, 2003).  This year, 2007 Universal Secondary Education (USE) was introduced in Uganda  There used to be such sessions at university and in teacher colleges in the 1970s. To date, apart from the Grade 3 and 5 primary teacher training institutions in the country, education, especially secondary education, has become very academic leading to a less emphasis on practical teaching approaches and skills XE "skills" .  The result of these reforms was the establishment of the Teacher Training Agency (TTA), which took over many of the roles of the Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education XE "Education"  (CATE), which was charged with overseeing initial teacher training in England and Wales on behalf of the Secretary of State. The TTA funds and improves the quality of teaching, raise standards and promote teaching as a profession in order to improve standards of learners achievement as well as quality of learning (TTA 1995). It has a prescribed national curriculum for teacher training, which exists in the form of specified competences all new teachers must posses. There is a tight control on standards for the award of the Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) and hence entry into the profession (TTA 1997). The TTA also determines the roles and duties of universities and schools involved in teacher training.  This is a consecutive curricular mode.  In England, Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education XE "Education" ), established in 1992 has largely replaced Her Majestys Inspectorate (HMI) as anindependent inspectorate (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994), and the term standards (similar in its use to quality) is easily linked with proposals for performance-related pay to bring about a competent as well as an efficient workforce.  Cited in Westbury (1995: 257).  The arrangement for the orientation practicum for prospective teachers activities varies according to the federal state. Here, the State of Bavaria is taken as example.  Competences XE "Competences"  in education are promoted by TIMSS and PISA and more recently by the German Federal Ministry for Education XE "Education"  and Research (Bundesministerium fr Bildung und Forschung - BMBF 2003).  There are four basic competences promoted in initial teacher training in Germany XE "Germany Perspective"  XE "Germany" , namely: subject, methods, social and personal competences.  Spiraling-out is possible as knowledge advances and practitioners move into the unknown and the complex.  As far as professionalism is concerned, the term limit here has both positive and negative connotations.  The hermeneutic-dialectic cycle exists between the objective knowledge and subjective experience of a text. Objectivism means that teachers ground of knowledge is in the object, in some external, public, and inter-subjective domain. This means that different teachers have access to the same knowledge. On the other hand, subjectivism means that the ground of knowledge is in the subject, in some irreducibly individual sense. Such knowledge is characterised by various imperfections and uncertainties, therefore, it is fallible and corrigible, which prevents it from being absolute and objective. For this reason, hermeneutics show the dimension of meaning and understanding in knowledge, but the dimension of truth and knowledge as such still depends on a foundational, absolute, and objective aspect of reality. The union of the subject and object occurs when a concept is internalised to the point of realisation or practice. This is the balance between explicit and tacit knowledge.  This view is also shared by Dewe & Radtke (1991: 147) who propose that teachers ought to be professional experts who can produce as well as use knowledge.  There are advantages accruing to the location of the PTC at Makerere University XE "Makerere University"  XE "University"  including the sense of immediacy and responsibility which the university could take on. Equally important, university is traditionally a center for teaching, research, learning and professional development, which aspects are beneficial for the PTC location at university. However, there may be some who advocate for neutrality, and these may wish the PTC to be established outside university and school premises. In this case, challenges met in Phase 2 teacher training in Germany XE "Germany Perspective"  XE "Germany"  and the school-led training in England are likely to arise.  According to Wollenweber (1999: 19) educational knowledge which considers theory as theory of practice for the practice answers many practice-oriented questions and profits it, and its theories in practice are verifiable, and if necessary, they can be revised.     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CK~K]LM^N'OuO0RPV]V!W_3XU;Zb>bqbn fkhdkQmoJojr3Lv|+!|B|G}7i,X <;HNaPW^zgwAChM Q~<vi=/Z`fl R4M_MMb-eZP7A\jbN 7M%rDekKY{ 4efEJY#@{akBl9LUzO46Y@@C=/1*WHWC@|4R q %Ț: KQZ[e~YZe?@v`0Y0@Cp@UnknownG: Times New Roman5Symbol3& : Arial?5 : Courier New;Wingdings"1hڷ ܷ۷;%%!4d 2QHX ?Y2In September 2000, Uganda was one of the 191 countries that adopted the Millennium Declaration and the subsequent Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which provide a framework for a common global vision of a world in which the right to development of alP. N. SSENTAMUuwc|                      Oh+'0|   , 8 D P\dltIn September 2000, Uganda was one of the 191 countries that adopted the Millennium Declaration and the subsequent Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which provide a framework for a common global vision of a world in which the right to development of alP. N. 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ࡱ> #` bjbj\.\. )>D>D%YddH(aaa8(b$d(2d( e".e.e.ey|W}l$h.H9qy@y9.e.eCNt.e.e4 ?.ed ^Wa>Dd05 v{v|?v?}{:H}}}991d}}}((();D&(((;((( Teacher education models and their implications for teacher training at the School of Education, Makerere University Ssentamu-Namubiru Proscovia (PhD); lecturer at the School of Education, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda Abstract Teacher education is affected by changes in priorities regarding the requirements and expectations associated with education and upbringing; and such changes have as much to do with teacher professional efficiency and government policies for teacher preparation, as with the existing socio-political climate. In this paper, the UK and Germany teacher education models are reviewed in light of improving teacher education in Uganda. Uganda XE "Uganda"  pursues a one-phased concurrent model where two-thirds of the training time is spent at university and less than a third at school for practice. As a result, there has been public outcry concerning the quality of teachers prepared, arguing that these are more theoretical and less practical (MISR XE "MISR"  2001; Namubiru 2000; Abidi 1991). On the other hand, England pursues a one-phased concurrent and integrated model in which for instance, beginning teachers pursuing a Post Graduate Certificate in Education spend two-thirds of their training in partner schools. Germany XE "Germany Perspective"  XE "Germany"  pursues a two-phased consecutive model in which university-based studies provide a theoretical background and orientation to the professional studies at teacher study seminaries. This paper was borne out of a review of sampled primary and secondary literature, to explore the best relationship between university (theory) and school (practice) in teacher education, and design a teacher education model for Uganda. It was found out that while the UK model had metamorphosed into a more liberal and practical-oriented model, the Ugandan model still reflected the old British model 45 years after independence; a model that could not measure to the many changes introduced in primary and secondary schools, where trained teachers would be posted after graduation. Phase 2 of the Germany model had a strong attachment to schools (mentorship) where teachers had autonomy regarding the subject matter they taught. Drawing from this review, an integrated model was proposed for Uganda with the hope that it would promote quality pre-service and in-service teacher education to enhance the MDGs reflected in Ugandan schools. INTRODUCTION The achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), especially universal primary education has a lot to do with the quality of