Warning: session_start(): open(/tmp/sess_0bf3dd3354c9feaad28f470a7a70137a, O_RDWR) failed: Read-only file system (30) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 675

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 676

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 677

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 678

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 679

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/filestore/classes/fileupload_class_inc.php on line 329

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/filestore/classes/fileupload_class_inc.php on line 334
ࡱ> M ybjbj== WWtl...B8,@B1"<1>1>1>1>1>1>1$2 4b1.b1..w1..<1<1-X..@/ d:B`.(@/101.e5^e5@/BB....Reform of Mozambican Higher Education System through new funding mechanisms By Arlindo Chilundo* and Jasmin Berverwijk** In this paper we would like to reflect on the Mozambican national funding mechanisms for higher education. In order to do this we would first of all like to illuminate how the political context of Mozambique has affected the national policy on higher education through the years and how that changed the landscape of Mozambican higher education system. In the second part we will concentrate on the finance mechanisms of the higher education system in Mozambique. In this part we will give a description of the state of the art with respect to how the higher education system is financed. In the third part of this paper we will portray the current developments and future plans for the higher education sector, hereby specifically focussing on impacts on financing mechanisms. In this part of the paper we will also draw conclusions with respect to how the new established Ministry for Higher Education, Science and Technology (MESCT) changes the funding mechanisms for higher education which it turn will reshape the Mozambican Higher Education system as a whole. The political context of Mozambican higher education system The creation of Higher Education in Mozambique goes back to 1962, when the General University Studies of Mozambique (EGUM) was founded during the days of Portuguese colonialism. In 1968 the institution changed its name into University of Loureno Marques (ULM) (MESCT, 2000, 10). The Portuguese discriminative policies against Mozambicans were also reflected within this university that was in principle only open for children of colonists population (MESCT, 2000, 10). The political transformation that took place due to independence in 1974 implied a number of internal transformations in ULM, which was renamed in May 1976 after the Mozambican hero Eduardo Mondlane to become University of Eduardo Mondlane (UEM). Staff and student body of UEM had severely depleted due to the exodus of Portuguese colonists. Student numbers fell from 2,433 in 1975 to 740 in 1978, while the Mozambican teaching staff was reduced to a mere 10. The new government of Mozambique adopted a Marxist-Leninist approach of governance that was characterised by central planning at national level. To justify the existence of the University, the government adopted a utilitarian stance which implied that human resources where trained for what they considered to be the pressing needs of the new socialist economy. In other words, the national government determined which courses would be offered for what purpose and assigned students to what was considered appropriate courses of study for them (Mario et al, 2001, 4). In order to overcome the problem of the huge shortage of teaching staff, UEM depended heavily on foreign lecturers mostly from the eastern bloc and some western countries. In other words, the higher education system that only consisted of one university was framed within a process of profound political and social transformations, amongst which stress was given to: (a) development of national identity and (b) social and economic reorganisation (MESCT, 2000, 11). In the eighties two new public higher education institutions were established, namely the Pedagogic Higher Institute (ISP) and Higher Institute for International Relations (ISRI). ISP, which later was upgraded to become a Pedagogic University (UP) had the role of training teachers who were highly needed in order to respond to the need of the expansion of the education system for the country, whereas ISRI trained student for international relations and diplomacy. The introduction of the market economy in 1987 introduced new elements in the social, economic and cultural scenario, namely private sector and civil society. For the field of higher education this implied that in 1993 a law on higher education was approved that allowed the creation of private higher education institutions. Within 10 years 5 new private higher education institutions have been established. Meanwhile, 2 new public higher education institutions were established as well, which made the total sum of higher education institutions of Mozambique 10. In October 1999 the Minister of Education appointed a Committee to work out the first Mozambican Strategic Plan of Higher Education. The main objective was to analyse the present situation of Higher Education in Mozambique and to propose a 10-year Strategic Plan for this sub-sector in consonance with the strategic plan approved for the Education Sector, defining objectives, structure, scope, financing and governance. The government, elected in December 1999, supported the conclusions that came out of the Strategic Plan which indicated that the Mozambican higher education system was more a collection of institutions than a system that did not sufficiently meet the demands of society as a whole. Their acknowledgement can also be derived from The Action Plan for the Reduction of Extreme Poverty (2001-2005), launched by the government which pointed out that Mozambique has a dramatic deficit in terms of professionals with higher education (World Bank, 2001). In order to develop the higher education system, a new Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology (MESCT) was created in January of 2000 with the task to generate an integrated and articulated system of higher education that is able to respond to the needs of the Mozambican society. The establishment of the new Ministry will have impact on the public higher education institutions since from now on they are directly accountable to the MESCT instead of the Ministry of Finance and Planning with whom they could negotiate in the past for financial matters. Table 1 - Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique Name Location and Year FoundedStudent Numbers 2000-20012001-2002Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM)Maputo* 1962 Inhambane (planned 2002)73077083Pedagogical University (UP) Maputo* 1985 Beira (1990) Nampula (1995) Quelimane (planned 2002) 1399 2210 ACIPOLMaputo 1999140167Higher Institute for International Relations (ISRI)Maputo 1986270 270 Catholic University of Mozambique (UCM) Beira* 1996 Nampula Cuamba (1999) Pemba (planned) 1502 1684 Mussa Bin Bique University (UMBB) Nampula 199852 156 Higher Polytechnic and University Institute (ISPU)Maputo* 1995 Quelimane (1998)1732 1896 Higher Institute of Sciences and Technology of Mozambique (ISCTEM) Maputo 1996809 Not availableInstitute of Transport and Communications (ISUTC)Maputo 199983 141 TOTAL: 13 292TOTAL: 13 607**Source: Agneta Lind and Adeze Igboemeka, Overview study of Higher Education sub-system in Mozambique, Maputo, Dec. 2001. Conclusion When viewing back on the developments which the higher education system of Mozambique went through, one can distinguish four main stages in which the system was formed. The first one (1962-1974) relates to the stage in which the Portuguese ruled the country and the higher education institution was established to fulfil the needs of the sons and daughters of the Portuguese. During the second stage (1975-1993) the higher education system was affected and steered by a socialist oriented government that believed in centralised planning in order to rebuild the country and fulfil the needs of society. During the third stage (1993-2000) the Mozambican government headed towards a market oriented economy, thereby allowing private higher education institutions as well. This stage could be characterised by a period of expansion