Warning: session_start(): open(/tmp/sess_30c0fd754ba0feb060ad98667cfa3794, O_RDWR) failed: Read-only file system (30) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 675

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 676

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 677

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 678

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 679

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/filestore/classes/fileupload_class_inc.php on line 329

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/filestore/classes/fileupload_class_inc.php on line 334
ࡱ> 7 cbjbjUU "7|7| =lFFFF   8BDTeAh"m4O@@@@@@@$9C YE Ak-@mkk A /FF{A / / /kd FR(@ /k@ / /%8V?@"@ @4*< (8@ @L5A0eAD@TF,nF@ /FFFFORGANISING AND MONITORING RESEARCH PRODUCTION AND PERFORMANCE IN AFRICA: TOWARDS AFRICA CITATION INDEX BY WILLIAMS E. NWAGWU, PHD AFRICA REGIONAL CENTRE FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN, NIGERIA. PRESENTED DURING THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BRIDGING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE IN SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION IN THE SOUTH: THREATS AND OPPRTUNITIES ORGANIZED BY COUNCIL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN AFRICA (CODESRIA) AND CENTRE FOR AFRICAN STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF LEIDEN, THE NETHERLANDS DURING SEPTEMBER 6 TO SEPTEMBER 8, 2006. ORGANISING AND MONITORING RESEARCH PRODUCTION AND PERFORMANCE IN AFRICA: TOWARDS AFRICA CITATION INDEX Dr. Williams E. Nwagwu Africa Regional Centre for Information Science (ARCIS) University of Ibadan, Nigeria ABSTRACT Case is made here for an Africa Citation Index (ACI), which will focus primarily on research activities in different areas of knowledge in/on Africa by Africans or their co-authors as well as non-Africans. A functional distinction between bibliographies, which are relatively popular in Africa, and citation indexes is provided, as well as a justification of the later. It is suggested that a regional citation index such as ACI will be ecologically more adequate for understanding the nature, structure, use and flow of scientific research and production in Africa than the mainstream databases. Finally we identify, as well as suggest, how to address some of the major constraints that might confront the index. 1.0 Introduction Research is a universal practice; human beings in all communities have always made inquiries about how to solve problems that confront their existence, mobilizing material and nonmaterial resources and techniques to generate requisite knowledge. The generation of knowledge is only one part of the research undertaking; for knowledge to be useful, it should be shared with other researchers and stakeholders. Researchers have fulfilled this requirement by publishing their research results in peer-reviewed serials. Furthermore, research results are used in monitoring the performance of researchers, their institutions and disciplines. One way of achieving this expectation is the organisation of publications in bibliographies to guide colleagues and stakeholders in tracking and matching new publications. A more complex development in this regard is the Citation Indexes, which are suited to monitoring the use of research results, and to enable research managers assess the relevance, spread, quality and influence of their research activities. Although the history of such infrastructures is relatively recent in the developed countries, where its use has however matured significantly, such initiatives are not yet identifiable in Africa. Science in Africa is presently being assessed based on the indexing services of the developed countries, with the consequence that the nature and characteristics of the use of the research results from the continent cannot be reliably ascertained. This handicap manifests in the current popular distribution pattern of knowledge production and use in the world, which shows that African research activities are not as much useful as those from the developed regions. Although science performance in Africa might be comparable with that in any of the developed countries, an objective assessment of the situation does not exist. In this paper, we propose and justify the building of an Africa Citation Index, which will focus primarily on African research literature. 2.0 Bibliographies versus Citation Indexes Although very large ones are not available in Africa, bibliographies, which usually consist of lists of publications and patents as well as information about their authors, are somewhat common. Bibliographies have played crucial roles in formal science, keeping the community of scientists informed about the research results of their colleagues. A typical successful bibliography is the National Library of Medicines Medline of the United States of America established in 1966. An example in Africa is the bibliography of the Documentation Center (CODICE) of the Council for the Development of Social Research in Africa (CODESRIA). Allam and Nwagwu (2005) have shown that these and other initiatives have performed so well in allowing access to developing countries scholars. However, the converging impact of globalisation, the increasing importance and priority accorded to knowledge as principal driver of growth as well as the information and communication technology revolution have facilitated the development of Citation Indexes, which are already at their advanced stages of sophistication in many developed countries. A citation index is a structured list of references in a given collection of documents; containing information about the use of the publications, in addition to having all the attributes of a bibliography. Effort to develop a citation index first originated in legal practice when Shepards Citation tool, a legal reference was established in the USA in 1873 to enable lawyers locate previous decisions relating to their current cases. Another related development was the database developed by the Institute of Electrical Engineers in the United States in the beginning of the twentieth century, which was abandoned in 1922 (Garfield, 1977). These citation indexes did not succeed mainly because the manual processing methods that were used at that time could not meet the complex computational requirement of such databases. However, Eugene Garfield and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now Thompson Scientific, could be credited with initiating the first ICT-based scientific index in 1963, which include use or citation data, namely the Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). The Thompson Scientific databases, based on own locale-sensitive policies, select and index scientific sources from various parts of the world, and much of what is known about the current knowledge and status of science in the world is constructed on the basis of these indexes. A huge success though, it is a common knowledge that the database excludes most scientific channels from Africa and many parts of the developing world. Based on the ISI databases, the dominant knowledge about the nature of scientific activities in the world favours those communities, which meet the criteria set by the organisation. The ISI, which has indexed over 6,000 primary sources to date, has wielded great influence on world science, the most recent being its role in the global ranking of world universities. 3.0 Citation Indexes: purposes and exploitation Scientific databases are constructed for three major purposes: To provide information on research already performed in order to support ongoing research, because researchers often want to build on what has been done. To provide information to the scientific community for the management of science. To provide information on the evolution of scientific knowledge and on the pursuit of science as a human activity. In addition to the above, a citation index specifically enables us to; monitor the use and users, sources and characteristics of scientific publications, establish the visibility and productivity of scientists, disciplines, institutions and countries, know the core competencies and paradigmatic shifts in knowledge, understand the pattern of knowledge exchange and balance of intellectual influence among scholars locally and internationally, mapping of science, fields and areas to provide information about relevance and spread of research endeavours, as well as, study of the evolution of science. Based on the policies of existing international databases, none of the above attributes of science could be reliably established about Africa; only a few of African sources are indexed in the databases on the grounds of their low quality and lack of periodicity (Nwagwu, 2004). However, none of the functions of databases we have enumerated above requires that the sources be ranked as qualitative or not; the only obvious requirement is that research is carried out, and published and then used by those who need them. As a matter of fact, quality and quantity usually have environmental interpretations; the characteristics of scientific output will expectedly be influenced by the social and other conditions in the environment of the scientists. In the recent years, the significance of these indexes have manifested in the metric and non-metric tools used presently by professional associations, funding agencies and governments for Research Assessment Exercises. Based on the indexes of this sought, metric indices of performance of scientists, disciplines, institutions, countries and regions are now automatically computed in many communities. Several scientists, including this author, have discussed an empirical evidence of the poor representation of African sources (Nwagwu 2005). 4.0 The Need for a Citation Index in Africa African researchers are engaged in scientific research and writing, and they are trying to make their findings available to their fellow Africans and to the wider world as well (Layashi, 1994). That is one part of the equation: the other is understanding whether the research outputs address the problems of the society. Scientific data resources in Africa are hardly ever indexed in Africa. They are therefore, on the most part, unavailable and inaccessible. The absence of science databases in Africa has led to several unfounded and baseless conclusions about scientific activities in Africa such as the observation that information on Nigeria is often more available elsewhere (Akhigbe, 1992). This cannot be true. It would appear rather that very little of the information in Northern databases refers to actual African publications, i.e., research published within Africa (Abifarin, 1996). Although there might not be as much research activities going on in Africa as there are in the developed countries, there is clear evidence that more is being done than is reckoned with. Hence, we would rather suggest that much of the African research outputs that meet the standards of the Northern databases are often organised and indexed in the North, and, therefore, are available. Also, African research outputs that are available in the Northern databases are likely developed in Northern sources, or are those  few that are developed in Africa but published in sources outside Africa, or further still developed and published in those few African sources that are indexed by the Northern databases (Nwagwu, 2004). Whichever the case, there is no suggestion that information on Africa is mainly published elsewhere. Rather, we would suggest that much of the African research outputs that are published locally are not indexed, and are therefore not accessible and available. The pattern of indexing of Nigerian publications, for example in ISI databases exemplify these as shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3, which show a flat growth in publications in two areas where publication patterns are strictly journal-driven. Although one knows that the volume of scientific publications in Africa cannot compete with what obtains in the developed countries, it is obvious that more is being done than is reckoned with by mainstream databases.  