teachers. As stated in the Government White Paper on Education XE "Education"  (1992: 152): no education system can be better than the quality of its teachers, nor can a country be better than the quality of its education. Hence, it is the quality of teachers which ultimately determines the lot of the nation. With this statement, it is clear that the Uganda XE "Uganda"  Government acknowledges the importance that must be attached to the quality of its teachers and recognises the key role of leadership and service they play in implementing education policies and programs. According to the EPRC (1989: 97) teachers play a key role in proper implementation of various education polices and programs including: skilfully imparting of knowledge to help the learners develop both the desire and ability to learn; encouraging the development of the students individual personality and guiding him/her in forming positive and acceptable social values; promoting the spirit of collective responsibility of the school and the teaching profession; and bridging the gap between educational institutions and the community to ensure proper fulfilment of the functions of the schools and colleges towards the community. Despite government recognition of teachers roles, it is debatable how much effort she has put into ensuring that the quality of teacher training is improved. Uganda XE "Uganda"  being a former British colony designed and implemented its educational programs following the then British model. Although in England, this model has undergone massive changes over time and been replaced by models of modern competences in teacher training (Gardner 1995), many aspects in teacher training in Uganda still reflect the old British model even after 45 years of political independence. Generally, it has been documented that the current tertiary curriculum structure is no longer relevant to Ugandan society as most of its features and structures have not been updated since 1970 (Uganda Government 2003: 12). There have been efforts towards improving policy making in the primary education sector including the training of primary school teachers and their curriculum in direct relation to the commitment towards the attainment of Education For All (EFA) and the MDGs. According to Murphy (2003), it is undeniable that Uganda has made significant progress in reaching out to all primary school aged children by improving pupil: teacher ratio and pupil: textbook ratio, the curriculum and its distribution, sustaining and improving teacher training and support, as well as improving systems to monitor and measure the quality of primary education. However, the policies and programs put in place to ensure quality Universal Secondary Education (USE) seem out of phase with the MDGs, since much of it still reflects the old British model where there is a separation of theory from practice; and theory takes three quarters of the entire teacher education program. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- There are a variety of ways in which initial teacher training is organised and structured. For instance, as a concurrent model, in which the different components of teacher training are studied parallel to one another. It may also be organised as an integrated model in which educational components are not only offered at the same time, but in an integrated way, mainly focusing on professionally relevant topics and integrating theoretical as well as practical studies. Unlike concurrent models, in consecutive models, prospective teachers first study academic disciplines and sometimes the science of the teaching profession followed by professional studies and teaching practice. Most training for teachers at secondary level is organised basing on consecutive models. Furthermore, teacher training may follow modularised models which offer clearly defined modules so that prospective teachers have to decide the study sequence to follow. Yet, another popular structural distinction in teacher training is the one based on phases. For instance, in the one-phased model, the successful completion of initial teacher training permits prospective teachers to apply for a teaching post. On the other hand, in a two-phased model, they first have to complete (mainly) theoretical studies at teacher training institutions before embarking on practical studies at school. A teacher training programme may combine one or more of the discussed models. In this paper, the one-phased concurrent model in Uganda XE "Uganda" , the one-phased concurrent and integrated model in England and the two-phased consecutive model in Germany XE "Germany Perspective"  XE "Germany"  are reviewed. The aim is to explore how educational theory and practice have been understood and are being implemented to improve quality of teacher education; and what lessons can be learnt to improve teacher training in Uganda. The One-Phased Concurrent Model XE "Model"  - Uganda XE "Uganda"  The major route into teaching in Uganda XE "Uganda"  is the concurrent study of specialised subjects and initial teacher training leading to either a Bachelor of Arts degree with Education XE "Education"  (BA/Ed.) or a Bachelor of Science degree with Education (BSc./Ed.). In this three-year program, in addition to professional foundation courses, prospective teachers take two teaching subjects either from the arts or science-based disciplines. In order to prepare competent teachers, the BA/BSc./Ed. degree programme is made up of four major components, namely: Education XE "Education"  foundation courses; professional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  disciplines to assist prospective teachers in the development of classroom competences such as Curriculum XE "Curriculum"  Studies, Educational Technology XE "Technology" , Educational Administration and Management; Special and General Methods of Teaching XE "Teaching" ; as well as the practicum where prospective teachers practically demonstrate in school what they have acquired during their training. School XE "School"  practice XE "School practice"  is done in two blocks at the end of second and third year of their training, and normally, each block lasts between 4-6 weeks.  XE "Uganda" The theory and practice relationship in teacher training is one major aspect that has been overlooked since independence, leading to public outcry regarding the quality of teachers prepared in terms of skills XE "skills"  and professionalism. According to Abidi (1991) and MISR XE "MISR"  (2001), the University XE "University"  has been criticised for producing theoretical graduates who can neither solve on-job problems nor meet the practical needs of the country. Educational theory in university teacher training is derived from disciplines such as psychology and sociology and then applied to educational practice in a priori fashion. It provides prospective teachers with a systematic ordered understanding of historical and theoretical education literature. According to Mortimore (1997: 31): the contribution of theory to the study of education is vital if we are to solve any of the difficult issues we face: why do children vary in their learning skills XE "skills" ? Why are there such differences in the effectiveness of so many schools and departments? Why do girls and boys differ so much in their behaviour and achievement?only theory can suggestand indicate the potential value of further research intoplausible explanations. Hence, educational theory enables prospective teachers to appreciate that they do not work in a vacuum, but are part of a community of teachers within a school engaged in a wide variety of educational aims and objectives beyond those demonstrated within the school curriculum. Apart from their teaching duty, they can also enhance their knowledge concerning the ways in which school has to interact with and respond to government requirements, parental demands, as well as their public image, moral and professional obligations. Ideally, such perception subjects their views and actions to the criticism and discussion by others, and thus leads to new perspectives and self-understandings. At Makerere University XE "Makerere University"  XE "University"  however, there are a number of challenges to the realization of these and many other advantages accruing to educational theory including: emphasis on educational theory or preconceived educational ideas and principles