and diversification of the higher education system since within a decade the system increased from 3 higher education institutions to 10 higher education institutions. The fourth stage (2000-now) is and will to an important extent be affected by the creation of the new MESCT that has to deal with the problem of the fact that the higher education system is an inarticulate collection of institutions that do not sufficiently meet the demands of society as a whole. Funding mechanisms for higher education in Mozambique Governments expenditure on higher education Education has since independence been a priority sector of the Mozambican government. When looking at the evolution of Public Spending on Education in projections for spending on Higher Education, we can discern the following trends. Since 1990 the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Total Public Expenditure in Education (TEEP) have increased simultaneously. However, expenditure on education declined from 5% in 1990 to 4% in 1999. Within the education sector, public expenditure on higher education increased from 0.5 % of GDP in 1992 to 0.9% in 1999. Total Public expenditure in higher education as a percentage of TEE increased substantially from almost 8% in 1992 to 22% in 1999. The level of expenditure in higher education is relatively high given that only 1 percent of the age-appropriate population is enrolled in higher education. Countries that share Mozambiques level of GNP and proportion of age-appropriate population enrolled in higher education on average spend less of their public resources on higher education- anywhere from 9 to 18% (World Bank, 2001, 54). (see i.e., table 8, p55). In 1999 the education sectors share of the total government budget was estimated at 14%. The higher education sub-sector accounted for about 26% of the education sector budget, which is equivalent to about 4% of the total Government budget (MESCT, 2000, 4). When focussing on the three public institutions of higher education that currently account for 74% of overall enrolment in Mozambique, UEM took the lions share (20%). UP and ISRI accounted for about 3% and 1% respectively. Government has for now planned to raise the share of education budget allocated to HEIs. The budget would rise to 22.8% in 2001, then to 25% in the next two years, but drop slightly to 24% in 2004. In that period, the proportion of total public resources allocated to UEM, UP and ISRI would remain nearly constant, at about 20%, 3% and 2.5 % respectively (see table, 5.3 MESCT p. 37). Institutional finance While the public universities are financed almost entirely by the government and the donor funds, the private HEIs depend on student fees and external support and venture capital. In the following part of this paper we provide a short overview for each of the higher education institutions with respect to their funding mechanisms. Public institutions Funding until now depends only on negotiations between a particular public higher education institution with the government. It is not based on the performance, but on the number of students enrolled and the number of lecturers in the institution. Generally spoken the four main sources of income for the public higher education institutions are governments funding, donor funding, student fees and income generating activities. In the Mozambican case, the Government budget is the main source of revenue for the public HEIs. Over the last three years for UEM income from government income ranged between 51.7 and 38.7%, and external funding ranged between 44,7 and 59.5, less than 1% came from tuition fees and 3.1%. percent from self-generating activities (MESCT, 2000, 38). During the same period of time ISRI depended for 88.5% of total revenues on the government, 11% on donors and 0.2% on tuition fees and UP depended totally on governments budget (MESCT, 2000, 39). Among the three public HEIs, only UEM has initiated income generating activities to augment funding from government and donors (Mario et al, 2001, 64). Private institutions Except for UCM, there are no data available on financial information about private higher education institutions. However, generally speaking, tuition fees are the major source of financing for the private higher education institutions. The three for profit private HEIs ISTCEM, ISPU and ISUTC receive a lot of financial institutional, technical and academic support from Portuguese universities. ISUTC is financed by 5 companies with special interest in communication and transport, including the railway and Port Company of Mozambique. The establishment of UCM was assisted by funds from the Italian Bishops Conference and money raised by the Portuguese Catholic Church (Lind, 2001, 9). In 1998 31% of UCMs total revenue came from tuition fees, 68.5% came from donors and 0.5% from income generation (MESCT, 2000, 40). Unit costs Unit costs in terms of average annual expenditures per student vary considerably between institutions. In 1999, the recurrent unit costs per student ranged from US$ 909 in UP to US$ 5.092 in ISRI (see also table MESCT, 41). Unit costs in private universities, such UCM and ISPU range from US$1,210 to US$ 1,563 respectively (World Bank, 2001, 63). However, one should take into consideration that these calculated unit costs are only estimates of the recurrent costs per student per year. In public institutions, the unit costs per graduate are considerably higher given the relatively low internal efficiency of the system. While the official length of studies for a Licenciatura degree at UEM is five years, in practice, students spend on average 8 years before completing their Licenciatura requirements. In addition, a large number of UEM students join the labour market as soon as they complete all but their thesis requirement for the Licenciatura degree. If the total recurrent expenditure of UEM is divided by the number of graduates rather than the number of students, the unit cost per graduate is US$31,000. This implies that the cost of a student in higher education at UEM is about 111 times that of a primary education. Putting the unit costs per student in an international perspective, the cost of a student at UEM would be 63 times compared to Anglophone African countries, 37 times in the Francophone countries and 11 times in low income Asian countries (World Bank, 2001, 64). (i.e.table 16 world bank, 64). However, it should also be noted that these calculation do not include the costs for research, and students scholarship and welfare (subsidised housing and meals) (Lind, 2001, 9). Student support and tuition fees Fees in public HEIs are very low (about 50-100 US$ per year), however students still face considerable costs in the form of living expenses, expenditure on books, and other essentials. Student fees from private higher education institutions vary from US$ 100 till US$ 250 per month (Mario et al, 2001, 67). Mozambique does not have a national system of student loans and the number of scholarships or bursaries is very limited. In 1999 less that 1000 scholarships were awarded for a total of 11.619 in all HEIs and 9021 in public HEIs which implies that only about 10% of students in public HEIs receive a full or partial scholarship and/or live in subsidised accommodation and receive assistance with the cost of books (MESCT, 2001, 10). The value of a full scholarship at UEM is nowadays equal to the level of the minimum salary, which is not enough to cover all the costs involved. Scholarships are mainly awarded on academic merit rather than financial need. From the government, there is very little financial assistance for students from low-income families. (see i.e. MESCT table, 5.11, p42) A considerable share of UEMs budget is for student welfare, caring for subsidised housing and meals, mainly for students with scholarships. The private higher education institutions do not themselves run scholarship schemes, although some scholarship have been made available for private HEIs (Lind, 2001, 10, Mario et al, 2001, 68). Conclusion The Mozambican public higher education institutions are to a large extent dependent on government funding and donor funding. In other words, they can be characterised as institutions that to a large extent are dependent on funding from