EMBED Excel.Chart.8 \s  This position is supported by the fact that the publication pattern of African countries scholars shows that they focus mainly inwards. In Nigeria, this pattern has been established. Shoyinka and de Cola (1984) carried out a bibliometric analysis of publications at the University of Ibadan, and observed that the publication pattern of Nigerian scientists was mainly in local sources. Furthermore, Gaillard (1996) has observed that, African research is characterised by intra-African and particularly intra-national behaviour. This trend is very strong in Nigeria where it reflects the inward looking attitude of the scientific community and its extreme scientific isolation. (Gaillard, 1996). Galliard also showed the heavy concentration of Nigerias literature in local journals as reflecting a mechanism for strengthening linkages among national and regional scientists in order to legitimise work done locally. Most of the papers published in Africa will therefore likely be excluded in the international databases. How then can the top down indexing service of the North then cover comprehensively the research activities of the scientists of the South? This question is crucial because the scientific papers of countries should be considered as a definitive evidence of their science, and that such products require to be controlled as a basis for assessing and evaluating progress of science in different communities. African scientists struggle to publish in mainstream journals in order to be cited in international sources, because similar indexes do not exist in Africa. This trend could be counterproductive when the influence of publication channels on scientists is considered. For instance, journals define their areas of interest, and expect that scientists who wish to use the sources define the problems they want to address accordingly. A scientist, who wishes to have an entry in any journals, defines his focus to address the focus of the journal; and this may be different from the issues that affect the scientists immediate community. This could lead to disorientation between the utility of a scholars output in a community and the problems the scholar is often addressing. On the other hand, when scientists are satisfied with the sources around them, they most likely focus on the problems of their immediate environments (Palmer, 1999). Africa needs a comprehensive index to show evidence of the resources invested in research both by its government and international agencies. From 1963, when the first United Nations sponsored conference on the applications of science and technology to the development of the less developed countries, up until the symposium on science in Africa in 1990, there is sufficient evidence of support, which needs to be accounted for. A local index within Africa will be most suitable to document the research outcome. A typical example is the evidence in agricultural research where; The proportion of records on Africa is also higher in databases maintained by the international agricultural research centers (IARCs) based in Africa, not only because of their location but also because their focus is on developing countries in the tropics (Nwagwu, 2004). Furthermore, for several decades, institutions in developed countries and development assistance agencies have supported the evolution of information infrastructures in developing countries. There is no evidence about how these infrastructures have assisted in the organization of information resources. There is no expressed consciousness about the extent to which an index of research activities in research institutions actually contribute to the empowerment of people, and the accountability and responsibility of the institutions and scientists. The absence of indigenous initiative to collect, organise and index and link sources of scientific and technical information in the researches, and disseminate same to the various users, show that information is actually accorded limited status in Africa, and suggests further that the potential value of information is not yet self-evident. There is a need to widen awareness of what kinds of information, both published and unpublished, are available in Africa. Ignorance of previous research efforts may result in needless duplication and a wasting of precious resources. Getting publications indexed in databases increases demand for the information, since database searching is the primary method by which references are located. Stimulating greater demand for African research is perhaps the single most important strategy for raising the profile of science in Africa, and for increasing its competitiveness and the flow of information both from and into the continent. Opportunities for increased funding and vitality for African scientific enterprise can come with greater awareness about their activities, if there exist evidences about the quality and quantity of research contributed to the world from Africa. The assessment of the development efforts in social, economic, and political circles have relied mainly upon evidences of improved GDP of nations, improved living conditions, development of physical infrastructure, among others. Supplementary evidences from the primary scientific outputs of scientists and other stakeholders is needed to gauge information with regards to who, what, where and when-about budgets and other forms of expenditure on scientific activities. But there is no systematic and empirical evidence as to the characteristics-content, sources, of the primary research basis for policy and development plans and programmes in most African countries. The challenge is, therefore, to identify meaningful indicators, qualitative or quantitative based on complete coverage of scientific activities of Africa, local realities of science, and local quality criteria by which the overall research in the region can be assessed. The facts enumerated here are probably not uncommon knowledge to those African scholars who have had to sometimes worry about their poor showing in international rating. The nature of science itself is a strong factor that motivates local indexing of science evidences. Scientists are likely to face problems that confront their environment, about which an international indexing service or source may have no significant interest. For instance, research in health and agriculture might focus on community-sensitive issues, which might not be internationally reckoned with (Winclawska, 1996) unlike the so-called international subjects such as Physics and Mathematics. Furthermore, disciplines are culture sensitive. The role and nature of written knowledge are influenced by cultural situations in different environments, and this will constrain the universal indexing of science. Also, some global indicators might not be suitable for a fair assessment of scientific activities of certain researchers and countries. Furthermore, the idea of mainstream journals cannot be taken as a credible bibliographic indicator for African countries science because most journals in developing countries are classified as non-mainstream, and, therefore, rank low in international the index of quality; whereas there is no local basis for assessing the same sources to see their relevance to local situations. The significance of the foregoing points is that there might be a dissonance between research focus of the national databases in comparison with the local problems of different communities, and this might constrain scientists in selecting their sources. Politically, it is also very important to expect that Africa should index and monitor the use of her science sources. Databases play very significant roles in the positioning of scientists, their countries, and institutions. Countries that have plenty of their local journals indexed in a database stand to appear more visible than those countries whose journals are few. Scientists whose local sources are less represented in databases will definitely rate low in international indices. Hence, it appears that the most suitable strategy of electronic control of scientific literature would favour community approaches in which countries and regions base the assessment of their science on their national or regional databases. There is a parallel in the structure of regional economics, and knowledge and development-based societies, which seem to provide theoretical basis for this emerging reality. Storper (1997), in The Regional World, argued that technology, organisation, and territory could be considered as a holy trinity for regional development. He captured the relations among the trinity in the following quote: Technology involves not just the tension between scale and variety, but that between the codifiability or non-codifiability of knowledge; its substantive domain is learning and becoming, not just diffusion and deployment. Organisations are knit together, their boundaries defined and changed, and their relations to each other accomplished not simply as input-output relations or linkages, but as untraded interdependencies subject to a high degree of reflexivity. Territorial economies are not only created, in a globalising world economy, by proximity in input-output relations, but more so by proximity in the untraded or relational dimensions of organisations and technologies. Their principal assets because scarce and slow to create and imitate are no longer material, but relational (Storper, 1997, p.28). Although Storpers thesis was not focused on citation indexing, but the thesis conforms to the trend in modern information society, in addition to observed structure of national literature control activities, in the world today. It appears that, constrained by factors described here, the pattern of scientific indexing follows the path of holy trinity in which a region or country gives priority to the outputs of its scientists based on technology, organisation, and territory consciousness. That is, a country or region recognises that its technology or its level of technology diffusion; its organisations, and its territorial identity are intertwined. Hence, the scientific output of a country, irrespective of its quality and standards are accepted as indicators of the level of development of researchers, research, and science in the research institutions, and by implications, qualifies the territory. Countries that would want to posture their local research activities appropriately, therefore, develop their own databases and also develop own criteria to select journals that should be indexed in those databases. The arguments being introduced here may be better driven home if we examine the status of indexing of scientific evidence in Africa. We have briefly examined the need for an Africa Citation Index, and some of the issues that might need to be considered in building the index. ACI is a required infrastructure in Africa at this time that scholars are expected, both by their institutions and international assessment bodies, to publish in electronically indexed journals for their research results to be considered qualitative. A major justification for this condition is that journals that are not indexed in modern electronic media will be limited in distribution; access will also not be easy. 5.0 Issues facing ACI Let us now identify some broad issues that need to be considered in initiating a citation database in Africa. 5.1 Market for African STI An aspect of STI databases in Africa that would require strong policy action is related to market for the products. Who will buy the products of the databases? Of what international value is African scientific knowledge? How much can they sell? Can the databases return the cost incurred in their establishment? These are questions that must border the minds of policy makers in view of the expected huge cost of building such databases. Although in a different direction, similar questions bordered the minds of those who initiated the ISI databases almost four decades ago, but these databases are today sources of huge income to the institute as well highlighting the role USA and the developed world in the configuration of modern science landscape in the world. The emerging knowledge societies will encourage openness and dialogue and appreciate wisdom, communication and cooperation. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers (United Nations, 1948) The observation of the International Development Strategy for the Fourth United Nations Development Decade is succinct when it states that; the reactivation of development in the decade of the 1990s on a sustained basis will be linked to the ability of the developing countries to participate in the rapid advances in science and technology that have characterized the global economy in recent years and will continue to do so in the future (UNDP,1990). The World Bank has also added that in the emerging global knowledge economy, a countrys ability to build and mobilize knowledge capital is equally essential for sustainable development as the availability of physical and financial capital (6(. Human beings will therefore seek for solutions to their problems wherever they feel that they can get them. Moreover, several human challenges today such as HIV/AIDS and the persistence of many incurable diseases demand an open mind regarding sources of solutions. In this regard, outputs of African scientists will definitely sell in the international market. But one needs to watch out against the question of value and cost suffering the same international political misfortune as other products such as coffee, petroleum, groundnut etc whose prices are fixed in the international markets. Although information is globally considered to be a resource that has great value now, its competitiveness has not yet attracted the international regulatory agencies activities, particularly in the area of cost fixing. 5.2 Funding Where will the fund for the development of the databases come from? Funds for one-time investment may not be problematic and may come from the funding agencies. A more crucial consideration should, however, be given to sustainability of the funding until the databases would start generating counterpart funds. International funding agencies could also be depended upon to support pockets of activities such as manpower training required in the development of the databases. Although the primary purpose of databases is not financial profit, databases often yield financial benefits sometimes after some relatively long period of time. To this effect, the database should be commercialised to ensure that its independence. 5.3 Infrastructure Infrastructure should be viewed from the perspective of a collection of heterogeneous technologies, components, protocols and applications to support different and varying application areas and use over time across large geographical distances (Besley and Pande, 1998). Technology infrastructure, which often refers to computers and communication devices and digital infrastructure in addition to content available from digital sources, would require to be given serious consideration. Infrastructure should also be viewed to include human resource skills needed to be able to use computers and digital technologies; and finally, we need to examine the social resources as infrastructural facilities to support structures. Westrup et al (2001) have also discussed the need for legal infrastructure. Infrastructures should be extended beyond technologies to embrace examining social structures, social problems, social organisation and social relations. 5.4 Human resources and capacity building A major setback in science and technology information databases in Africa is lack of adequately trained manpower (Rolland and Monteirro, 2001). The problem of weak information human resource capacity generally is reported in a number of publications (Bhatnagar, 1992; Sahay, 2001; Waema, 2002; Westrup, 2005). In Africa, it might not be uncommon to find a database manager with limited computer skills (Sahay, 2001), and having no time and motivation to learn. This could be a result of unconducive environment and lack of training resources (World Bank, 2004; Kimaro, 2005). Ideally, manpower development and capacity building should not be limited to basic skills only but also to technical, planning, policy analysis and formulation, and management of ICTs. It involves activities related to the development of human resources through training, education and promotion (Paul, 1999; Targowski, 2001). It is also a continuous process whereby people and organizations develop their abilities individually and collectively with the aim to perform activities, deal with problems and formulate and achieve objectives (UNDP, 1994; Ball, 2001). Human capacity building depends on the institutional capacity to provide a conducive environment for learning (Mdumbaro, 2003). Institutions with unclear objectives, inadequate structures and resources, lack of incentives or weak practices are unlikely to achieve productive and motivated human resources because these factors do not lead to a conducive environment. Thus, local governments and donors need to create an enabling environment, supportive of capacity building to ensure the development of sustainable ICT projects such as databases. For the training database professionals and experts for which we recommend the establishment of a research and educational research institute where policy research into policies and regulation in the industry, commercialisation and marketing of products, database quality and standardization, coordination and cooperation, indexing and analysis, computer programming and related activities should be undertaken. Tiamiyu and Aiyepeku (2003) have expatiated on this problem; The currently low executive capacity in sub-Saharan Africa for designing and operationalising computer based information systems and networks, especially in the area of documentation, records management, and library services and the completely absent capacity for the local manufacture of computer and telecommunications equipment needed for an instructional purposes at all levels of education for information in Africa, need to be urgently addressed, primarily at the level of education for information (Tiamiyu and Aiyepeku, 2003). To address the problem of manpower in this regard, South Korea established the Information and Communication Institute one of whose aims is to train database manpower. There may not be need for the establishment of new institutions for the purpose of human resource development in Africa; existing institutional infrastructures could be harnessed for an initial start. For instance, at the regional level, the Consortium of African Schools of Information Science (CASIS), which consists of institutions that train information professionals, could be used as a strategy for developing databases human resources. Specifically, the joint sponsorship by the UNESCO and Canadas International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Africa Regional Centre for Information Science (ARCIS), at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria in 1984 provides a springboard for addressing the problem developing required manpower regarding STI databases (Tiamiyu and Aiyepeku, 2003). Apart from the unavailability of information professionals in Africa, there is also an observed wide unfavourable differential in the remuneration of information workers across the economic sectors and across national and regional boundaries. This triggers off undesirable migration of African information workers to other parts of the world. This problem is related to the question of mainstreaming of information work. In many sectors of the economy, the information worker is still on the fringe, unable to rise to the peak of his career. Rigid government policies, which are sometimes not revised for many years, as well as policy makers who are not information conscious contribute in perpetuating this problem. Furthermore, it is that information work is unpopular in many African countries. From the soft information circles to the hard-core information activity, there is little priority accorded the information worker. 5.5 Sustainability Sustainability of ICT projects such as citation databases would require the ability to identify impacts and manage risks threatening the long-term viability of the system (Korpela et al 1998). The failure rate of ICT projects in least industrialized countries is 75 per cent higher than in developed countries mainly due to the lack of appropriate skills and knowledge to identify and deal with the risks associated with ICTs on a long-term basis (Odedra-Straub, 1995; Mursu et al, 1999). The development of knowledge and skills requires learning and training to use and support for the sustainability of ICT projects (Braa et al, 1995). Databases can have an impact on organizational work practices when the people have the necessary capacity to use, maintain, develop and sustain it. Traditionally, donors have used foreign experts to fill in professional gaps and transfer skills (World Bank, 1999). The process of transferring skills is often not possible due to the nature of the projects, which place little emphasis on learning. It has been observed that donor projects are typically used to mobilize resources (e.g. vehicles, computers), and not developing human resources capacity (Kimaro and Nhampossa, 2004, Wood-Harper and Bell, 1990). Donor projects generally include poorly designed and short term training programmes, which are not culturally compatible with the local situation (Hanseth and Monteiro, 2006). The availability of ICTs needs to be complimented by the availability of well-designed training and practices to develop human capacity with appropriate skills and knowledge to sustain ICTs over time. The databases are a combination of people, tools (e.g. ICTs) and routine procedures to provide and use information (Wangwe and Rweyemamu, 2001). A sustainable STI database system can be simply defined as the one that meets the information scientific and technological information needs of the country over time. However, sustainability of the database is a complex process as it involves the capability (skills and knowledge) of humans to collect, analyse, use and disseminate information as well as to deal with risks threatening the database project. 5.6 Low level of information awareness and consciousness Another major obstacle would relate to the low level of awareness of information at the individual, community and national levels of the society in Africa. At the policy-making levels, this observation is very striking. In his nationwide survey in 1982, Aiyepeku (1982) showed that public policy makers at the federal level in Nigeria did not have as high a level of information consciousness as they might. This factor will affect scientific database systems to the extent that awareness of the utility of information should be directly related to attitudes and awareness towards the organization and processing information. Policy makers decide scientific and other priorities based on their efficacy, the low level of consciousness will therefore continue to downgrade the role of information in national development. African countries also have very low priority for education for information, which manifests in low educational investments. According to Tiamiyu and Aiyepeku (2003), investment for information education in Africa is characterised by absence of programmes to train trainers, lack of development of institutional capacity for training of trainers, and lack of funds for technical exchange programmes. As a result, there are no sufficient and appropriately trained information workers at all levels who could design, implement and evaluate electronic databases towards meeting Africas growth and development needs. At the policy making level, African leaders have consistently shown that they understand the implications of science and technology information in the development process. This can be attested to by the various OAU (now AU) declarations in this regard (Organisation of African Unity, 1980, Organisation of African Unity 1990). But there has not been any demonstrated will by any of the member states to develop science and technology information. There are issues often raised regarding the fact that ICT is relatively strange to the culture of African people (Organisation of African Unity. 