seems to predispose prospective teachers to see the challenge of pedagogy in narrowed ways, rather than view teaching as a lived experience, to which they can orient themselves in a given context. awareness is neither created among prospective teachers to reflect on the educational theory itself and appreciate its usefulness, nor sensitise them about how they can use theory to improve on practice. educational theory is presented in a rather generalised fashion using the lecture approach; and from a historical rather than a contemporary viewpoint. there is an absence of micro or peer teaching sessions during training curtailing the role of special subject methods in promoting skills XE "skills" -based learning that is closely linked with prospective teachers work in classrooms and embedded in the everyday life of teaching. educational theory and practice is construed by both prospective teachers and lecturers in light of examination and assessment. Once the latter have sat and passed the examinations, the door to educational theory seems to be from then onwards closed. the presence of so many subjects on the teacher curriculum which are un-coordinated and not synchronised with the school curriculum where prospective teachers eventually go to teach. during school practice, there is limited opportunity for prospective teachers to reflect on their experiences, since there is a rigid lesson plan and scheme of work format to be followed as well as a specific school practice assessment form, which lecturers/supervisors have to strictly follow during lesson observation. Educational theory is valid and relevant in a lived experience of the pedagogical encounter, that is, in the life of learners being taught. However, when there is an inadequate intimate union between theory and practice, teachers cannot experience this awareness during the pedagogical encounter. A One-Phased Concurrent and Integrated Model XE "Model"  England England is another example with a one-phased teacher training model, but unlike Uganda, she has undergone changes in her initial teacher education. In Bells (1981) research, teacher training institutions in England went through three broad phases indicated by their changing nomenclature, namely: Teacher Training XE "Training" , College of Education XE "Education" , and Institute of Higher Education. At each stage and in each institution, the structure, culture, organisation of knowledge and typical modes of social interaction were different. He also observes that these changes correspond with Webers three ideal types of education, namely: charismatic education (which aimed at producing the good teacher), education of the cultivated person (which aimed at producing the educated persons), and specialised expert training. However, from the 1980s onwards, the role of the specialised expert came under challenge because universities were seen as elitist and remote from practice. The claim was that standards in schools had fallen and teacher educators were to blame for failure to prepare teachers for real classroom situations (Ball 1995). It was felt that too much time was devoted to theoretical studies, often based upon dubious sociological and philosophical premises (Alastair & Humes 1998), and that such studies were ideologically biased towards the left (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994), giving insufficient time and attention to the primary task of helping children to learn the basics. Since then, government through a string of reforms successfully controlled teacher training and suppressed the expert. Such a move has led to proposals that schools should play the key influential role in a much closer partnership with university education departments, and that university-based parts of teacher training should be fully relevant to classroom practice. One of the routes into teacher training in England is the one-year Post Graduate Certificate of Education XE "Post Graduate Certificate of Education"  XE "Education"  (PGCE) course XE "Bachelor of Education" , which normally includes the academic study of one or more subjects related to the age range one intends to teach. As a result of changes in the structure of teacher training, education foundation disciplines are no longer taught at university under their respective names. Rather, they have been replaced by professional methods studies, which are considered more directly related to classroom teaching. These studies are taught at university prior to teaching experience or, in school, during actual teaching practice (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994). The use of the term theory to describe the latter is, however, less common. The English model appears to be integrated because the demarcation between theory and practice is not clear. The Anglo-American XE "Anglo-American"  tradition of close links between higher-education institutions and practice schools, including the exchange of personnel has blurred this distinction, resulting in some overlap. For instance, the PGCE at the University XE "University"  of London is a nine-months program intended for graduates who are interested in teaching either in primary or secondary school. Its curriculum includes subject studies concerned with the knowledge, understanding, and teaching of particular subjects. The program also includes professional studies, which are concerned with teachers professional roles and cover key issues in education, including cross-subject aspects of classroom teaching, individual learning differences and provision for Special Educational Needs, Classroom Management, Information & Communications Technology XE "Technology"  (ICT), Language and Learning XE "Learning" , Equalities Issues in Education, Assessment Issues, and the National Curriculum, among others XE "Curriculum" . Attempts are made to link each of these topics with the requirements at University XE "University"  and in schools where prospective teachers are placed to teach. Educational theory is seen in light of the attainment of specified competences and skills XE "skills" , as well as issues concerning the broader educational role of universities with education departments (University of London, Secondary PGCE Handbook 1999). The third curriculum component is the practical teaching experience, which involves developing prospective teachers classroom competences to a standard described in national legislation, and ensuring that they are equipped to contribute effectively to worthwhile learning. The theory-practice relationship in England can be construed through what is termed as the Partnership-in-Training XE "Training"  scheme, in which the University XE "University"  works in close partnership with schools to provide: an effective link between learning communities inschooland in higher education. For the schools and the Institute of Education XE "Education" , the Partnership opens up a wide range of possibilities forcollaboration in research and development projects, continuity between initial training and induction programmes for new teachers, the continuing professional development of individual teachers and whole-school strategies for school development (op cit.: 7). Prospective teachers XE "Prospective Teachers, Prospective teacher"  spend nearly two thirds of their training at school practicing. Practice XE "Practice, Definition, Sources, Levels"  is done in two schools in two blocks. Earlier in the course, they are based in School XE "School"  1 for four days per week, and five days per week in School 2. The remaining time is spent studying subject and professional studies at the University XE "University" . Among the advantages of a partnership in training are: a strong professional ethos, the whole-school context, the notion of reflective practice among teachers, tutors and students, and the congruence of work carried out on university and school sites (McCulloch & Fidler 1994). Theory XE "Theory, Theories, Definition, Sources, Characteristics, Role"  combines a study of particular forms of knowledge with matters relating to pedagogy and classroom application, and school practice provides the practical opportunity to apply insights gained at university in real settings. Hence, there is an attempt to avoid fragmentation in training by linking theoretical knowledge with school practice, and testing the validity of prospective teachers thinking (Alastair & Humes 