outside the institution. With respect to scholarships and student loans it will be highly difficult for the Mozambican government to establish or increase this due to the fact that country does not have a broad based personal income tax and therefore governments budget is limited. As a result higher education in Mozambique is mainly for privileged people and only a small number of students have access to higher education due the fact that the majority does not have the financial means. Despite the fact that limited resources are available for higher education, the Mozambican public higher education system is expensive as is indicated by the high unit costs per student. Recent developments and future plans on public financing of higher education system. The current development of the higher education system should be seen in the context of the governments aim to alleviate poverty. The goals of the Strategic Plan for Higher Education in Mozambique for the Period 2000-2010 are congruent with the central political goals of the current five-year presidential term: the reduction of poverty. Government argues that poverty reduction in Mozambique requires economic growth. To reduce poverty, there needs to be more that can be shared among the people of Mozambique. Government argues that one key to economic growth is increasing the number of Mozambicans with higher education training in all regions of the country and in fields of high labour market demand (World Bank, 2001). As indicated in the first part of this paper, the Higher Education Strategic Plan (2000-2010) was approved by the cabinet in August 2000. The process of identification of concrete actions to be undertaken in order to achieve the goals and objectives outlined was immediately initiated. Three phases of implementation are identified. The first phase (2001-2004) aims at reforming the sub-sector of Higher Education (through the revision of extant laws, the enactment of new ones, the improvement of HEIs internal and external efficiency, management and administration). It also includes moderate expansion. The phase II (2005-2007), is the period of expansion, whereas the last (2008-2010), will be the period of consolidation and further planning. PEES I The PEES I was approved by the Council of Ministers on July 2001. The aim of this PEES I is: Improvement of human and material resources utilisation in Higher Education Institutions in order to increase the graduation rate. Diversifying institutions, training opportunities and teaching forms in order to diversify and evolve system for public higher education institutions Redefinition of government role in relation to higher education Improvement of quality of education and research in order to improve the teaching and learning conditions. The plan of operationalisation of PEES I contains an extensive description of objectives with its expected results and a scheme that indicates the activities, responsibilities of the actor in question, included participants for activity in question, timeframe, estimated costs and type of actions to be undertaken. The overall objectives of the strategy plan are expected to be met through a comprehensive set of initiatives and policies that include both national policies and a fiscal framework for the system of higher education at large as well as actions and measures carried out at institutional level within the framework of institutional autonomy. The World Bank is one of the partners supporting the government of Mozambique in implementing its higher education Strategy Plan (2001-2010). In fact, this project is a continuation of the World Bank support to the education sector in Mozambique and the development of a national strategy for higher education initiated in 1999. In addition, the World Bank was involved in the project focussing on the University of Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) capacity building project Present and Perspectives and considered a narrow follow-up operation, focusing on the broader national higher education system, as highly important. The World Bank project is built on the principles and guidelines of the Strategic Plan 2000-2010. In line with PEES I, the World Bank developed the Higher Education Project I in close co-operation with MESCT. The areas of PEES I that are not covered by the World Bank project, will most probably be supported by other donors, such as SIDA, NUFFIC, Ford Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, Gulbenkian, Norad, USAID, AusAID, European Union. This may imply that there will be re-negotiations with the World Bank and the other donors in question concerning the supplied credit. The World Bank project is built on the principles and guidelines of the Strategic Plan. In line with PEES I, the World Bank developed the Higher Education Project I in close co-operation with MESCT. This project has five components: System-wide Reform and Development. This component is aimed at (i) supporting the Government of Mozambique Higher Education policy and system reform through the provision of technical advisory services, rehabilitation of MESCT buildings, training, studies and workshops; (ii) at the development of new regulatory, fiscal and accountability framework; (iii) new pedagogical teaching methods and programs, (iv) the use o ICT in the delivery and teaching of higher education; (v) an accreditation and support program for students, through the provision of technical advisory services. Institutional Development and Investments: (1) Eduardo Mondlane University: (i) improvement of the university graduation rate and efficiency in resource utilization while improving the quality of programs; (ii) improvement of the learning environment and pedagogical methods through carrying out of curriculum and academic reform and external quality reviews in selected disciplines; strengthening of academic and administrative staff capacity; reforming financial management, university management and administration, and efficiency improvements, including the establishment of efficient computer based financial and academic management and information systems, based on the analysis and recommendations of the study by external management consultants; establishing a central library with advanced ICT capability; rehabilitation and construction of new facilities for the university; (2) Pedagogical University (improvement of the quality of the universitys programs through) rehabilitation and construction of new facilities, including students accommodations; revision and the strengthening of the universitys curriculum; capacity building of academic and administrative staff; the development and start-up of new program courses; and strengthening of the universitys financial and managerial capacity; (3) Higher Institute for International Relations (improvement of the institutes learning programs through rehabilitation or provision of new teaching, library, student and administrative facilities; academic and administrative staff capacity building; development, implementation and supervision of the institutes educational programs, and development of ICT, including the strengthening of the institutes financial and information management capacity. (C) Mozambique Distance Learning Network: The development of a new Distance Learning Network through: (i) the provision of training and institutional capacity building in design, development, delivery, management and evaluation of distance-learning; (ii) provision of a network infrastructure including minor civil works, equipment, consultant services staff and operating costs for establishing the central unit and the regional learning centers and the communication network; and the provision of material and program implementation costs to carry out the pilot programs with various educational institutions. (D) Quality Enhancement and Innovation Fund: The provision of grants for Public HEIs and loans for Private HEIs: (i) investments to support upgrading and capacity building o staff (through staff fellowships for postgraduate education and other training for teaching and management staff), and innovations to improve qualify and efficiency of existing programs (through curriculum development, provision of equipment and learning materials) and to develop