1990; Arunachallam, 1992; Otite, 2004) and that this constitutes one of the explanations for the slow pace of ICT development in many sectors. 5.7 Institutional and management frameworks There are problems of non-existence, and in some cases, non-operational management and institutional frameworks for the control of scientific and technological literature at country levels. Where they exist, these frameworks are either designed when ICT were at their earliest development stages, or they addressed the relevance of information organization generally without any reference to databases, as we know them today. The frameworks were therefore not ICT- compliant, or were not accompanied by appropriate capacity development and deployment. This is typical of Nigeria where, for instance, the National University Commission (NUC) has prescribed a networking of the universities for the purpose of sharing primary literature among themselves without a clear understanding about databases of publications (Nigerian National University Commission, 2006). Similar initiatives exist in many other African countries, but there seems to exist a dissonance in the perceived role of ICT, and how they can be incorporated into the traditional ways of controlling scientific information. 5.8 Lack of a regional information policy Alabi (1994) has made a case for the need for an information policy in Africa within which information technology and other related policies should obtain. Rather, there exist information technology policies at both regional and country levels, which specify how information technology would be used for the development. However, the absence of a regional information policy would impinge upon the full utilization of information technology policies, irrespective of how well defined. This is because information technology policies are supposed to provide the basis for the operation of information technology. Otherwise, the very indicators that are used to measure the impacts and consequences of using such technologies and tools will be lacking entirely; will be poorly defined and understood, and inefficiently or inappropriately utilised. 6.0 Strategies for mobilising stakeholders support There exist some international NGOs in Africa around which ACI could be located. For instance, Council for the Development of Social Research in Africa (CODESRIA) located in Dakar Senegal has sufficient clout both for mobilising as well as hosting the database. Presently CODESRIA, which is prominent and visible in mobilising for knowledge development in Africa, has a functional bibliographic database. While CODESRIA or any other organisation with similar reputation is expected to host the database, a linkage with other organisations that have Africa-wide mandate such as Association of African Universities (AAU), set up by the universities in Africa since 1967 to promote cooperation among the universities, will be required to create a link with various universities. AAU has also experimented with the database of thesis and dissertations through its DATAD project, although both the database projects of CODESRIA and AAU do not include use data. Interestingly, AAU has a vision similar to CODESRIAs in relation to the need to organise research activities and their outputs. In the recent years, the focus of both CODESRIA and AAU has been on higher education in Africa, a path that was also adopted by many professional associations. AAU is a membership organisation, with the implication that not all universities in Africa are members; their activities might therefore be omitted if the AAU is used as a sole strategy for networking the universities. In this regard, other agencies such as the Committee of Vice Chancellors to which all universities belong could also be used as a strategy to reach those institutions that are not members of AAU, and to mobilise individual universities to participate in the project. The continental and national associations of heads of polytechnics, colleges of education etc also have great roles to play. The Vice Chancellors and heads of other tertiary institutions require to be mainstreamed into the project because in their capacities as research managers. The culture of repository in which researchers deposit their publications in a central database is not existent in most universities in Africa. The VCs also have the great task of mobilising the researchers to comply with repository policies, which the universities require to put in place in order to benefit maximally from ACI. Similarly, we need the input of research and development, and, management institutions in various countries. There is also the need for roles to be created for professional associations and science coordinating bodies at continental and national levels in their capacities as the major proprietors of serials in Africa. A major task before the ACI will be the identification and collection of serials to be included in the index, a very daunting task. However, journal proprietors know that it is at their interest for their journals to be indexed in a regional database. Journals that are not listed in the database may loose their customers, and researchers may also not want to publish in them. This factor is a crucial strength that ACI has tap to secure the cooperation of serial proprietors. Presently, all serials are expected to be hosted by a database in order to be considered as a credible source of primary knowledge, and there are very few such services in Africa. A strong ACI will also constitute a channel for the internationalisation of journals and their publications, a privilege all journals in Africa would want to enjoy. Another crucial element of this index will relate to the policy that will guide the selection of the sources, indexing protocols, software and hardware issues as well as management and control. These and various other issues require to be put before an expert panel that will work out the details. 7.0 Enhancing South North information flow, a conclusive remark Most projects that are geared towards addressing the digital divide focus on North-South flow of information, and there already exist many of such projects. But projects that emphasise South-North flow are hardly ever identifiable. One way of addressing this issue will be through ACI. There exist in Africa information resources that will contribute to problem solving in the world but which have not merited approval by mainstream science. 8.0 References Abifarin, F.P; Agunbekun, T. (1993). Nigerian Scientific Journals. Present Problems and Future Solutions. New Library World 94(1105), p4-7. Aiyepeku, W.O. (1982). Information Utilization by Policy Makers in Nigeria Part 1: Assessing degrees of information consciousness. Journal of Information Science 4, 203-211. Akhigbe, O.O. (1992). Archives, Registry, and Health Literature: The Evolutionary Process of a National Health Information System. In Proceedings of the National Conference on Health Information System (draft), Federal Ministry of Health, Lagos, Nigeria. Alabi, G. (1996). A survey of informatics policies in Nigeria. Preliminary Report (UNESCO, Paris) Allam, A; Nwagwu, W.E (2006). Challenges and Opportunities of E-learning Networks in Africa, Development 49, 8692. Arunachallam, S. (1992). Access to information and science development in the developing world. Paper presented during IFLA General Conference (New Delhi, India, August 30-September 3, 1992). Association of Africa Universities, The Birth of a Database of African Theses and Dissertations, Available  HYPERLINK "http://www.aau.org/datad/announce/pressrel5.htm" http://www.aau.org/datad/announce/pressrel5.htm (accessed July 11, 2006). Ball, K.S. (2001). The use of human resource in information systems: a survey, Personnel Review, 30, (5/66) 677- 693. Besley, T.; Pande, R. (1998). Read My Lips: The political economy of information transmission Available at:  HYPERLINK "http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/te/te355.pdf" http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/te/te355.pdf (accessed 4 July 2006). Bhatnagar, S. (1992). . Information Technology and Socio-Development: Some strategies for developing countries. In: S. C. Bhatnagar and M. Odedra (eds.) Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries (Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi). Boerma, J.T. (1991). Health Information for primary health care. In: Health Information for Primary Health Care, (African Medical Research Foundation, Brazzaville). Braa, J.; E. Monteiro; E. Reinert ((1995). Technology transfer versus technological learning: IT infrastructure and health in developing countries. Information Technology for Development, 6(1) 15-23. Gaillard, J. (1996). Science Policies and Cooperation in Africa. Knowledge 14(2), 212-226. Garfield, E. (1977). Citation indexing: Histo-bibliography and the sociology of science. Essays of an Information Scientist 1 158-174. General Assembly of the United Nations (1948), Article 19, Fiftieth Anniversary Declaration of Human Rights, Universal 1948-1998 Declaration of Human Rights. Available  HYPERLINK "http://www.un.org/rights/50/decla.htm" http://www.un.org/rights/50/decla.htm, (accessed 4 July 2006). Hanseth, O. and E. Monteiro, (1998) Understanding Information Infrastructure, Unpublished book, (1998). Available at  HYPERLINK "http://heim.ifi.uio.no/~oleha/Publications/bok.html" http://heim.ifi.uio.no/~oleha/Publications/bok.html (accessed 4 July 2006). Heeks, R. (2002). Information Systems and Developing Countries: Failure, Success, and Local Improvisations. The Information Society 18 (2002) 101-102. http://pdf.dec.org/pdf_docs/PNACM119.pdf (accessed Kimaro, C. H. (2005). Importance of Human Resource Capacity in the Context of Low Income Countries. In: Bada, A and Okunoye, A. (eds) Proceedings of the Eight International Working Conference of IFIP WG 9.4, Enhancing Human Resource Development Through ICT (IFIP, Abuja 2005). Kimaro, H.C.; J.L Nhampossa, (2004) The challenges of sustainability of health information systems in developing countries: comparative studies of Mozambique and Tanzania, In: T. Leino, T. Saarinen and S. Klein (eds.), Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Information Systems, (Turku, Finland, 2004). Korpela, M; H.A.Soriyan; K.C. Olufokunbi, A.A.Onayade, A. Davies-Adetugbo; D. Adesanmi. (1998). Community participation in health informatics in Africa: and experiment in tripartite partnership in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, Computer Supported Cooperative Work 7 (3-4), 341-361. Korpela; H.A. Soriyan; K.C. Olufokumbi; A. Mursu (2000). Made-in Nigeria systems development methodologies: An action research project in the health sector. In: C. Avgerou and G. Walsham (eds), Information Technology in Context: Studies from the perspective of developing countries, (Aldershot publications, Ashgate). Layashi, Y. (1994) Closing remark, Workshop on Databases: The Needs and Contributions of African Researchers, co-organized by the Sub-Saharan Africa Program of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Pan African Development Information System (PADIS) of the UN Economic Commission for Africa, October 1012, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp.16. Mursu, A.; H.A Soriyan; K.C. Olufokunbi M. Korpela (1999). Towards successful ISD in developing countries: First results from a Nigeria risk study using the Delphi Method, Proceedings of IRIS 22, 90-101. National University Commission (1994), NUNet: Organisational structure, Objectives and Performance (1994). Available at  HYPERLINK "http://www.kanoonline.com/buk/other%20units/Nunet/nunet%202.htm" http://www.kanoonline.com/buk/other%20units/Nunet/nunet%202.htm (accessed 9 January 2006). Ndumbaro, E.S.E. (2003). ICT application in the health sector, A case study in Tanzania, Unpublished Master of Engineering Management thesis, University of Dares Salaam, Tanzania, (2003) 109. Nwagwu, W (2005). Deficits in the visibility of African scientists: implications for developing information and communication technology (ICT) capacity, World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable development, Vol. 3, No.2, 12-27 Odedra-Straub, M. (1993). Critical factors affecting success of CBIS: Cases from Africa. Journal of Global Information Management 1(3) 16. Organisation of African Unity (1980). The Kilimanjaro Declaration, CASTAFRICA II, Final Report Sc/M.D/88, (UNESCO, Paris) Organisation of African Unity (OAU). (1980). The Lagos Plan of Action on Science and Technology for Development of Africa, 1980-2000, (Addis Ababa: OAU). Organisation of African Unity. (1990). Addis Ababa Declaration on the Political and Socio-Economic Situation in Africa and the Fundamental Changes Taking Place in the World. (OAU, Addis Ababa) Otite, M. (2004). Partnering for community development. A study of Selected Communities in Delta State. Ph.D. Thesis Submitted in the Department of Adult education, University of Ibadan, 2004. Palmer, C.L. (1999). Structures and Strategies of Interdisciplinary Science. Journal of American Society for Information Science. 