1998). Despite such arrangement, a number of criticisms have been directed towards initial teacher education in England including: over concentration on the teaching of subject matter to the virtual exclusion of the context in which subject lessons take place (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994) reduction of university responsibility to teaching subjects (where required), validation and accreditation requirements, as well as the responsibility for arranging students placements the reduction of the amount of time university tutors spend in schools to supervise prospective teachers, since through the TTA, responsibility to train prospective teachers has been given to school the renaissance of the outdated apprenticeship model rather than a professional induction (Daly 1997, Buchberger 1996) the increased move towards competences and performance indicators resulting into too much centralisation of teacher training, namely standardisation (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994: 70). The criterion for assessment is a catalogue of 70 discrete, narrowly defined standards, which are intended to provide a reliable means to assess teacher competence (Jones 2000: 20). incompatibility between the structures of the education system maintained by the state and the views of other agents involved, such as those of the professional associations and teachers trade unions, result into a crisis. school mentor-role being regarded as that of managing the training and information processing with focus on learning new skills XE "skills"  rather than the preparation of professionals (Jones 2000). In literature elsewhere, they are described as craft masters of old who usually produced replicas of themselves, rather than independent and reflective practitioners (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994). The inadequate professional relationship between universities and partner schools engaged in the training of teachers. The varying differences in the way universities and schools construe and implement teacher training due to their different stages of development, value systems, arrangement of courses as well as pedagogy and assessment practices (Verrall 1995: 17) To this effect, inspectors from Ofsted and HMI have found the work of many experienced teachers less satisfactory, which raises questions about their ability to carry out teacher training. Neither criticisms cited here and elsewhere are in favour of narrowing the theory-practice gap, nor do they encourage holistic teacher education and professional development. The Two-Phased Consecutive Model XE "Model"  - Germany XE "Germany Perspective"  XE "Germany"  By the 19th century in Germany, the state had already started playing a major role in teacher education. However, with the state licensure conferred to all German professions later on, teachers obtained the autonomy to practice within the states legal and administrative framework. According to Westbury (1995), Didaktik XE "Didaktik"  emerged to provide languages within which professional teachers could discuss and defend the appropriateness of their interpretation of the syllabus as the authoritative administrative framework for teaching. To date Didaktik XE "Didaktik"  is presented as a scientific discipline in Phase 1 and as a type of craft in Phase 2. Modern German Didaktik is centred on the teacher as a professional practitioner who works within, but is not directed by the framework provided by the syllabus and the objective content of the classroom curriculum. Didaktik seeks to model forms of teacher thinking that might direct teachers to systematic reflection about ways in which classroom environments might support personal subjective encounter and relationship with the educative content represented in the curriculum and the ultimate forms of social life. Westbury (op cit.) further observes that the result is a tradition of educational and pedagogical thought which addresses questions and problems that have no analogue in the English-speaking countries. For instance, while curriculum development aims at the construction of ordered sequences of learning experiences related to the intended objectives, Didaktik does not begin with how students learn or what they should be able to do or know, instead, the teacher looks first for the point of perspective object of learning in terms of the idea of education, asks what it can and should signify to students and how students can themselves experience this significance (Knzli 1994). Both the theory and the practice of Didaktik according to Westbury (1995) represent a sustained attempt to work out what it means for teachers to be responsible curriculum theorists through reflective practice. Knzli points out that within Didaktik: practice itself [is] the starting point and the referential framework for theory (rflexion engage) and the mediation of both theory and practice [is transposed] into the educated (gebildet) individual [teacher]The concept of education (Bildung) has proved to be a stable source of orientation for this approach. Therefore, in Didaktik XE "Didaktik" , teaching is at its core an interpretative process, and the teacher by engaging in reflection is the theorist and maker of the classroom curriculum. Drawing upon this background, German teacher education provides a unique example of a two-phased consecutive model where Phase 1 held at university is fully autonomous, while school and professional education, which takes place in Phase 2 is more directly controlled by government agencies. Prospective teachers are exposed early to school practice in what is called orientation practicum. Evidence of orientation is required before they join university. At university (Phase 1), prospective teachers XE "Prospective Teachers, Prospective teacher"  study three major components, namely: at least two subjects or subject areas, basic educational science (general and school pedagogy, and psychology), plus possible options (philosophy and sociology/political science or theology), and some practical work in school which is organised by university teacher educators and experienced school teachers. Practical work is in four blocks spread across semester 2 to semester 5. In the first two blocks, prospective teachers are orientated to school pedagogy and subject methods for a particular school type or level. In the third and fourth blocks, they have accompanied in-school experiences particularly in their subject methods as well as in the Didaktik XE "Didaktik"  of the various school types or levels. Generally, block practicum is aimed at enabling prospective teachers familiarise themselves with subject-specific tasks and objectives of the respective syllabi, the instruction process in relation to the learning situation, how individual learning can be promoted, how different experiences can lead to the attainment of instructional objectives, how instructional media works, and how to successfully control the instruction processes. Teacher education is guided by two official teacher examination syllabi, which provide the structural framework of the curriculum. For instance, it is upon successful completion of Phase 1 examinations that prospective teachers can enrol for Phase 2. Phase 2 of teacher training is interdependent since it is run in accordance with government guidelines making it subject to control and state supervision. It is two-year practical training run by the school administration in special teacher study seminaries, and has close contact to school reality. This phase is regarded as probation in that it is ideally a mixture of pre- and in-service teacher training aimed at enabling prospective teachers acquire practical-pedagogical habits. It can be regarded as the more professional component of teacher training in which prospective teachers use the theory they have acquired at university in the day-to-day teaching-learning process. Prospective teachers XE "Prospective Teachers, Prospective teacher"  are paid a trainees salary, and have to conduct school lessons, which are partly guided and directed, but increasingly independent. Following the second states examination syllabus, prospective teachers have to demonstrate their planning and performing abilities in a real classroom setting. They too regularly attend the local teacher seminary courses in which they are acquainted with the curriculum for their