and introduce new academic programs to improve equity of access and meet changing skill requirements; (ii) the Academic Staff Program to individual academic staff or groups f staff to enable them to invest in development of new skills, teaching methods or learning materials, and the design and introduction of innovations and improvements in curriculum and delivery of courses and academic support of students; (iii) the Research Program by supporting basic or applied research to develop linkages or other forms of collaboration with the industry and productive sector or with other national or international research and higher education institutions; and (iv) provision of equipment and small rehabilitation of educational facilities. E. Provincial Scholarship Fund (aimed at): (i) supporting the management of the Scholarship Fund through the provision of technical advisory services and training for the establishment of a public scholarship scheme to provide financial assistance for students in HEIs; (ii) provision of scholarships to cover the costs of tuition, travel, subsistence and lodging costs for eligible students in HEIs. Financial implications of the Strategic Plan The above mentioned components of the Strategic Plan will have considerable financial implications for the Mozambican higher education system. As mentioned earlier, the plan considers consolidation plans and expansion plans and assumes a number of efficiency gains through economics of scale. For example, it is assumed that the student/lecturer ratio will decrease so as to be able to increase access without increasing the number of teachers, that the number of non-academic staff will be reduced by about half, and that costs will be recovered by replacing grant-with loan-scholarships to students. The projections further consider the reinforcement of salaries of academic staff (Lind, 2001, 9). In order to implement this project, a so-called financial Management Action Plan was developed. This financial management plan includes among other things, description concerning the steering mechanisms, procedures of procurement and disbursement, processes of monitoring, planning and budgeting, accountability etc.). In other words, a new unit, the so-called Project Coordination Unit (PCU), at central level is called into being that steers and controls the government and donor funding. The members of PCU that consists of five people are appointed by the Minister of MESCT and are responsible for the day-to-day management of the credit under MESCT. This implies that PCU will be responsible for administering and supervising activities financed under the respective sub-components (World Bank, 2001, 67). In order to implement the Strategic Plan, each institution with the exception of UEM that had already its Strategic Plan, worked out their institutional Strategic Plan in tune with the general policy guidelines outlined in the PEES. The UEM had the task of adjusting its already finished Strategic Plan. Like the national Strategic Plan, the institutional Strategic Plan includes the future plans regarding the direction in which the higher education institutions would like to go. These institutional strategic plans also include concrete actions to be undertaken in order to achieve the goals and the budget needed to implement it. On the base of their institutional Strategic Plan, the higher education institutions get financial support from the government. Conclusion In summary we can conclude that the Mozambican higher education system is to a large extent formed by the ruling government of the time in question. For more than 20 years Mozambique had a one single higher education system. In 1985, the Mozambican government started by introducing new types of public higher education institutions and in 1993 government legally allowed space for higher education institutions. The result in 2000 is that the Mozambican higher education system was in fact a collection of 9 inarticulated higher education institutions that cannot sufficiently fulfil the needs of society. The new government is in fact moving from a laissez-faire approach in which a higher education system has emerged to an active approach in which the higher education is supposed to develop according to plans and higher education institutions are steered towards a specific direction. With the new MESCT Mozambique is thus entering a new phase in which public higher education institutions are meant to develop in consonance with the Strategic Plan which in its turn is the result of a consultative process with government and civil society. In terms of financing of the higher education system this implies that it will be the first time that both government funding and donor funding will be disbursed at national central level. This is in practice the beginning of a new a approach in which financing will be based on the performance of each institution, not solely on the number of students and staff as it has been heretofore. More emphasis will be given to internal academic, administrative and managerial efficiency of each institution. REFERENCES. Mrio, M., Fry, P., Levey, L. and Chilundo, A.; Draft. Higher Education in Mozambique- A case study, May 2001 Lind, A.; Overview study of the Higher Education System in Mozambique; Draft, summary of overview studies and overall policy and strategy papers, Maputo, 2001 Strategic Plan of Higher Education in Mozambique, 2000-2010, Maputo, August 2000 World Bank, Project appraisal document Higher Education Project I for the Republic of Mozambique, October, 2001 * Coordinator of Higher Education Strategic Plan at the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology ** Associate Researcher from CHEPS, Netherland. PAGE  PAGE 10 LM`awyz{%w #$++;-O-H.1111 5577%81888;AA.EE_H`HNKWKUUWX#XDXn[[]}]^_Bapaef,f6fgggggljmjpp 5CJ\66] CJmHsH5CJ6CJ5CJ;\0J\\ 5;CJ;QLMz{ gh $$Ifa$$a$$a$$a$$a$$a$xyy%v\$$IfF4F9!``0    4 Fa $$Ifa$%&7HUnsxlLcc]cTT $$Ifa$$If $$Ifa$$$IfF4\f9!  04 Faxyoff`ffffWW $$Ifa$$If $$Ifa$$$IfF\f9!04 Fa 7fp]]f,] $$Ifa$$$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$ 7CGHLMNpvw]W$If$$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$ $$Ifa$ ]$$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$ $$Ifa$ ]$$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$ $$Ifa$ &3DIJKPQRfW$$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$$If $$Ifa$ fs]($$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$ $$Ifa$  $$Ifa$ $$Ifa$  mdddd $$Ifa$$$IfF$\f9!04 Fa !####$o(mhhchh^cch$a$$a$$a$$$IfF\f9!04 Fa o(p(++++:-;-O-H.1111 5 555;;;;==:@;@AA$a$$a$$a$$a$AAA,E-E.EEE_H`HNKOKPKWKXKK9LLM|M}MPPJSKSTT$ & Fa$$a$$a$$a$TTUUWWX^^`AaBaeeggggg$a$$ & F  dh^`a$$ & F  dha$ $<dh^<a$$ & F Zdh^Z`a$$dha$$a$gmjnjmmpppppwww(w)www7x8xxxxhyyyy&`#$$a$$a$$a$$a$$a$ppppw(w)wVwww(xxxxxhyjyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy0JmHnHu0J j0JU0J] 56\6CJyyyyyyyy$a$&`#$h]h. A!"#$% i0@0 Normal_HmH sH tH 0@0 Heading 1$@&CJ4@4 Heading 2$@&5CJ4@4 Heading 3$@&6CJ4@4 Heading 4$@&>*CJ<A@< Default Paragraph Font.B@. Body Text5CJ.@.  Footnote Text8&@8 Footnote ReferenceH*.P@". Body Text 2CJ2Q@22 Body Text 36CJ, @B, Footer  8!&)@Q& Page NumberLRbL Body Text Indent 2 ^ CJmH sH `wunuLMz{ gh%&7HUnsxy7CGHLMNpvw&3DIJKPQRfs ! o$p$'''':);)O)H*---- 1 111777799:<;<====,A-A.AAA_D`DNGOGPGWGXGG9HHI|I}ILLJOKOPPPQQSSTZZ\A]B]aacccccmfnfiilllllsss(s)sss7t8tttuuuuu0000M0M0M000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000(0000(0(00000(00'0'0'80'(00O)0O)80O)0-0-0-0-0-0-0-(007070707070707(00=0=0=0=0=0=0=0=0=(0(0(00PG0PG 0PG 0PG 0PG 0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG 0PG0PG 0PG0PG0PG0PG 0PG000000(0000000(0000000000000000@0@0@0 0 py>Q%x7f o(ATgyy?ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPRy@ !!tX`flmwU^w3<)/9>?H%414P#PQQQ@TATBTB[C[D[\\]]]]]]]bbbbbyc}c)s.s=sBsKsSsttuuuuuuuuuhm w! ""U$X$)) ,',T-e-^/~/4L566<<`DDFFZZ\\ccdd r rWsXstkuuuuu33333333333333333333333337N&R!GGQQSTtthuuuuuMESTMESTMESTMESTMEST ARLINDO CHILUNDO ARLINDO CHILUNDO ARLINDO CHILUNDOUsermined~C:\Documents and Settings\mined\My Documents\Documentos-MCT\My Documents\HEPapers\Financing Higher Education in Mozambique.doc        p Ԋ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnpqrstuvxyz{|}~Root Entry Fw#d:1TableTe5WordDocumentSummaryInformation(oDocumentSummaryInformation8wCompObjjObjectPoolw#d:w#d:  FMicrosoft Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q
Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 23

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 24

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 25

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 26
ࡱ> M ybjbj== WWtl...B8,@B1"<1>1>1>1>1>1>1$2 4b1.b1..w1..<1<1-X..@/ d:B`.(@/101.e5^e5@/BB....Reform of Mozambican Higher Education System through new funding mechanisms By Arlindo Chilundo* and Jasmin Berverwijk** In this paper we would like to reflect on the Mozambican national funding mechanisms for higher education. In order to do this we would first of all like to illuminate how the political context of Mozambique has affected the national policy on higher education through the years and how that changed the landscape of Mozambican higher education system. In the second part we will concentrate on the finance mechanisms of the higher education system in Mozambique. In this part we will give a description of the state of the art with respect to how the higher education system is financed. In the third part of this paper we will portray the current developments and future plans for the higher education sector, hereby specifically focussing on impacts on financing mechanisms. In this part of the paper we will also draw conclusions with respect to how the new established Ministry for Higher Education, Science and Technology (MESCT) changes the funding mechanisms for higher education which it turn will reshape the Mozambican Higher Education system as a whole. The political context of Mozambican higher education system The creation of Higher Education in Mozambique goes back to 1962, when the General University Studies of Mozambique (EGUM) was founded during the days of Portuguese colonialism. In 1968 the institution changed its name into University of Loureno Marques (ULM) (MESCT, 2000, 10). The Portuguese discriminative policies against Mozambicans were also reflected within this university that was in principle only open for children of colonists population (MESCT, 2000, 10). The political transformation that took place due to independence in 1974 implied a number of internal transformations in ULM, which was renamed in May 1976 after the Mozambican hero Eduardo Mondlane to become University of Eduardo Mondlane (UEM). Staff and student body of UEM had severely depleted due to the exodus of Portuguese colonists. Student numbers fell from 2,433 in 1975 to 740 in 1978, while the Mozambican teaching staff was reduced to a mere 10. The new government of Mozambique adopted a Marxist-Leninist approach of governance that was characterised by central planning at national level. To justify the existence of the University, the government adopted a utilitarian stance which implied that human resources where trained for what they considered to be the pressing needs of the new socialist economy. In other words, the national government determined which courses would be offered for what purpose and assigned students to what was considered appropriate courses of study for them (Mario et al, 2001, 4). In order to overcome the problem of the huge shortage of teaching staff, UEM depended heavily on foreign lecturers mostly from the eastern bloc and some western countries. In other words, the higher education system that only consisted of one university was framed within a process of profound political and social transformations, amongst which stress was given to: (a) development of national identity and (b) social and economic reorganisation (MESCT, 2000, 11). In the eighties two new public higher education institutions were established, namely the Pedagogic Higher Institute (ISP) and Higher Institute for International Relations (ISRI). ISP, which later was upgraded to become a Pedagogic University (UP) had the role of training teachers who were highly needed in order to respond to the need of the expansion of the education system for the country, whereas ISRI trained student for international relations and diplomacy. The introduction of the market economy in 1987 introduced new elements in the social, economic and cultural scenario, namely private sector and civil society. For the field of higher education this implied that in 1993 a law on higher education was approved that allowed the creation of private higher education institutions. Within 10 years 5 new private higher education institutions have been established. Meanwhile, 2 new public higher education institutions were established as well, which made the total sum of higher education institutions of Mozambique 10. In October 1999 the Minister of Education appointed a Committee to work out the first Mozambican Strategic Plan of Higher Education. The main objective was to analyse the present situation of Higher Education in Mozambique and to propose a 10-year Strategic Plan for this sub-sector in consonance with the strategic plan approved for the Education Sector, defining objectives, structure, scope, financing and governance. The government, elected in December 1999, supported the conclusions that came out of the Strategic Plan which indicated that the Mozambican higher education system was more a collection of institutions than a system that did not sufficiently meet the demands of society as a whole. Their acknowledgement can also be derived from The Action Plan for the Reduction of Extreme Poverty (2001-2005), launched by the government which pointed out that Mozambique has a dramatic deficit in terms of professionals with higher education (World Bank, 2001). In order to develop the higher education system, a new Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology (MESCT) was created in January of 2000 with the task to generate an integrated and articulated system of higher education that is able to respond to the needs of the Mozambican society. The establishment of the new Ministry will have impact on the public higher education institutions since from now on they are directly accountable to the MESCT instead of the Ministry of Finance and Planning with whom they could negotiate in the past for financial matters. Table 1 - Higher Education Institutions in Mozambique Name Location and Year FoundedStudent Numbers 2000-20012001-2002Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM)Maputo* 1962 Inhambane (planned 2002)73077083Pedagogical University (UP) Maputo* 1985 Beira (1990) Nampula (1995) Quelimane (planned 2002) 1399 2210 ACIPOLMaputo 1999140167Higher Institute for International Relations (ISRI)Maputo 1986270 270 Catholic University of Mozambique (UCM) Beira* 1996 Nampula Cuamba (1999) Pemba (planned) 1502 1684 Mussa Bin Bique University (UMBB) Nampula 199852 156 Higher Polytechnic and University Institute (ISPU)Maputo* 1995 Quelimane (1998)1732 1896 Higher Institute of Sciences and Technology of Mozambique (ISCTEM) Maputo 1996809 Not availableInstitute of Transport and Communications (ISUTC)Maputo 199983 141 TOTAL: 13 292TOTAL: 13 607**Source: Agneta Lind and Adeze Igboemeka, Overview study of Higher Education sub-system in Mozambique, Maputo, Dec. 2001. Conclusion When viewing back on the developments which the higher education system of Mozambique went through, one can distinguish four main stages in which the system was formed. The first one (1962-1974) relates to the stage in which the Portuguese ruled the country and the higher education institution was established to fulfil the needs of the sons and daughters of the Portuguese. During the second stage (1975-1993) the higher education system was affected and steered by a socialist oriented government that believed in centralised planning in order to rebuild the country and fulfil the needs of society. During the third stage (1993-2000) the Mozambican government headed towards a market oriented economy, thereby allowing private higher education institutions as well. This stage could be characterised by a period of expansion and diversification of the higher education system since within a decade the system increased from 3 higher education institutions to 10 higher education institutions. The fourth stage (2000-now) is and will to an important extent be affected by the creation of the new MESCT that has to deal with the problem of the