50(3), pp244-247. Paul, S. (2001). Capacity building for health sector reform. Forum on Health Sector Reform, Proceedings of the Eight International Working Conference of IFIP WG 9.4, Enhancing Human Resource Development Through ICT (IFIP, Abuja, 2005). Review, 30, (5/66), 677- 693. Rolland, K.H; E. Monteiro (2001). Balancing the Local and the Global Infrastructural Information Systems, The Information Society, 18, 87-100. Sahay, S. (2001). IT and Health Care in Developing Countries. Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, (Special Issue). Sahay, S. (2003). IT and Health Care in Developing Countries. Electronic Journal on Salaam, Tanzania, 109. Shoyinka P.H; DeCola F.D (1984). Patterns of journal publication by staff of the College of Medicine University of Ibadan Nigeria 1961-1980. Bulletin of Medical Library Association 72(2), 168-178. Storper, M. (1997) The Regional World-Territorial Development in a Global Economy, Guilford Press, New York, p.338. Targowski, A.S; S.P. Deshpande (2001), The Utility and Selection of an HRIS, Advances in Competitiveness Research 9 (1), 42-56. Tiamiyu, M.A.; W.O Aiyepeku (2003). Investments in education for information in Africa: Tradeoffs, Benefits and Sustainability. In: Feeney, M. and Grieves M (Eds) Changing Information Technologies: Research Challenges in Economics of Information, (British Library, London). United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report (1990). Available at  HYPERLINK "http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/January" http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/January, (accessed 9 January 2006). United Nations Development Programme (1994), Capacity Development: Lessons of Experience and Guiding Principles (UNDP, Paris). Waema, T. M. (2002). ICT human resource development in Africa: Challenges and strategies. African Technology Policy Studies Network Series (ATPS, Nairobi). Waema, T. M. (2002). ICT human resource development in Africa: Challenges and strategies. African Technology Policy Studies Network Series (ATPS, Nairobi). Walsham, G. V. Symons; T. Waema, T. (1988). Information systems as social systems: implications for developing countries. Information Technology for Development, 3(3), 189-204. Wangwe, S. M.; D. C..Rweyemamu (2001). Human Resource and Institutional development in Africa: An overview, (First Pan African Capacity Building Forum, Bamako. Westrup, C. (2005). From Digital Divides to Digital Societies. In Bada, A and Okunoye, A. (Eds) Proceedings of the Eight International Working Conference of IFIP WG 9.4, Enhancing Human Resource Development Through ICT (IFIP, Abuja). Westrup, C. (1999). From Digital Divides to Digital Societies. In Bada, A and Okunoye, A. (Eds) WHO/SHS/NHP/95. 8, Paper No. 5. Winclawska, M. (1996) Polish sociology citation index, (Principles for Creation and the First Results) Scientometrics, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp.387391. Wood-Harper, T. and S. Bell (1990). Information systems development for developing countries. In: S.C. Bhatnagar and N. Bjrn-Andersen (eds.). Information technology in developing countries, (Elsevier Science Publishers, North-Holland). World Bank, (1999). World Development Report: Knowledge for Development. Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/wdr/wdr98/contents.htm (accessed 9 December, 2004). PAGE  PAGE 11  EMBED Excel.Chart.8 \s   EMBED Excel.Chart.8 \s  Rhn/ M U 2vPUw`J%N"<%['\''(T)---ɱ~jCJUaJmHnHu6]aJmH sH  aJmH sH 5\mH sH B*aJmH phsH B*CJaJmH phsH  aJmH sH 6]5B*CJ\aJmH phsH %56B*CJ\]aJmH phsH  56\]6]mH sH mH sH 1Jhimnefy $a$$a$d %b`J%5 -!!("N"['\''----`$`a$$ & Fa$7$8$H$$`a$$a$-------*/000d66:U<V<g=h=TDH}NUQTRRRRVd$a$7$8$H$$a$$`a$-0000002369V<g=H|KK2M}NQR(RRVVYZ[.[C[[[7]8]9]O]]]`VaMbbde e e ee;h?@ACD\˺ݳݓjp UmH sH jH CJUVaJjUmH sH 0JmHnHu0J j0JU aJmH sH 6]aJmH sH  aJmH sH aJ6]mH sH mH sH 6B*]mH phsH B*mH phsH  * j *U5!uu`:ub "#&`#$ $7$8$H$a$7$8$H$ d^` $7$8$H$^a$$07$8$H$^`0a$#$%BC`abc $7$8$H$a$ !\]^_bcmH sH jUmH sH jyUmH sH jaqH CJUVaJ 1h/ =!"#$%Dd J  C A? "2h!(tʿ/.ŀ\Dd`!Th!(tʿ/.ŀ"">08.("xZ]hUl6ihJE%PJIR!4kKKv%&ٍIkBV! ŨE!NJ(B"{޻;2v{sw\握utW?Z cF\0&1f|XzO!L{YlV›}Zq#,Lvy,YV*I/3+-R,Bs 1FaXAaJJFm-_@만7o_vEE["?ꨴ_/1uqѓƬV$zWuJlkSN5KL =vCbؔLm5.VZolaӑ5k1(vWkiJgWvUfI( ʯ|*wE;3UenV1OюLպ5 ;pqP@ln5E;X672 F[o *jqcI| n:v$lZkv6ƭF*ڠd7f]EVc-C g(W3[FXҙ?`Mo6}To-Hz>WS6t;=?I+&2|bdtO2S&td7B[|/D=g \*[)lMJ ie&z\&?I+NsDcG7wS \kJ]?%^/S}d8MQ ĵrw2ykCJO㍞M0 U:#.ETV.+XXmuq z_,Ԝ%59EʹR\!5Um/j|\%5/UsJ_5RCj.zQ#f\'59/j~%xE 5U5Pjh~57I͟5Vjv7?y%fOEjO5eRWFo]_1M1~g&欻 7z¬_×CC/սDz#ofgj=ĹT/N3=܄UY9O(O,S4UXTA1mC">R5DyK 0http://www.aau.org/datad/announce/pressrel5.htmyK `http://www.aau.org/datad/announce/pressrel5.htmDyK *http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/te/te355.pdfyK Thttp://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/te/te355.pdf DyK &http://www.un.org/rights/50/decla.htmyK Lhttp://www.un.org/rights/50/decla.htmEDyK 4http://heim.ifi.uio.no/~oleha/Publications/bok.htmlyK hhttp://heim.ifi.uio.no/~oleha/Publications/bok.htmlmDyK @http://www.kanoonline.com/buk/other%20units/Nunet/nunet%202.htmyK xhttp://www.kanoonline.com/buk/other units/Nunet/nunet 2.htmADyK 3http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/JanuaryyK fhttp://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/January DdJ  C A? "2k)#=n4&E<+G c`!?)#=n4&E<+ & xY]hU>3ͯW|iiٍm X)ښ&.l`!VeE|)(>|R>}>-%ưs=wgƙ! [nν{;wƀDg@'Ka0gFCFLTn6ػaHKXצ Hc+IhԎo4?. =3|HG6R0}$N9._wFiCD ˘݋Us!;gHj¡)XL*3Pe+جk)<:)hlXcc ]Sؤ ؐƆ46 jlVcg5vVc5v^c5vQcW5vUc4vMc74vCckq2D De q3@yuj6.  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~Root Entry F4*Data oWordDocument"ObjectPool mT4*4*_1220452084!FmT4*mT4*Ole PRINT$CompObjb  !#$%&()*+,-.0123456789:;<=>?@ABCE !FMicrosoft Excel ChartBiff8Excel.Chart.89qOh+'0@HXh userfuserfMicrosoft Excel@@, ; U F   ''  Arial) ԰ww 0wf---------Arial dww 0wf-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"Systemf !$-'- -- k!!---'---  -s`s`ssaHHtt  55aa---'--- j!!---'--- wr---'--- wr-- hh))UU-$---'--- wrh $h}hSh---'--- wr $---'--- wr $~---'--- wr) $)>))---'--- wr $---'--- wrU $UjU@U---'--- wr $ ---'--- wr $k---'--- wr $+---'--- wr---'--- wr---'--- -------'--- n7V F2 I`*Figure 3: Articles on NIgerian indexed in )))%%-%%%))0)%%)))%%%))(2 }Science Citation Index-%%)%%0%))))%%----'--- ---'--- ----'---   2 00% 2 8200%%% 2 400%%% 2 p600%%%---'--- ---'--- -----'---  Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k#1995-----'--- -----'--- h Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k1996-----'--- -----'--- E Arial $ww 0wf- 2 kO1997-----'--- -----'---  Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k1998-----'--- -----'--- )p Arial $ww 0wf- 2 kz1999-----'--- -----'---  Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k2000-----'--- -----'--- U Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k2001-----'--- -----'--- 2 Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k<2002-----'--- -----'---  Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k2003-----'--- -----'--- ] Arial $ww 0wf- 2 kg2004-----'--- ---'--- ------'--- '"  2 ,Year,%%----'--- -----'--- ^d Arial ww 0wf-2 TtNumber of articles-----'--- ---'--- -- k!!--'  '  'ObjInfo WorkbookI2SummaryInformation( DocumentSummaryInformation8, @\puser Ba=9= V9X@"1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial"$"#,##0_);\("$"#,##0\)!"$"#,##0_);[Red]\("$"#,##0\)""$"#,##0.00_);\("$"#,##0.00\)'""$"#,##0.00_);[Red]\("$"#,##0.00\)7*2_("$"* #,##0_);_("$"* \(#,##0\);_("$"* "-"_);_(@_).))_(* #,##0_);_(* \(#,##0\);_(* "-"_);_(@_)?,:_("$"* #,##0.00_);_("$"* \(#,##0.00\);_("$"* "-"??_);_(@_)6+1_(* #,##0.00_);_(* \(#,##0.00\);_(* "-"??_);_(@_)                + ) , *  `$Chart1Sheet1c0Sheet2V1Sheet3`iZR3  @@  SCISSCIAHCI   @MHP LaserJet 1220 Series PS (MSS odXXLetterPRIV0''''\KhCjX "dXX??3` / ` / ` / ` /3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O& Q4FAP 3Ob 3 b#M-43*#M4%  yM3O& Q  Year'4% MZ3O$>& Q (Number of articles'43" 44% .[C 2M3O$& Q @Figure 3: Articles on NIgerian indexed in Science Citation Index'44 e,@0@4@8@<@@@D@H@L@ P@ew@ x@z@x@|@}@x@y@@~@ p}@e>  @  dMbP?_*+%"??U                ,@w@ ,@`@,@=@0@ x@ 0@`@0@9@4@z@ 4@Z@4@@@8@x@ 8@^@8@3@<@|@ <@`@<@H@@@}@ @@@a@@@?@D@x@ D@`@D@B@ H@y@  H@`@  H@:@ L@@~@  L@@_@  L@4@ P@p}@  P@a@  P@?@JZZZZZZZZZ(  p  6NMM? <K]`t   @"t ??3` /` /` /` /3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FA7 3ON} 3 b#M43*#M4% L zM3O&Q  Year'4% sMZ3Oj&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% R M3O$&Q `.Figure XX: Articles on NIgerian indexed in SCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM?`!]`   @" ??3` /` /` /` /?p3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FAR 3O 3 b#M43*#M4% p AM3O!&Q  Year'4% [iMZ3Ox&Q (Number of articles'43" :"D3O:"% M,3OQ4444%  T M3Oc&Q `.Figure XX: Articles indexed on NIgeria in SSCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM? @]`\  @"\??3` / ` / ` /` /?p3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O& Q4$% M 3O& Q4FAR 3O 3 b#M43*#M4% p AM3O!&Q  Year'4% [iMZ3Ox&Q (Number of articles'43" :"D3O:"% M,3OQ4444% T_ M3O^&Q ^-Figure XX Articles indexed on NIgeria in AHCI'44 e e e >@ 7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 ՜.+,0 PXd lt| 1 Sheet1Sheet2Sheet3Chart1  WorksheetsCharts !FMicrosoft Excel ChartBiff8Excel.Chart.89q_1220452021!Fyt4*0|4*Ole  PRINT dCompObjb  R   ''  ArialE Iww 0w$f'-Arial Lww 0w$f'------Arialu ww 0w$f'-----ArialD ww 0w$f'------------"System$f' !-'- -- j!!---'--- E -aa((~~EE(  !!((---'--- j!!---'--- >0---'--- >0- -H   OO..UU\\(c(cH-$H]H 3H---'--- >0  $ ! ---'--- >0O $OdO:O---'--- >0. $.C.---'--- >0U $UtjU@Ut---'--- >0 $---'--- >0\ $\q\G\---'--- >0 $---'--- >0(c $cx(c=N(c---'--- >0 $---'--- >0---'--- >0---'--- -------'--- o3 R2 @#2Figure 1: Articles indexed on NIgeria in Arts and    !     #    !  -2 Humanities Citation Index#+   #   ----'--- ---'--- ----'---   2 0 2 F10 2 20 2 30 2 40 2 c50 2 *60---'--- ---'---   2 1995 2 1996 2 !1997 2 1998 2 '1999 2 2000 2 .2001 2 2002 2 52003 2 2004---'--- ------'--- Ld  2 jYear----'--- -----'--- 1d Arial 6`ww 0w$f'- 2 nNumber of articles- ----'--- ---'--- - -  j!!-- '  '  'ObjInfoWorkbook1SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8,Oh+'0@HXh userfuserfMicrosoft Excel@@bz՜.+,0 PXd lt| 2  @\puser Ba=  = h <X@"1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1dArial1dArial1dArial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial"$"#,##0_);\("$"#,##0\)!"$"#,##0_);[Red]\("$"#,##0\)""$"#,##0.00_);\("$"#,##0.00\)'""$"#,##0.00_);[Red]\("$"#,##0.00\)7*2_("$"* #,##0_);_("$"* \(#,##0\);_("$"* "-"_);_(@_).))_(* #,##0_);_(* \(#,##0\);_(* "-"_);_(@_)?,:_("$"* #,##0.00_);_("$"* \(#,##0.00\);_("$"* "-"??_);_(@_)6+1_(* #,##0.00_);_(* \(#,##0.00\);_(* "-"??