subjects, obtain instructions on how to plan lessons and reflect on their teaching practice experience. They also engage in discussions about professional and ethical problems, as well as the social context of teaching. It is upon successful fulfilment of the requirements of the second states examinations that prospective teachers get teaching jobs. Three years after their second state examination and after having passed a short assessment, these new teachers get the status of civil servants with tenure. Despite such an arrangement, a number of criticisms have been raised against they way teachers are trained using this model, among the most pertinent ones include the following: the separation of theoretical studies from practical work. Phase 1 (university) training inadequately responds to the more pragmatic job-specific concerns in the same way Phase 2 practical training inadequately responds to a reflection on theory Fuchs (2001:257). After the theoretical examination, prospective teachers are likely to forget theory and its relevance in daily school experiences, and yet Phase 2 of teacher training and development is criticised for its failure to complete what was left and/or a tendency to repeat what was covered in Phase 1, lack of transparency regarding the organisation, structure and perspectives about the aims of the study programs (Plger & Anhalt 1999: 13), the presence of many fragmented university subjects without a bridge to job-requirements, the disappearing or narrowed component of educational studies in comparison to the entire teacher program, which component also contributes a very small percentage to the entire examination grade (Waschler 2001: 195,198), the seemingly gradual move towards teacher and pupil competences, which according to Oelkers XE "Oelkers, Author"  (2003: 112-113) under Didaktik XE "Didaktik"  underscore the aims of education and upbringing, as these only test performance of given tasks based on certain standards which are too general to respond to specific cases, the transition shock or Praxisschock which prospective teachers are confronted with a situation revealing that teachers pass through a distinct attitudinal shift during their first year of teaching, creating an adjustment to current practices in schools and not to recent scientific insights into learning and teaching (Sander 1996), and different ministries and departments concerned with teacher training and within them a bureaucratic culture (Herrmann 2001: 565-583; Terhart XE "Terhart, Author"  2000: 28). Wunder (1999: 47) quotes Phase 2 seminar teacher educators who say to the prospective teachers: forget what you have learned at university, we do not need it now. Similar instances have been cited by Herrmann (2001: 573) who notes that upon entering the teacher seminaries, (Gymnasium) prospective teachers are told to forget their subject-identification and orient themselves to school knowledge and to teaching. During school practice, mentors tell them to forget what the seminary teachers told them about classic examples and solutions, and after the second state examination, they can forget everything. From this day onwards, Herrmann adds, newly trained teachers learn to survive on their own as individual fighters. It therefore seems that each phase seeks to handle its own challenges independent of the other. In summing up the problems confronting German teacher training, it can be noted that it is one of differences. A Re-conceptualisation of the Theory XE "Theory, Theories, Definition, Sources, Characteristics, Role" -Practice Relationship XE "Theory-Practice Relationship"  From the above review, different countries understand and implement initial teacher education differently, with a lot of internal and external factors playing in the same field. The solutions to the question concerning how teacher education ought to be organized and conducted are varied, however, it cannot be denied that prospective teachers need to have hands-on practical experience drawing on theoretical knowledge and from their own personal experience. In this section, an attempt to discuss possible solutions to the challenges met in initial teacher education in Uganda is made in light of the theory-practice relationship, the organization of content and the delivery process, as well as institutional organization XE "Uganda" . a) The Hermeneutic-Dialectical XE "Dialectical"  Thinking in Teacher Education XE "Education"  The hermeneutic-dialectical theoretical model for teacher education is highly recommended. The hermeneutic cycle was primarily used to explain the relationship between the general meaning of a text and its component parts. To understand the entire text, readers had to understand its individual parts and vice versa. Wholeness and parts related to each other in a circular/spiral form. Later on, the contents and meaning of the hermeneutic cycle were expanded to refer to relationships between the readers mind, the authors life, the entire historical epoch of the author and the text, as well as the social milieu in which the text was written. The art and freedom of interpreting experience, as well as understanding as a method were very important in the hermeneutic interpretation of educational reality. Relating this understanding to educational thought, in order for one to know, there must be previous knowledge which forms the basis on which future knowledge is constructed. Hence, interpretations of meaning are reinterpreted through new encounters with the text. In teacher education, this assumption holds since prospective teachers already have certain knowledge and preconceptions about teaching before they enroll on the teacher education program. It is upon such knowledge that new interpretation and understanding of what professional theory and practice entail is built. During a pedagogical encounter, knowledge and practice continually develop themselves through interpreting and explaining the experience arising from them in a spiral manner as illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1 The Hermeneutic-Dialectical XE "Dialectical"  Cycle  SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT Developed from: Murphy (2003) In Figure 1, the term text in the case of education means among others, pedagogical reality and action, learners, or syllabus. The practitioners main objective is to interpret and understand this reality. At the beginning, practitioners attempt to interpret educational reality in a realistic and unconstrained manner, with the aim of reconstructing and improving their knowledge and practice. It is realistic in that they do not imitate, but through reflection attempt interpretation depending on a particular setting, which may be referred to as their degree of freedom in practice. Each time they confront a new situation, they derive new interpretations, therefore, interpretation spirals out. Each spiral is integrated with both theoretical and practical knowledge. Pedagogical reality in this case is only accessible in terms of how practitioners understand and interpret it. The term dialectic here is important because practitioners engage in critical analyses of their mental processes as they interpret and reflect on educational reality. In this process, new interpretations are built on feedback from previous knowledge and increase in complexity. According to Buck (1981: 35) a practitioners education is always incomplete and remains open for new experiences. To prevent interpretation of reality from spiralling out of control, certain limits are imposed on the spiral, thus narrowing it. The spiral limit, whether reached or not, is the principle of objectivity and reality. Among others, such limit is imposed through a reflection on theory, the syllabus, class age, social or political pressure, with an intention to avoid irrationality, intellectual dishonesty, self-interest, ambiguity or wrongfulness. At the same time, such limit may give practitioners a range of possibilities for selection, decision-making and action. However, this necessitates reflection and inquiry into the range of possibilities and weighing them against practitioners own experiences and knowledge, namely they have to strike a balance between objectivism and subjectivism. For instance in a teaching-learning situation, teachers engage in reflection by asking themselves what a particular theory about teaching means for a particular