fact that the higher education system is an inarticulate collection of institutions that do not sufficiently meet the demands of society as a whole. Funding mechanisms for higher education in Mozambique Governments expenditure on higher education Education has since independence been a priority sector of the Mozambican government. When looking at the evolution of Public Spending on Education in projections for spending on Higher Education, we can discern the following trends. Since 1990 the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Total Public Expenditure in Education (TEEP) have increased simultaneously. However, expenditure on education declined from 5% in 1990 to 4% in 1999. Within the education sector, public expenditure on higher education increased from 0.5 % of GDP in 1992 to 0.9% in 1999. Total Public expenditure in higher education as a percentage of TEE increased substantially from almost 8% in 1992 to 22% in 1999. The level of expenditure in higher education is relatively high given that only 1 percent of the age-appropriate population is enrolled in higher education. Countries that share Mozambiques level of GNP and proportion of age-appropriate population enrolled in higher education on average spend less of their public resources on higher education- anywhere from 9 to 18% (World Bank, 2001, 54). (see i.e., table 8, p55). In 1999 the education sectors share of the total government budget was estimated at 14%. The higher education sub-sector accounted for about 26% of the education sector budget, which is equivalent to about 4% of the total Government budget (MESCT, 2000, 4). When focussing on the three public institutions of higher education that currently account for 74% of overall enrolment in Mozambique, UEM took the lions share (20%). UP and ISRI accounted for about 3% and 1% respectively. Government has for now planned to raise the share of education budget allocated to HEIs. The budget would rise to 22.8% in 2001, then to 25% in the next two years, but drop slightly to 24% in 2004. In that period, the proportion of total public resources allocated to UEM, UP and ISRI would remain nearly constant, at about 20%, 3% and 2.5 % respectively (see table, 5.3 MESCT p. 37). Institutional finance While the public universities are financed almost entirely by the government and the donor funds, the private HEIs depend on student fees and external support and venture capital. In the following part of this paper we provide a short overview for each of the higher education institutions with respect to their funding mechanisms. Public institutions Funding until now depends only on negotiations between a particular public higher education institution with the government. It is not based on the performance, but on the number of students enrolled and the number of lecturers in the institution. Generally spoken the four main sources of income for the public higher education institutions are governments funding, donor funding, student fees and income generating activities. In the Mozambican case, the Government budget is the main source of revenue for the public HEIs. Over the last three years for UEM income from government income ranged between 51.7 and 38.7%, and external funding ranged between 44,7 and 59.5, less than 1% came from tuition fees and 3.1%. percent from self-generating activities (MESCT, 2000, 38). During the same period of time ISRI depended for 88.5% of total revenues on the government, 11% on donors and 0.2% on tuition fees and UP depended totally on governments budget (MESCT, 2000, 39). Among the three public HEIs, only UEM has initiated income generating activities to augment funding from government and donors (Mario et al, 2001, 64). Private institutions Except for UCM, there are no data available on financial information about private higher education institutions. However, generally speaking, tuition fees are the major source of financing for the private higher education institutions. The three for profit private HEIs ISTCEM, ISPU and ISUTC receive a lot of financial institutional, technical and academic support from Portuguese universities. ISUTC is financed by 5 companies with special interest in communication and transport, including the railway and Port Company of Mozambique. The establishment of UCM was assisted by funds from the Italian Bishops Conference and money raised by the Portuguese Catholic Church (Lind, 2001, 9). In 1998 31% of UCMs total revenue came from tuition fees, 68.5% came from donors and 0.5% from income generation (MESCT, 2000, 40). Unit costs Unit costs in terms of average annual expenditures per student vary considerably between institutions. In 1999, the recurrent unit costs per student ranged from US$ 909 in UP to US$ 5.092 in ISRI (see also table MESCT, 41). Unit costs in private universities, such UCM and ISPU range from US$1,210 to US$ 1,563 respectively (World Bank, 2001, 63). However, one should take into consideration that these calculated unit costs are only estimates of the recurrent costs per student per year. In public institutions, the unit costs per graduate are considerably higher given the relatively low internal efficiency of the system. While the official length of studies for a Licenciatura degree at UEM is five years, in practice, students spend on average 8 years before completing their Licenciatura requirements. In addition, a large number of UEM students join the labour market as soon as they complete all but their thesis requirement for the Licenciatura degree. If the total recurrent expenditure of UEM is divided by the number of graduates rather than the number of students, the unit cost per graduate is US$31,000. This implies that the cost of a student in higher education at UEM is about 111 times that of a primary education. Putting the unit costs per student in an international perspective, the cost of a student at UEM would be 63 times compared to Anglophone African countries, 37 times in the Francophone countries and 11 times in low income Asian countries (World Bank, 2001, 64). (i.e.table 16 world bank, 64). However, it should also be noted that these calculation do not include the costs for research, and students scholarship and welfare (subsidised housing and meals) (Lind, 2001, 9). Student support and tuition fees Fees in public HEIs are very low (about 50-100 US$ per year), however students still face considerable costs in the form of living expenses, expenditure on books, and other essentials. Student fees from private higher education institutions vary from US$ 100 till US$ 250 per month (Mario et al, 2001, 67). Mozambique does not have a national system of student loans and the number of scholarships or bursaries is very limited. In 1999 less that 1000 scholarships were awarded for a total of 11.619 in all HEIs and 9021 in public HEIs which implies that only about 10% of students in public HEIs receive a full or partial scholarship and/or live in subsidised accommodation and receive assistance with the cost of books (MESCT, 2001, 10). The value of a full scholarship at UEM is nowadays equal to the level of the minimum salary, which is not enough to cover all the costs involved. Scholarships are mainly awarded on academic merit rather than financial need. From the government, there is very little financial assistance for students from low-income families. (see i.e. MESCT table, 5.11, p42) A considerable share of UEMs budget is for student welfare, caring for subsidised housing and meals, mainly for students with scholarships. The private higher education institutions do not themselves run scholarship schemes, although some scholarship have been made available for private HEIs (Lind, 2001, 10, Mario et al, 2001, 68). Conclusion The Mozambican public higher education institutions are to a large extent dependent on government funding and donor funding. In other words, they can be characterised as institutions that to a large extent are dependent on funding from outside the institution. With respect to scholarships and student loans it will be highly difficult for the Mozambican government to establish or increase this due to the fact that country does not have a broad based personal income tax and therefore governments budget is limited. As a result higher education in Mozambique