_);_(@_)                + ) , *  `$Chart2Sheet1/Sheet20Sheet3`iZR3  @@  SCISSCIAHCI   @MHP LaserJet 1220 Series PS (MSS odXXLetterPRIV0''''\KhCjX "dXX??3` / ` / ` / ` /?q3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% rM 3O&Q4$% rM 3O& Q4FAE3 p3O>m R3 b#M43*#M4% k tM3O& Q  Year'4% RMZ3O0& Q (Number of articles'43" 44% U< M3O3& Q KFigure 1: Articles indexed on NIgeria in Arts and Humanities Citation Index'44 e,@0@4@8@<@@@D@H@L@ P@e=@9@@@3@H@?@B@:@4@ ?@e>  @  dMbP?_*+%"??U                ,@w@ ,@`@,@=@0@ x@ 0@`@0@9@4@z@ 4@Z@4@@@8@x@ 8@^@8@3@<@|@ <@`@<@H@@@}@ @@@a@@@?@D@x@ D@`@D@B@ H@y@  H@`@  H@:@ L@@~@  L@@_@  L@4@ P@p}@  P@a@  P@?@JZZZZZZZZZ(  p  6NMM? <K]`  @"??3` /` /` /` /3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FA7 3ON} 3 b#M43*#M4% L zM3O&Q  Year'4% sMZ3Oj&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% R M3O$&Q `.Figure XX: Articles on NIgerian indexed in SCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM?`!]`$  @"$??3` /` /` /` /?p3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FAR 3O 3 b#M43*#M4% p AM3O!&Q  Year'4% [iMZ3Ox&Q (Number of articles'43" :"D3O:"% M,3OQ4444%  T M3Oc&Q `.Figure XX: Articles indexed on NIgeria in SSCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM?p Z]`  @"??3` / ` / ` /` /?3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O& Q4$% M 3O& Q4FA{ E3O " 3 b#M43*#M4% B& \M3O&Q  Year'4% S3MZ3Oj&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% O M3O&Q ^-Figure XX Articles indexed on NIgeria in AHCI'44 e e e >@ 7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 7 Sheet1Sheet2Sheet3Chart2  WorksheetsCharts !FMicrosoft Excel ChartBiff8Excel.Chart.89qOh+'0@HXh _1215389958!F 4* 4*Ole PRINTCompObjbu J @   @''  Arial G$ww 0w fk-----Arial ww 0w fk-----Arial "ww 0w fk------------"System fk !-'- @-- !!---'--- @| -KK||}}ppcc---'--- !!---'--- g---'--- g--Z MM@@33''Z-$ZoZEZ---'--- g $---'--- gM $MbM8M---'--- g $---'--- g@ $@U@+@---'--- g $---'--- g3 $3H33---'--- g $---'--- g' $'<''---'--- g $---'--- g---'--- g---'--- @-------'--- p3 @2 E&Figure 2: Articles indexed on Nigeria )))%%-%%%))%%%)))0)%%72 ' in Social Science Citation Index)-)%%-%%)%%0%))))%%----'--- @---'--- @----'--- @  2 0 2 050 2 100 2 a150---'--- @---'--- @  2 ,1995 2 1996 2 1997 2 1998 2 1999 2 2000 2 2001 2 2002 2 2003 2 r2004---'--- @------'--- eJ  2 "PYear----'--- @-----'--- Yd ArialA `ww 0w fk- 2 nNumber of articles- ----'--- @---'--- @- - !!-- ' @ '  'ObjInfoWorkbookE1SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8",      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<= @\puser Ba=$*" = ? <X@"1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1dArial1dArial1dArial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial"$"#,##0_);\("$"#,##0\)!"$"#,##0_);[Red]\("$"#,##0\)""$"#,##0.00_);\("$"#,##0.00\)'""$"#,##0.00_);[Red]\("$"#,##0.00\)7*2_("$"* #,##0_);_("$"* \(#,##0\);_("$"* "-"_);_(@_).))_(* #,##0_);_(* \(#,##0\);_(* "-"_);_(@_)?,:_("$"* #,##0.00_);_("$"* \(#,##0.00\);_("$"* "-"??_);_(@_)6+1_(* #,##0.00_);_(* \(#,##0.00\);_(* "-"??_);_(@_)                + ) , *  `$Chart3Sheet1_/Sheet2R0Sheet3`iZR3  @@  SCISSCIAHCI   @MHP LaserJet 1220 Series PS (MSS odXXLetterPRIV0''''\KhCjX "dXX??3` / ` / ` / ` /?t3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% vM 3O&Q4$% vM 3O& Q4FA~ 3OZ8 3 b#M43*#M4% s M3O& Q  Year'4% ,MZ3O0& Q (Number of articles'43" 44% S M3O3& Q FFigure 2: Articles indexed on Nigeria in Social Science Citation Index'44 e,@0@4@8@<@@@D@H@L@ P@e`@`@Z@^@`@@a@`@`@@_@ a@e>  @  dMbP?_*+%"??U                ,@w@ ,@`@,@=@0@ x@ 0@`@0@9@4@z@ 4@Z@4@@@8@x@ 8@^@8@3@<@|@ <@`@<@H@@@}@ @@@a@@@?@D@x@ D@`@D@B@ H@y@  H@`@  H@:@ L@@~@  L@@_@  L@4@ P@p}@  P@a@  P@?@JZZZZZZZZZ(  p  6NMM? <K]` ~  @" ??3` /` /` /` /3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FA7 3ON} 3 b#M43*#M4% L zM3O&Q  Year'4% sMZ3Oj&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% R M3O$&Q `.Figure XX: Articles on NIgerian indexed in SCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM?0 "]` ~  @" ??3` /` /` /` /3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FA~ 3O^ 3 b#M43*#M4%  vM3O&Q  Year'4% =MZ3O$>&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% 8[= 2M3O$&Q `.Figure XX: Articles indexed on NIgeria in SSCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM?p Z]` ~  @" ??3` / ` / ` /` /?3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O& Q4$% M 3O& Q4FA{ E3O " 3 b#M43*#M4% B& \M3O&Q  Year'4% S3MZ3Oj&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% O M3O&Q ^-Figure XX Articles indexed on NIgeria in AHCI'44 e e e >@ 7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 userfuserfMicrosoft Excel@@R՜.+,0 PXd lt| 3 Sheet1Sheet2Sheet3Chart3  WorksheetsChartsOh+'0QՒ Y5}\5UFqm`/?˽dxvX5;Px 3s;Qr˘PT2 =ZU#Zw^+l .+{jQǷ},iK^5>[h#g|=[5##}$egUMa]<-I)2>}"[S; VvRddKX@RyIY=2:?l u*'[loӲzZ]]DZ5;w=i5 Gz臛<}]w#3z;x{ e=e +Eg*)'oMI` )R@(-pIӈ1e])Wr`aP"3][gRR-TJ#җݴ%F EZѨͅ.= s"45W[Y[a<[Wazp6!/. {[`⮝fs-Noϕ9/2I?a^?s90Tpzl99'4ku~d~MfN}ht}o wV\:yS+]sJguQywG|(cxz+k[o=3M[UZ-mI BIt1mV6+TB)R[D/! @P_*Q$,WYϹ?'3̐];9ݟYDdM]3F!jI]aa&I`nHv>T&qNi2H"$٢, \~#qjQCi #9 uR!6@ɲkW⍈f/tEPܝX CRJ־xuFrpҍX|KҧN06X/cvIa.zac0Va4cdlˌ]f*cW5Ʈ3v%Wluoo}0#z0m}OTcgOY/؛TThIy2jScF/C ^Φ/)r.t(< =gو2,7apk9 TA80]#l)16Yn<ۘgWzmhGZOj݂D [s@ZiAuӽjfֿjѓ"0 glǭ42MaI=%,24|]܋稍 EV_y 3k9m=TG) I3P&#iwڧ?O<ވ:ƣ?!#Nʊ ۰KQ& $ݑO6#+"W)фUs^Ԝ5q?9O9g4y_p0tH<)|94g4;ޛV{o][ ߖ5.\7p>NނsBA{R'f{e ^z)N ^K NjNW C:i̪N ,K=벬x-au->Fn~T:^g qge4llS!ZW~Zy1bTq~ѣ E?3http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/January{&<http://www.kanoonline.com/buk/other units/Nunet/nunet 2.htm6/ 4http://heim.ifi.uio.no/~oleha/Publications/bok.htmlF &http://www.un.org/rights/50/decla.htmK*http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/te/te355.pdf900http://www.aau.org/datad/announce/pressrel5.htm  FMicrosoft Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q! i8@8 NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH J@J Heading 1$$@&a$5B*CJ\aJphjj Heading 2 d h@&)56B*CJ\]^JaJmH phsH \\ Heading 3$$$ 7d <@&a$\^JaJmH sH VV Heading 4$$d <@&a$5CJ\aJmH sH ZZ Heading 5$d <@&a$56CJ\]aJmH sH TT Heading 6$d <@&a$5CJ\aJmH sH FF Heading 7$d <@&a$mH sH LL Heading 8$d <@&a$6]mH sH Z Z Heading 9 $d <@&a$CJOJQJ^JaJmH sH <A@< Default Paragraph Font*>@* Title$a$5\NON Default 7$8$H$!B*CJ_HaJmH phsH tH >B@> Body Text$a$B*CJaJph:P@": Body Text 2$7$8$H$a$NQ@2N Body Text 3$7$8$H$a$CJOJQJ^JaJZOBZ Quotation&$d P(]^a$CJaJmH sH LC@RL Body Text Indent$d`a$aJHTbH Block Text$]^a$ 6]aJHJ@rH Subtitle$da$5B*CJ\aJph, @, Footer  !&)@& Page NumberJ^J Normal (Web)dd[$\$OJPJQJ^JXOX Reference($ 70P(^`0a$ aJmH sH 8Z@8 Plain TextCJOJQJaJ.U@. Hyperlink >*B*ph>V@> FollowedHyperlink >*B* ph6`6 Footnote TextCJaJ8&`8 Footnote ReferenceH*<c<?cJhimnefy `J%5-(N[#\##))))))))))*+,,,d226U8V8g9h9T@D}JUMTNNNNRRW8Y9YOYYYY\V]M^^`;ddzXd?B,/M#S#))*+-+X9^9 R)RWWKYNY[['h-h2h7hiij jll$l)l1l6l>lEllll mImOm nnnnsowoopqqoxsx+}.}}}}}~~~~vyƁˁԁbfEHgjȍԍ܍03x{KNY\  ͙ҙ Xb՚ݚ{~vyKSUXZc^jժ٪vJNioqt$)0[`ر߲߱ '-0ostvǴɴ̴ϴҴӴܴty~ "-9AFNŶ!#-27÷Ʒ;B[`¹ȹ˹̹ӹչعڹ ʻͻ"0:ÿȿ+.3;gvFK 48} tx!(06;@u|MPRV`gIW5= $%d'){}34))LONO^^^^ssKoZ©:<^vvͭЭg֯12Fر?@޲KuʹδOsazh '*)T!"CDFWX>?vDFngB utua $%d3333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333/w6:JVXvwx77u } = @DRRCH"Z###+,,,///656V8V8NNNNRRRRW7Y;<qq-2;=gh}}9KK duserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Application Data\Microsoft\Word\AutoRecovery save of Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.asduserC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Application Data\Microsoft\Word\AutoRecovery save of Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.asduserC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Application Data\Microsoft\Word\AutoRecovery save of Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.asdu<$e+HQtd6Cd o zh  ^ `CJOJQJo(qh ^`OJQJo(oh ^`OJQJo(h | | ^| `OJQJo(h LL^L`OJQJo(oh ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJQJo(oh ^`OJQJo(808^8`0o(()^`.pLp^p`L.@ @ ^@ `.^`.L^`L.^`.^`.PLP^P`L.P^`P56CJaJo(hH. @@^@`o(hH.. 0^`0o(hH.. ``^``o(hH... ^`o(hH .... ^`o(hH ..... ^`o(hH ......  `^``o(hH.......  00^0`o(hH........d6Cdu<+H         H-        K %C_d@JJ!JJcP@UnknownGz Times New Roman5Symbol3& z ArialKTimesNewRomanPSMTU&Arial Unicode MSArial?5 z Courier New;Wingdings"1hBF]٦FyVj!0d  2q@Monitoring research in Africa: Towards an African Citation Indexuseruser
Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 23

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 24

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 25

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 26
ࡱ> 7 cbjbjUU "7|7| =lFFFF   8BDTeAh"m4O@@@@@@@$9C YE Ak-@mkk A /FF{A / / /kd FR(@ /k@ / /%8V?@"@ @4*< (8@ @L5A0eAD@TF,nF@ /FFFFORGANISING AND MONITORING RESEARCH PRODUCTION AND PERFORMANCE IN AFRICA: TOWARDS AFRICA CITATION INDEX BY WILLIAMS E. NWAGWU, PHD AFRICA REGIONAL CENTRE FOR INFORMATION SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN, NIGERIA. PRESENTED DURING THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BRIDGING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE IN SCHOLARLY COMMUNICATION IN THE SOUTH: THREATS AND OPPRTUNITIES ORGANIZED BY COUNCIL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH IN AFRICA (CODESRIA) AND CENTRE FOR AFRICAN STUDIES, UNIVERSITY OF LEIDEN, THE NETHERLANDS DURING SEPTEMBER 6 TO SEPTEMBER 8, 2006. ORGANISING AND MONITORING RESEARCH PRODUCTION AND PERFORMANCE IN AFRICA: TOWARDS AFRICA CITATION INDEX Dr. Williams E. Nwagwu Africa Regional Centre for Information Science (ARCIS) University of Ibadan, Nigeria ABSTRACT Case is made here for an Africa Citation Index (ACI), which will focus primarily on research activities in different areas of knowledge in/on Africa by Africans or their co-authors as well as non-Africans. A functional distinction between bibliographies, which are relatively popular in Africa, and citation indexes is provided, as well as a justification of the later. It is suggested that a regional citation index such as ACI will be ecologically more adequate for understanding the nature, structure, use and flow of scientific research and production in Africa than the mainstream databases. Finally we identify, as well as suggest, how to address some of the major constraints that might confront the index. 1.0 Introduction Research is a universal practice; human beings in all communities have always made inquiries about how to solve problems that confront their existence, mobilizing material and nonmaterial resources and techniques to generate requisite knowledge. The generation of knowledge is only one part of the research undertaking; for knowledge to be useful, it should be shared with other researchers and stakeholders. Researchers have fulfilled this requirement by publishing their research results in peer-reviewed serials. Furthermore, research results are used in monitoring the performance of researchers, their institutions and disciplines. One way of achieving this expectation is the organisation of publications in bibliographies to guide colleagues and stakeholders in tracking and matching new publications. A more complex development in this regard is the Citation Indexes, which are suited to monitoring the use of research results, and to enable research managers assess the relevance, spread, quality and influence of their research activities. Although the history of such infrastructures is relatively recent in the developed countries, where its use has however matured significantly, such initiatives are not yet identifiable in Africa. Science in Africa is presently being assessed based on the indexing services of the developed countries, with the consequence that the nature and characteristics of the use of the research results from the continent cannot be reliably ascertained. This handicap manifests in the current popular distribution pattern of knowledge production and use in the world, which shows that African research activities are not as much useful as those from the developed regions. Although science performance in Africa might be comparable with that in any of the developed countries, an objective assessment of the situation does not exist. In this paper, we propose and justify the building of an Africa Citation Index, which will focus primarily on African research literature. 