learning experience of real individual learners. In this sense, pedagogical theory provides an essential context for their activities, and their core work centres on relating this abstract theory to the immediate needs of learners. Theoretical knowledge is background to the actual teaching activity, but issues concerning the teaching of content, as well as the social and cultural context of the learners and their dispositions and capacities are issues dealing with practical teaching. Pedagogical theory has the task of modelling how to think about practice that must begin with the here-and-now. Taking an example of a learner who is always disorderly and loud in class, a teacher might ask himself how such a learner can be helped, and how the teacher can interpret his situation and help him in relation to the theoretical dispositions underpinning such action. When the teacher is successful in finding a practical solution with the help of pedagogical theory, a useful theory-practice union would have been reached. How this qualified teacher does this is a matter of his or her expert self-confrontation, criticism and determination. These aspects are not read anywhere and should not be scripted in the syllabus. In this way, the hermeneutic-dialectic thinking enables (prospective) teachers to look at their learners in a pedagogical manner, with level-headed consciousness, and perceive the content to be taught in a pedagogical manner, as well as use pedagogical tact in handling unique class situations. Hence, the formulation of new orientations of action in practice arises from a successful reflection on theory which leads to an improvement of practice. In this way, practitioners draw from their interpretation as well as from reality in order to understand a particular setting, content or learner. Engaging in reflection implies that problem-solving strategies are not regarded in a linear fashion, but from various perspectives. This is because practice offers surprises and brings forward unpredictable developments (Duncker 2002), calling for an open and flexible teaching-learning process that demands teacher personal input and judgement. Through such thought process, teacher educators could take on new responsibilities as mentors, guides and colleagues mediating the learning process and environment. The teacher curriculum could present tentative constructions of the content to be learned, thereby encouraging prospective teachers to actively participate in self-driven learning. By providing them with freedom to participate in the construction of the conceptual language defining pedagogical reality, the hermeneutic-dialectic orientation would increase (prospective) teachers possibilities to act in accordance with their own insights in line with the designed curriculum. For instance, it would create in them the awareness that teachers are not only knowledge users but also knowledge producers. b) Institutional Organisation University XE "University"  Role in Teacher Education XE "Education"  Generally, university plays a prime role as a centre for research and teaching, with scientific knowledge and methods as its stronghold. It offers fundamental systematic scientific knowledge and mediates in the acquisition of this knowledge through up-to-date methods and approaches. Apart from its academic authority, university also acts as a key place in fostering a social culture not easily found elsewhere. In the case of teacher preparation, the role of university in teacher education cannot be underestimated. It is the conditio sine qua non for the education of teachers for the modern school. The central function of university teacher education is its institutionalisation, systematic development and mediation of scientific knowledge. This knowledge enables prospective teachers to think about the function and relevance of pedagogy in the teaching-learning process, analyse and reflect on practical problems, attempt at finding possible alternatives, and generally question the function and limitations surrounding scientific knowledge itself (Oevermanns 1996). However, this knowledge alone is inadequate as a basis for teacher education. That is why the overriding criticism of university teacher training has been its concentration on scientific (academic-oriented) knowledge to the neglect of non-scientific knowledge, professional competence and practice (Buchberger 1996). Current reform stresses a form of teacher education based on job-specific training and professional development (Fuchs 2001; Terhart XE "Terhart, Author"  2000). This implies that university teacher education ought not only to embrace research methods and theories, but also relevant forms of knowledge acquisition of job-related skills XE "skills" . Practice XE "Practice, Definition, Sources, Levels"  ought to be integrated as much and as relevantly as possible with theory. During the teaching-learning process, there is need to ensure that prospective teachers acquire general and specific pedagogical methods of enacting the curriculum. Since these disciplines are theory-guided, problem-oriented and not chanceful or even limited to routine work but fully systematic, they qualify teaching as a scientific discipline. However, to qualify these disciplines as professionally relevant, they have to be pragmatically grounded in practice. To do this, there is need to bridge the theory-practice gap by partnering with schools in the education of teachers. School XE "School"  is the place where the interactive theory-practice relationship fundamental to all education and the interplay between experience and reflection are concretised (Klafki 1995). This relationship and interplay is evident through reflective decisions for planning teaching and learning. One cannot talk about teacher education without relating it to school and vice versa. University XE "University" -school partnership in teacher training has existed since the formal training of teachers started, in some instances, university has dominated such partnership and school has acted as the site for the practical training. More recently, for instance in England, school has assumed even more exclusive responsibility for prospective teachers during their practical preparation. However it has been noted that this form of partnership raises fundamental questions about teacher education. Good teacher education depends on the quality of the partnership and not on the contractual agreement made. Therefore, a professional partnership borne out of collaboration between university and school, and not one forced from outside is more worthwhile. In such partnership, university and school are equal partners and their partnership contains mutual respect for differing roles. This partnership could flourish at a neutral point, where both university and school freely chart the way forward, that is, at an established Professional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  Teachers Centre XE "Professional Teachers Center" . c) The Professional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  Teachers Centre XE "Professional Teachers Center"  In light of the reviewed literature, there is need that university takes on more responsibility in teacher education. Such responsibility could be through a Professional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  Teachers Centre XE "Professional Teachers Center"  (PTC from here on words), in which both university and school are involved in the professional growth of prospective teachers as well as the further professional development of practising teachers. It should be clearly noted here that the PTC would not be intended to compete with the existing teacher training programme, but complement it. The rationale for the establishment of PTCs is that university XE "University"  education has been universalised to the extent that prospective teachers easily get lost among other student masses as well as the long lists of courses they have to take before qualifying as teachers. It is therefore quite easy for them to go through university with inadequate orientation regarding their future profession. At the school of Education, Makerere University, some prospective teachers drop out of the training program, or, if they complete, they look for jobs other than teaching. This may imply that they have gone through the process of teacher training, but the training process itself has not