is mainly for privileged people and only a small number of students have access to higher education due the fact that the majority does not have the financial means. Despite the fact that limited resources are available for higher education, the Mozambican public higher education system is expensive as is indicated by the high unit costs per student. Recent developments and future plans on public financing of higher education system. The current development of the higher education system should be seen in the context of the governments aim to alleviate poverty. The goals of the Strategic Plan for Higher Education in Mozambique for the Period 2000-2010 are congruent with the central political goals of the current five-year presidential term: the reduction of poverty. Government argues that poverty reduction in Mozambique requires economic growth. To reduce poverty, there needs to be more that can be shared among the people of Mozambique. Government argues that one key to economic growth is increasing the number of Mozambicans with higher education training in all regions of the country and in fields of high labour market demand (World Bank, 2001). As indicated in the first part of this paper, the Higher Education Strategic Plan (2000-2010) was approved by the cabinet in August 2000. The process of identification of concrete actions to be undertaken in order to achieve the goals and objectives outlined was immediately initiated. Three phases of implementation are identified. The first phase (2001-2004) aims at reforming the sub-sector of Higher Education (through the revision of extant laws, the enactment of new ones, the improvement of HEIs internal and external efficiency, management and administration). It also includes moderate expansion. The phase II (2005-2007), is the period of expansion, whereas the last (2008-2010), will be the period of consolidation and further planning. PEES I The PEES I was approved by the Council of Ministers on July 2001. The aim of this PEES I is: Improvement of human and material resources utilisation in Higher Education Institutions in order to increase the graduation rate. Diversifying institutions, training opportunities and teaching forms in order to diversify and evolve system for public higher education institutions Redefinition of government role in relation to higher education Improvement of quality of education and research in order to improve the teaching and learning conditions. The plan of operationalisation of PEES I contains an extensive description of objectives with its expected results and a scheme that indicates the activities, responsibilities of the actor in question, included participants for activity in question, timeframe, estimated costs and type of actions to be undertaken. The overall objectives of the strategy plan are expected to be met through a comprehensive set of initiatives and policies that include both national policies and a fiscal framework for the system of higher education at large as well as actions and measures carried out at institutional level within the framework of institutional autonomy. The World Bank is one of the partners supporting the government of Mozambique in implementing its higher education Strategy Plan (2001-2010). In fact, this project is a continuation of the World Bank support to the education sector in Mozambique and the development of a national strategy for higher education initiated in 1999. In addition, the World Bank was involved in the project focussing on the University of Eduardo Mondlane (UEM) capacity building project Present and Perspectives and considered a narrow follow-up operation, focusing on the broader national higher education system, as highly important. The World Bank project is built on the principles and guidelines of the Strategic Plan 2000-2010. In line with PEES I, the World Bank developed the Higher Education Project I in close co-operation with MESCT. The areas of PEES I that are not covered by the World Bank project, will most probably be supported by other donors, such as SIDA, NUFFIC, Ford Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, Gulbenkian, Norad, USAID, AusAID, European Union. This may imply that there will be re-negotiations with the World Bank and the other donors in question concerning the supplied credit. The World Bank project is built on the principles and guidelines of the Strategic Plan. In line with PEES I, the World Bank developed the Higher Education Project I in close co-operation with MESCT. This project has five components: System-wide Reform and Development. This component is aimed at (i) supporting the Government of Mozambique Higher Education policy and system reform through the provision of technical advisory services, rehabilitation of MESCT buildings, training, studies and workshops; (ii) at the development of new regulatory, fiscal and accountability framework; (iii) new pedagogical teaching methods and programs, (iv) the use o ICT in the delivery and teaching of higher education; (v) an accreditation and support program for students, through the provision of technical advisory services. Institutional Development and Investments: (1) Eduardo Mondlane University: (i) improvement of the university graduation rate and efficiency in resource utilization while improving the quality of programs; (ii) improvement of the learning environment and pedagogical methods through carrying out of curriculum and academic reform and external quality reviews in selected disciplines; strengthening of academic and administrative staff capacity; reforming financial management, university management and administration, and efficiency improvements, including the establishment of efficient computer based financial and academic management and information systems, based on the analysis and recommendations of the study by external management consultants; establishing a central library with advanced ICT capability; rehabilitation and construction of new facilities for the university; (2) Pedagogical University (improvement of the quality of the universitys programs through) rehabilitation and construction of new facilities, including students accommodations; revision and the strengthening of the universitys curriculum; capacity building of academic and administrative staff; the development and start-up of new program courses; and strengthening of the universitys financial and managerial capacity; (3) Higher Institute for International Relations (improvement of the institutes learning programs through rehabilitation or provision of new teaching, library, student and administrative facilities; academic and administrative staff capacity building; development, implementation and supervision of the institutes educational programs, and development of ICT, including the strengthening of the institutes financial and information management capacity. (C) Mozambique Distance Learning Network: The development of a new Distance Learning Network through: (i) the provision of training and institutional capacity building in design, development, delivery, management and evaluation of distance-learning; (ii) provision of a network infrastructure including minor civil works, equipment, consultant services staff and operating costs for establishing the central unit and the regional learning centers and the communication network; and the provision of material and program implementation costs to carry out the pilot programs with various educational institutions. (D) Quality Enhancement and Innovation Fund: The provision of grants for Public HEIs and loans for Private HEIs: (i) investments to support upgrading and capacity building o staff (through staff fellowships for postgraduate education and other training for teaching and management staff), and innovations to improve qualify and efficiency of existing programs (through curriculum development, provision of equipment and learning materials) and to develop and introduce new academic programs to improve equity of access and meet changing skill requirements; (ii) the Academic Staff Program to individual academic staff or groups f staff to enable them to invest in development of new skills, teaching methods or learning materials, and the design and introduction of innovations and improvements in curriculum