2.0 Bibliographies versus Citation Indexes Although very large ones are not available in Africa, bibliographies, which usually consist of lists of publications and patents as well as information about their authors, are somewhat common. Bibliographies have played crucial roles in formal science, keeping the community of scientists informed about the research results of their colleagues. A typical successful bibliography is the National Library of Medicines Medline of the United States of America established in 1966. An example in Africa is the bibliography of the Documentation Center (CODICE) of the Council for the Development of Social Research in Africa (CODESRIA). Allam and Nwagwu (2005) have shown that these and other initiatives have performed so well in allowing access to developing countries scholars. However, the converging impact of globalisation, the increasing importance and priority accorded to knowledge as principal driver of growth as well as the information and communication technology revolution have facilitated the development of Citation Indexes, which are already at their advanced stages of sophistication in many developed countries. A citation index is a structured list of references in a given collection of documents; containing information about the use of the publications, in addition to having all the attributes of a bibliography. Effort to develop a citation index first originated in legal practice when Shepards Citation tool, a legal reference was established in the USA in 1873 to enable lawyers locate previous decisions relating to their current cases. Another related development was the database developed by the Institute of Electrical Engineers in the United States in the beginning of the twentieth century, which was abandoned in 1922 (Garfield, 1977). These citation indexes did not succeed mainly because the manual processing methods that were used at that time could not meet the complex computational requirement of such databases. However, Eugene Garfield and the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now Thompson Scientific, could be credited with initiating the first ICT-based scientific index in 1963, which include use or citation data, namely the Science Citation Index (SCI), Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). The Thompson Scientific databases, based on own locale-sensitive policies, select and index scientific sources from various parts of the world, and much of what is known about the current knowledge and status of science in the world is constructed on the basis of these indexes. A huge success though, it is a common knowledge that the database excludes most scientific channels from Africa and many parts of the developing world. Based on the ISI databases, the dominant knowledge about the nature of scientific activities in the world favours those communities, which meet the criteria set by the organisation. The ISI, which has indexed over 6,000 primary sources to date, has wielded great influence on world science, the most recent being its role in the global ranking of world universities. 3.0 Citation Indexes: purposes and exploitation Scientific databases are constructed for three major purposes: To provide information on research already performed in order to support ongoing research, because researchers often want to build on what has been done. To provide information to the scientific community for the management of science. To provide information on the evolution of scientific knowledge and on the pursuit of science as a human activity. In addition to the above, a citation index specifically enables us to; monitor the use and users, sources and characteristics of scientific publications, establish the visibility and productivity of scientists, disciplines, institutions and countries, know the core competencies and paradigmatic shifts in knowledge, understand the pattern of knowledge exchange and balance of intellectual influence among scholars locally and internationally, mapping of science, fields and areas to provide information about relevance and spread of research endeavours, as well as, study of the evolution of science. Based on the policies of existing international databases, none of the above attributes of science could be reliably established about Africa; only a few of African sources are indexed in the databases on the grounds of their low quality and lack of periodicity (Nwagwu, 2004). However, none of the functions of databases we have enumerated above requires that the sources be ranked as qualitative or not; the only obvious requirement is that research is carried out, and published and then used by those who need them. As a matter of fact, quality and quantity usually have environmental interpretations; the characteristics of scientific output will expectedly be influenced by the social and other conditions in the environment of the scientists. In the recent years, the significance of these indexes have manifested in the metric and non-metric tools used presently by professional associations, funding agencies and governments for Research Assessment Exercises. Based on the indexes of this sought, metric indices of performance of scientists, disciplines, institutions, countries and regions are now automatically computed in many communities. Several scientists, including this author, have discussed an empirical evidence of the poor representation of African sources (Nwagwu 2005). 4.0 The Need for a Citation Index in Africa African researchers are engaged in scientific research and writing, and they are trying to make their findings available to their fellow Africans and to the wider world as well (Layashi, 1994). That is one part of the equation: the other is understanding whether the research outputs address the problems of the society. Scientific data resources in Africa are hardly ever indexed in Africa. They are therefore, on the most part, unavailable and inaccessible. The absence of science databases in Africa has led to several unfounded and baseless conclusions about scientific activities in Africa such as the observation that information on Nigeria is often more available elsewhere (Akhigbe, 1992). This cannot be true. It would appear rather that very little of the information in Northern databases refers to actual African publications, i.e., research published within Africa (Abifarin, 1996). Although there might not be as much research activities going on in Africa as there are in the developed countries, there is clear evidence that more is being done than is reckoned with. Hence, we would rather suggest that much of the African research outputs that meet the standards of the Northern databases are often organised and indexed in the North, and, therefore, are available. Also, African research outputs that are available in the Northern databases are likely developed in Northern sources, or are those  few that are developed in Africa but published in sources outside Africa, or further still developed and published in those few African sources that are indexed by the Northern databases (Nwagwu, 2004). Whichever the case, there is no suggestion that information on Africa is mainly published elsewhere. Rather, we would suggest that much of the African research outputs that are published locally are not indexed, and are therefore not accessible and available. The pattern of indexing of Nigerian publications, for example in ISI databases exemplify these as shown in Figures 1, 2 and 3, which show a flat growth in publications in two areas where publication patterns are strictly journal-driven. Although one knows that the volume of scientific publications in Africa cannot compete with what obtains in the developed countries, it is obvious that more is being done than is reckoned with by mainstream databases.  EMBED Excel.Chart.8 \s  This position is supported by the fact that the publication pattern of African countries scholars shows that they focus mainly inwards. In Nigeria, this pattern has been established. Shoyinka and de Cola (1984) carried out a bibliometric analysis of publications at the University of Ibadan, and observed that the publication pattern of Nigerian scientists was mainly in local sources. Furthermore, Gaillard (1996) has observed that, African research is characterised by intra-African and particularly intra-national behaviour. This trend is very strong in Nigeria where it reflects the inward looking attitude of the scientific community and its extreme scientific isolation. (Gaillard, 1996). Galliard also showed the heavy concentration of Nigerias literature in local journals as reflecting a mechanism for strengthening linkages among national and regional scientists in order to legitimise work done locally. Most of the papers published in Africa will therefore likely be excluded in the international databases. How then can the top down indexing service of the North then cover comprehensively the research activities of the scientists of the South? This question is crucial because the scientific papers of countries should be considered as a definitive evidence of their science, and that such products require to be controlled as a basis for assessing and evaluating progress of science in different communities. African scientists struggle to publish in mainstream journals in order to be cited in international sources, because similar indexes do not exist in Africa. This trend could be counterproductive when the influence of publication channels on scientists is considered. For instance, journals define their areas of interest, and expect that scientists who wish to use the sources define the problems they want to address accordingly. A scientist, who wishes to have an entry in any journals, defines his focus to address the focus of the journal; and this may be different from the issues that affect the scientists immediate community. This could lead to disorientation between the utility of a scholars output in a community and the problems the scholar is often addressing. On the other hand, when scientists are satisfied with the sources around them, they most likely focus on the problems of their immediate environments (Palmer, 1999). Africa needs a comprehensive index to show evidence of the resources invested in research both by its government and international agencies. From 1963, when the first United Nations sponsored conference on the applications of science and technology to the development of the less developed countries, up until the symposium on science in Africa in 1990, there is sufficient evidence of support, which needs to be accounted for. A local index within Africa will be most suitable to document the research outcome. A typical example is the evidence in agricultural research where; The proportion of records on Africa is also higher in databases maintained by the international agricultural research centers (IARCs) based in Africa, not only because of their location but also because their focus is on developing countries in the tropics (Nwagwu, 2004). Furthermore, for several decades, institutions in developed countries and development assistance agencies have supported the evolution of information infrastructures in developing countries. There is no evidence about how these infrastructures have assisted in the organization of information resources. There is no expressed consciousness about the extent to which an index of research activities in research institutions actually contribute to the empowerment of people, and the accountability and responsibility of the institutions and scientists. The absence of indigenous initiative to collect, organise and index and link sources of scientific and technical information in the researches, and disseminate same to the various users, show that information is actually accorded limited status in Africa, and suggests further that the potential value of information is not yet self-evident. There is a need to widen awareness of what