gone through them. Among the reasons why this may be so is because teachers, unlike doctors or lawyers, for instance, do not have a steadfast home of their own where it is obvious for them to practice what they have learned. A PTC that is professionally independent in designing, implementing and evaluating its programmes could be the best solution to such challenges. By dedicating itself to teacher education, it could contribute better to the educational identity and strongly bring in the centre of its education reflection on practice as well as prepare prospective teachers for their daily school tasks. Teacher education could be institutionalised to have a more effective platform in the promotion of a link among scientific subjects, educational disciplines and practice. The PTC could also act as a base providing prospective teachers with internship education and practicing teachers with continued and further professional development. As a home, prospective teachers could be regarded as individuals with unique abilities and talents to be developed. The ultimate aim of the PTC is to link educational theory with practice with the aim that prospective teachers acquire practical ability and skill and are professionally competently prepared. Ability and skill are implicit forms of knowledge, which through practice become explicit and can be reflected during practical experience. Teachers professional competence consists of an ability to reflect on the constituents of pedagogical reality, a readiness to make decisions required and identified in this reality, as well as act in accordance with these decisions. In order to be able to decide and take relevant action in an educational reality, such reflection ought to be carried out in practical situations. A study programme such as teacher education, whose point of departure is rooted in practice ought to bring the theory-practice relationship to the fore and manage it. In order to link theory with practice, the PTC could aim at: linking university and school, emphasising early practical experience and making practice a central element in teacher preparation complementing university studies. developing tailor-made professional programmes for prospective and in-service teachers, evolving around pedagogical disciplines, seeking to promote job-knowledge and skills XE "skills" . developing social competence among prospective and in-service teachers, namely their personality and virtues regarding commitment, sensitivity, emotional warmth and genuineness, ability to contain physical and psychological load, flexibility, toleration, authenticity, individuality, caution and empathy in dealing with critically argumentative people, optimism about human beings, joy in life and at work, ethos for service, as well as openness to all areas of life. developing a self-driven learning culture aimed at promoting individual thought, ability to make judgement and decisions concerning meta-cognitive, professional and personal situations, as well as an enthusiasm and sovereignty over knowledge and skill. developing a strong scientific base which will respond to the differences between scientific and practical knowledge, as well as initiate and strengthen empirical and qualitative research in teaching and learning. strengthening the position of subject methods in research and teaching as well as create a balance between subject-specific and general pedagogical knowledge. acting as a catalyst in stimulating and spearheading discussions and developments regarding the aims, structure, contents, and methods of teacher education at micro and macro levels. It is hoped that with the realisation of the above aims the transition or reality shock, which according to Seibert (2001) is as a result of the purely academic studies at university, which are not identical with on-job practical needs will be minimised as well. Through such aims, the PTC would also be able to promote the socialisation of prospective teachers by changing their basic outlook and perspective about teaching, learning and the entire school experiences. The PTC is also intended to act as a meeting point that fosters interaction among (prospective) teachers, teacher educators and researchers. Such interaction could enable them learn from one another as well as reflect on their and others professional and personal experiences. In summary, the programmes at the PTC ought among other things to enable (prospective) teachers organise and initiate the teaching-learning process, develop a conducive learning environment, be able to guide and supervise teaching-learning processes, care for individual learners, as well as participate in internal school reforms. The PTC could guide (prospective) teachers not only to apply knowledge, but more so, to interpret and make sense of it in order to solve complex structural problems in schools. It could enable them relay this knowledge in the language of their clients (learners). In order to fulfil these aims, the PTC could take on various responsibilities as outlined in Table 1 Table 1: Core Responsibilities of the PTC LevelActivityPlanning PTC-led with consultation of a small group of beneficiariesDocumentationStrongly emphasised, defining tasks for the PTC ContentPTC defines what prospective and in-service teachers should learn, often utilising a rather pragmatic rather than an explicit competence framework Evaluation and AssessmentPTC-led and definedPTC-School XE "School"  PartnershipProfessional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  with mutually agreed tasks and relationship responsibilitiesMentoring Mentors educated to be able to assist prospective teachers in areas the PTC defines as necessaryLegitimatingAcceptance of PTC-defined principles of pre-service and in-service, however with a high degree of autonomyAdapted from: The idealized features of the HEI-led model by Furlong XE "Furlong, Author"  et al. (2000: 118) Programmes and Activities of the PTC In this study, the PTC is considered to be the heart of teacher education, school development and continued/further professional development. As presented in Figure 2, there are four core programmes and activities of the PTC, namely: initial (pre-service) teacher education, in-service teacher programme, educational research and development, as well as general activities. Figure 2 Core Programmes and Activities of the PTC  SHAPE \* MERGEFORMAT  The major aim of the PTC is to integrate the various programmes so as to promote holistic professionalism and school improvement. For instance, through integration, the initial teacher programme can benefit from research and development, the in-service programme, as well as from the general activities. The reason for integration is that each programme complements and builds on the other in a special way, a vital internal bond in linking theory with practice. For instance, the initial (pre-service) teacher education program XE "Education"  is aimed at promoting and strengthening the following competences: Practical competence: that is, skill, dexterity, agility, decision-making and responsibility could be emphasised and integrated with the other competences. Social competence: personality and social development (virtues, attitudes, morals, consideration of self and others, identity of self with others, coping skills XE "skills" , responsibility, creativity, etc). Professional XE "Professional, Professionalism, Professionalisation"  competence: general pedagogy XE "Didaktik" , educational psychology and sociology. Among other things, these disciplines stress meta-cognition (individual improvement in the acquisition of knowledge and learning techniques), value education, guidance and counselling; and how these can be reflected upon in practice. Methods competence: this includes ability to plan, monitor and evaluate teaching and learning, reflect on practical experience so as to improve teaching and learning styles, communication and group dynamic processes; how to handle challenging situations, fear, insecurity and stress; conflict management and resolution; ability to diagnose and assess various teaching-learning situations; inter and multidisciplinary teaching; learner-centred teaching methods; individual, team and project work; basic education in media pedagogy and information technology. Academic competence: stressing the integration of subject matter knowledge with professional knowledge