and delivery of courses and academic support of students; (iii) the Research Program by supporting basic or applied research to develop linkages or other forms of collaboration with the industry and productive sector or with other national or international research and higher education institutions; and (iv) provision of equipment and small rehabilitation of educational facilities. E. Provincial Scholarship Fund (aimed at): (i) supporting the management of the Scholarship Fund through the provision of technical advisory services and training for the establishment of a public scholarship scheme to provide financial assistance for students in HEIs; (ii) provision of scholarships to cover the costs of tuition, travel, subsistence and lodging costs for eligible students in HEIs. Financial implications of the Strategic Plan The above mentioned components of the Strategic Plan will have considerable financial implications for the Mozambican higher education system. As mentioned earlier, the plan considers consolidation plans and expansion plans and assumes a number of efficiency gains through economics of scale. For example, it is assumed that the student/lecturer ratio will decrease so as to be able to increase access without increasing the number of teachers, that the number of non-academic staff will be reduced by about half, and that costs will be recovered by replacing grant-with loan-scholarships to students. The projections further consider the reinforcement of salaries of academic staff (Lind, 2001, 9). In order to implement this project, a so-called financial Management Action Plan was developed. This financial management plan includes among other things, description concerning the steering mechanisms, procedures of procurement and disbursement, processes of monitoring, planning and budgeting, accountability etc.). In other words, a new unit, the so-called Project Coordination Unit (PCU), at central level is called into being that steers and controls the government and donor funding. The members of PCU that consists of five people are appointed by the Minister of MESCT and are responsible for the day-to-day management of the credit under MESCT. This implies that PCU will be responsible for administering and supervising activities financed under the respective sub-components (World Bank, 2001, 67). In order to implement the Strategic Plan, each institution with the exception of UEM that had already its Strategic Plan, worked out their institutional Strategic Plan in tune with the general policy guidelines outlined in the PEES. The UEM had the task of adjusting its already finished Strategic Plan. Like the national Strategic Plan, the institutional Strategic Plan includes the future plans regarding the direction in which the higher education institutions would like to go. These institutional strategic plans also include concrete actions to be undertaken in order to achieve the goals and the budget needed to implement it. On the base of their institutional Strategic Plan, the higher education institutions get financial support from the government. Conclusion In summary we can conclude that the Mozambican higher education system is to a large extent formed by the ruling government of the time in question. For more than 20 years Mozambique had a one single higher education system. In 1985, the Mozambican government started by introducing new types of public higher education institutions and in 1993 government legally allowed space for higher education institutions. The result in 2000 is that the Mozambican higher education system was in fact a collection of 9 inarticulated higher education institutions that cannot sufficiently fulfil the needs of society. The new government is in fact moving from a laissez-faire approach in which a higher education system has emerged to an active approach in which the higher education is supposed to develop according to plans and higher education institutions are steered towards a specific direction. With the new MESCT Mozambique is thus entering a new phase in which public higher education institutions are meant to develop in consonance with the Strategic Plan which in its turn is the result of a consultative process with government and civil society. In terms of financing of the higher education system this implies that it will be the first time that both government funding and donor funding will be disbursed at national central level. This is in practice the beginning of a new a approach in which financing will be based on the performance of each institution, not solely on the number of students and staff as it has been heretofore. More emphasis will be given to internal academic, administrative and managerial efficiency of each institution. REFERENCES. Mrio, M., Fry, P., Levey, L. and Chilundo, A.; Draft. Higher Education in Mozambique- A case study, May 2001 Lind, A.; Overview study of the Higher Education System in Mozambique; Draft, summary of overview studies and overall policy and strategy papers, Maputo, 2001 Strategic Plan of Higher Education in Mozambique, 2000-2010, Maputo, August 2000 World Bank, Project appraisal document Higher Education Project I for the Republic of Mozambique, October, 2001 * Coordinator of Higher Education Strategic Plan at the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology ** Associate Researcher from CHEPS, Netherland. PAGE  PAGE 10 LM`awyz{%w #$++;-O-H.1111 5577%81888;AA.EE_H`HNKWKUUWX#XDXn[[]}]^_Bapaef,f6fgggggljmjpp 5CJ\66] CJmHsH5CJ6CJ5CJ;\0J\\ 5;CJ;QLMz{ gh $$Ifa$$a$$a$$a$$a$$a$xyy%v\$$IfF4F9!``0    4 Fa $$Ifa$%&7HUnsxlLcc]cTT $$Ifa$$If $$Ifa$$$IfF4\f9!  04 Faxyoff`ffffWW $$Ifa$$If $$Ifa$$$IfF\f9!04 Fa 7fp]]f,] $$Ifa$$$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$ 7CGHLMNpvw]W$If$$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$ $$Ifa$ ]$$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$ $$Ifa$ ]$$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$ $$Ifa$ &3DIJKPQRfW$$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$$If $$Ifa$ fs]($$IfF\f9!04 Fa $$Ifa$ $$Ifa$  $$Ifa$ $$Ifa$  mdddd $$Ifa$$$IfF$\f9!04 Fa !####$o(mhhchh^cch$a$$a$$a$$$IfF\f9!04 Fa o(p(++++:-;-O-H.1111 5 555;;;;==:@;@AA$a$$a$$a$$a$AAA,E-E.EEE_H`HNKOKPKWKXKK9LLM|M}MPPJSKSTT$ & Fa$$a$$a$$a$TTUUWWX^^`AaBaeeggggg$a$$ & F  dh^`a$$ & F  dha$ $<dh^<a$$ & F Zdh^Z`a$$dha$$a$gmjnjmmpppppwww(w)www7x8xxxxhyyyy&`#$$a$$a$$a$$a$$a$ppppw(w)wVwww(xxxxxhyjyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy0JmHnHu0J j0JU0J] 56\6CJyyyyyyyy$a$&`#$h]h. A!"#$% i0@0 Normal_HmH sH tH 0@0 Heading 1$@&CJ4@4 Heading 2$@&5CJ4@4 Heading 3$@&6CJ4@4 Heading 4$@&>*CJ<A@< Default Paragraph Font.B@. Body Text5CJ.@.  Footnote Text8&@8 Footnote ReferenceH*.P@". Body Text 2CJ2Q@22 Body Text 36CJ, @B, Footer  8!&)@Q& Page NumberLRbL Body Text Indent 2 ^ CJmH sH `wunuLMz{ gh%&7HUnsxy7CGHLMNpvw&3DIJKPQRfs ! o$p$'''':);)O)H*---- 1 111777799:<;<====,A-A.AAA_D`DNGOGPGWGXGG9HHI|I}ILLJOKOPPPQQSSTZZ\A]B]aacccccmfnfiilllllsss(s)sss7t8tttuuuuu0000M0M0M000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000(0000(0(00000(00'0'0'80'(00O)0O)80O)0-0-0-0-0-0-0-(007070707070707(00=0=0=0=0=0=0=0=0=(0(0(00PG0PG 0PG 0PG 0PG 0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG0PG 0PG0PG 0PG0PG0PG0PG 0PG000000(0000000(0000000000000000@0@0@0 0 py>Q%x7f o(ATgyy?ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPRy@ !!tX`flmwU^w3<)/9>?H%414P#PQQQ@TATBTB[C[D[\\]]]]]]]bbbbbyc}c)s.s=sBsKsSsttuuuuuuuuuhm w! ""U$X$)) ,',T-e-^/~/4L566<<`DDFFZZ\\ccdd r rWsXstkuuuuu33333333333333333333333337N&R!GGQQSTtthuuuuuMESTMESTMESTMESTMEST ARLINDO CHILUNDO ARLINDO CHILUNDO ARLINDO CHILUNDOUsermined~C:\Documents and Settings\mined\My Documents\Documentos-MCT\My Documents\HEPapers\Financing Higher Education in Mozambique.doc        p Ԋ?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnpqrstuvxyz{|}~Root Entry Fw#d:1TableTe5WordDocumentSummaryInformation(oDocumentSummaryInformation8wCompObjjObjectPoolw#d:w#d:  FMicrosoft Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q
Warning: Unknown(): open(/tmp/sess_0bf3dd3354c9feaad28f470a7a70137a, O_RDWR) failed: Read-only file system (30) in Unknown on line 0

Warning: Unknown(): Failed to write session data (files). Please verify that the current setting of session.save_path is correct (/tmp) in Unknown on line 0