especially through subject methods. The above competences are conceived as an integrated body of knowledge, skills XE "skills"  and attitudes, and not a generalized catalogue of competences. As such they represent a potential for behaviour and not the behaviour itself. They are not about efficiency but about prospective (teachers) learning their tasks and preparing themselves for a fragile and volatile school environment. They are general, flexible and multidisciplinary, and (prospective) teachers can use them alongside their experience and school routine. It is also useful to note that these competences ought not to be taken as rigid behaviour for the ultimate measure of a good teacher, but as offering a sense of direction. These competences are also useful in the in-service program, and teacher educators ought to be models themselves in promoting them during their interaction with prospective and in-service teachers. Practice XE "Practice, Definition, Sources, Levels"  and a reflection on theory in practice are at the core of the pre-service programme at the PTC. In order to reflect on theory in practice, prospective teachers observe model lessons initially taught by teacher educators and experienced school teachers. During the lessons, they note interesting and peculiar aspects concerning lesson introduction, development and conclusion, and at the end, the lesson is discussed. With time, prospective teachers begin to participate in experimental teaching with the aim of developing some degree of experience and competence. Teaching XE "Teaching"  at this level ought to stress purposeful planning, organisation, evaluation as well as reflection on these activities. Through partnership with schools, the PTC could either ask for a class from school to visit the PTC for demonstration lessons, or partner schools could be visited to observe real lessons, carry out teaching experiments, as well as observe general school practices and how these relate to theory. Coming to the end of university studies, the PTC and its partner schools could help prospective/beginning teachers during their internship and early years of teaching. This helps to reduce the transition and reality shock new teachers experience at school. This PTC-partner school follow-up could continue during the professional years of the teachers. Conclusion The development of the future school requires reform in teacher education. However, in order to reform teacher education, up-to-date research is vital in providing information about current developments in school as well as those most likely to characterise the future school. It is also acknowledged that reforms in teaching and schooling imply new roles for teachers. This is why it is important that teacher education reform (initial and in-service) is coordinated with curriculum reform and whole-school improvement. To be prepared for their future job, prospective teachers need competences in subject matter, methodical, diagnostic, ability to guide and counsel, as well as to effectively communicate and promote teamwork. 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Wollenweber, H.: Das Berufsbild des Lehrers als Grundlage der Lehrerausbildung. In: D. Schulz & H.-W. Wollersheim. (Hrsg.): Lehrerbildung in der ffentlichen Diskussion: Neuzeitliche Gestaltungsformen in Theorie und Praxis XE "Praxis" . Neuwied/Kriftel: Luchterhand 1999: 11 - 23.  Universal Primary Education was introduced in 1996, and Uganda became one of the first African countries to see significant gains in achieving EFE goals. Since then, enrolment in primary education jumped from 2.7 million to approximately 7.2 million in 2002, moving Uganda closer to achieving UPE (Murphy, 2003).  This year, 2007 Universal Secondary Education (USE) was introduced in Uganda  There used to be such sessions at university and in teacher colleges in the 1970s. To date, apart from the Grade 3 and 5 primary teacher training institutions in the country, education, especially secondary education, has become very academic leading to a less emphasis on practical teaching approaches and skills XE "skills" .  The result of these reforms was the establishment of the Teacher Training Agency (TTA), which took over many of the roles of the Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education XE "Education"  (CATE), which was charged with overseeing initial teacher training in England and Wales on behalf of the Secretary of State. The TTA funds and improves the quality of teaching, raise standards and promote teaching as a profession in order to improve standards of learners achievement as well as quality of learning (TTA 1995). It has a prescribed national curriculum for teacher training, which exists in the form of specified competences all new teachers must posses. There is a tight control on standards for the award of the Qualified Teacher Status (QTS) and hence entry into the profession (TTA 1997). The TTA also determines the roles and duties of universities and schools involved in teacher training.  This is a consecutive curricular mode.  In England, Ofsted (Office for Standards in Education XE "Education" ), established in 1992 has largely replaced Her Majestys Inspectorate (HMI) as anindependent inspectorate (Adams & Tulasiewicz 1994), and the term standards (similar in its use to quality) is easily linked with proposals for performance-related pay to bring about a competent as well as an efficient workforce.  Cited in Westbury (1995: 257).  The arrangement for the orientation practicum for prospective teachers activities varies according to the federal state. Here, the State of Bavaria is taken as example.  Competences XE "Competences"  in education are promoted by TIMSS and PISA and more recently by the German Federal Ministry for Education XE "Education"  and Research (Bundesministerium fr Bildung und Forschung - BMBF 2003).  There are four basic competences promoted in initial teacher training in Germany XE "Germany Perspective"  XE "Germany" , namely: subject, methods, social and personal competences.  Spiraling-out is possible as knowledge advances and practitioners move into the unknown and the complex.  As far as professionalism is concerned, the term limit here has both positive and negative connotations.  The hermeneutic-dialectic cycle exists between the objective knowledge and subjective experience of a text. Objectivism means that teachers ground of knowledge is in the object, in some external, public, and inter-subjective domain. This means that different teachers have access to the same knowledge. On the other hand, subjectivism means that the ground of knowledge is in the subject, in some irreducibly individual sense. Such knowledge is characterised by various imperfections and uncertainties, therefore, it is fallible and corrigible, which prevents it from being absolute and objective. For this reason, hermeneutics show the dimension of meaning and understanding in knowledge, but the dimension of truth and knowledge as such still depends on a foundational, absolute, and objective aspect of reality. The union of the subject and object occurs when a concept is internalised to the point of realisation or practice. This is the balance between explicit and tacit knowledge.  This view is also shared by Dewe & Radtke (1991: 147) who propose that teachers ought to be professional experts who can produce as well as use knowledge.  There are advantages accruing to the location of the PTC at Makerere University XE "Makerere University"  XE "University"  including the sense of immediacy and responsibility which the university could take on. Equally important, university is traditionally a center for teaching, research, learning and professional development, which aspects are beneficial for the PTC location at university. However, there may be some who advocate for neutrality, and these may wish the PTC to be established outside university and school premises. In this case, challenges met in Phase 2 teacher training in Germany XE "Germany Perspective"  XE "Germany"  and the school-led training in England are likely to arise.  According to Wollenweber (1999: 19) educational knowledge which considers theory as theory of practice for the practice answers many practice-oriented questions and profits it, and its theories in practice are verifiable, and if necessary, they can be revised.     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