kinds of information, both published and unpublished, are available in Africa. Ignorance of previous research efforts may result in needless duplication and a wasting of precious resources. Getting publications indexed in databases increases demand for the information, since database searching is the primary method by which references are located. Stimulating greater demand for African research is perhaps the single most important strategy for raising the profile of science in Africa, and for increasing its competitiveness and the flow of information both from and into the continent. Opportunities for increased funding and vitality for African scientific enterprise can come with greater awareness about their activities, if there exist evidences about the quality and quantity of research contributed to the world from Africa. The assessment of the development efforts in social, economic, and political circles have relied mainly upon evidences of improved GDP of nations, improved living conditions, development of physical infrastructure, among others. Supplementary evidences from the primary scientific outputs of scientists and other stakeholders is needed to gauge information with regards to who, what, where and when-about budgets and other forms of expenditure on scientific activities. But there is no systematic and empirical evidence as to the characteristics-content, sources, of the primary research basis for policy and development plans and programmes in most African countries. The challenge is, therefore, to identify meaningful indicators, qualitative or quantitative based on complete coverage of scientific activities of Africa, local realities of science, and local quality criteria by which the overall research in the region can be assessed. The facts enumerated here are probably not uncommon knowledge to those African scholars who have had to sometimes worry about their poor showing in international rating. The nature of science itself is a strong factor that motivates local indexing of science evidences. Scientists are likely to face problems that confront their environment, about which an international indexing service or source may have no significant interest. For instance, research in health and agriculture might focus on community-sensitive issues, which might not be internationally reckoned with (Winclawska, 1996) unlike the so-called international subjects such as Physics and Mathematics. Furthermore, disciplines are culture sensitive. The role and nature of written knowledge are influenced by cultural situations in different environments, and this will constrain the universal indexing of science. Also, some global indicators might not be suitable for a fair assessment of scientific activities of certain researchers and countries. Furthermore, the idea of mainstream journals cannot be taken as a credible bibliographic indicator for African countries science because most journals in developing countries are classified as non-mainstream, and, therefore, rank low in international the index of quality; whereas there is no local basis for assessing the same sources to see their relevance to local situations. The significance of the foregoing points is that there might be a dissonance between research focus of the national databases in comparison with the local problems of different communities, and this might constrain scientists in selecting their sources. Politically, it is also very important to expect that Africa should index and monitor the use of her science sources. Databases play very significant roles in the positioning of scientists, their countries, and institutions. Countries that have plenty of their local journals indexed in a database stand to appear more visible than those countries whose journals are few. Scientists whose local sources are less represented in databases will definitely rate low in international indices. Hence, it appears that the most suitable strategy of electronic control of scientific literature would favour community approaches in which countries and regions base the assessment of their science on their national or regional databases. There is a parallel in the structure of regional economics, and knowledge and development-based societies, which seem to provide theoretical basis for this emerging reality. Storper (1997), in The Regional World, argued that technology, organisation, and territory could be considered as a holy trinity for regional development. He captured the relations among the trinity in the following quote: Technology involves not just the tension between scale and variety, but that between the codifiability or non-codifiability of knowledge; its substantive domain is learning and becoming, not just diffusion and deployment. Organisations are knit together, their boundaries defined and changed, and their relations to each other accomplished not simply as input-output relations or linkages, but as untraded interdependencies subject to a high degree of reflexivity. Territorial economies are not only created, in a globalising world economy, by proximity in input-output relations, but more so by proximity in the untraded or relational dimensions of organisations and technologies. Their principal assets because scarce and slow to create and imitate are no longer material, but relational (Storper, 1997, p.28). Although Storpers thesis was not focused on citation indexing, but the thesis conforms to the trend in modern information society, in addition to observed structure of national literature control activities, in the world today. It appears that, constrained by factors described here, the pattern of scientific indexing follows the path of holy trinity in which a region or country gives priority to the outputs of its scientists based on technology, organisation, and territory consciousness. That is, a country or region recognises that its technology or its level of technology diffusion; its organisations, and its territorial identity are intertwined. Hence, the scientific output of a country, irrespective of its quality and standards are accepted as indicators of the level of development of researchers, research, and science in the research institutions, and by implications, qualifies the territory. Countries that would want to posture their local research activities appropriately, therefore, develop their own databases and also develop own criteria to select journals that should be indexed in those databases. The arguments being introduced here may be better driven home if we examine the status of indexing of scientific evidence in Africa. We have briefly examined the need for an Africa Citation Index, and some of the issues that might need to be considered in building the index. ACI is a required infrastructure in Africa at this time that scholars are expected, both by their institutions and international assessment bodies, to publish in electronically indexed journals for their research results to be considered qualitative. A major justification for this condition is that journals that are not indexed in modern electronic media will be limited in distribution; access will also not be easy. 5.0 Issues facing ACI Let us now identify some broad issues that need to be considered in initiating a citation database in Africa. 5.1 Market for African STI An aspect of STI databases in Africa that would require strong policy action is related to market for the products. Who will buy the products of the databases? Of what international value is African scientific knowledge? How much can they sell? Can the databases return the cost incurred in their establishment? These are questions that must border the minds of policy makers in view of the expected huge cost of building such databases. Although in a different direction, similar questions bordered the minds of those who initiated the ISI databases almost four decades ago, but these databases are today sources of huge income to the institute as well highlighting the role USA and the developed world in the configuration of modern science landscape in the world. The emerging knowledge societies will encourage openness and dialogue and appreciate wisdom, communication and cooperation. Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media regardless of frontiers (United Nations, 1948) The observation of the International Development Strategy for the Fourth United Nations Development Decade is succinct when it states that; the reactivation of development in the decade of the 1990s on a sustained basis will be linked to the ability of the developing countries to participate in the rapid advances in science and technology that have characterized the global economy in recent years and will continue to do so in the future (UNDP,1990). The World Bank has also added that in the emerging global knowledge economy, a countrys ability to build and mobilize knowledge capital is equally essential for sustainable development as the availability of physical and financial capital (6(. Human beings will therefore seek for solutions to their problems wherever they feel that they can get them. Moreover, several human challenges today such as HIV/AIDS and the persistence of many incurable diseases demand an open mind regarding sources of solutions. In this regard, outputs of African scientists will definitely sell in the international market. But one needs to watch out against the question of value and cost suffering the same international political misfortune as other products such as coffee, petroleum, groundnut etc whose prices are fixed in the international markets. Although information is globally considered to be a resource that has great value now, its competitiveness has not yet attracted the international regulatory agencies activities, particularly in the area of cost fixing. 5.2 Funding Where will the fund for the development of the databases come from? Funds for one-time investment may not be problematic and may come from the funding agencies. A more crucial consideration should, however, be given to sustainability of the funding until the databases would start generating counterpart funds. International funding agencies could also be depended upon to support pockets of activities such as manpower training required in the development of the databases. Although the primary purpose of databases is not financial profit, databases often yield financial benefits sometimes after some relatively long period of time. To this effect, the database should be commercialised to ensure that its independence. 5.3 Infrastructure Infrastructure should be viewed from the perspective of a collection of heterogeneous technologies, components, protocols and applications to support different and varying application areas and use over time across large geographical distances (Besley and Pande, 1998). Technology infrastructure, which often refers to computers and communication devices and digital infrastructure in addition to content available from digital sources, would require to be given serious consideration. Infrastructure should also be viewed to include human resource skills needed to be able to use computers and digital technologies; and finally, we need to examine the social resources as infrastructural facilities to support structures. Westrup et al (2001) have also discussed the need for legal infrastructure. Infrastructures should be extended beyond technologies to embrace examining social structures, social problems, social organisation and social relations. 5.4 Human resources and capacity building A major setback in science and technology information databases in Africa is lack of adequately trained manpower (Rolland and Monteirro, 2001). The problem of weak information human resource capacity generally is reported in a number of publications (Bhatnagar, 1992; Sahay, 2001; Waema, 2002; Westrup, 2005). In Africa, it might not be uncommon to find a database manager with limited computer skills (Sahay, 2001), and having no time and motivation to learn. This could be a result of unconducive environment and lack of training resources (World Bank, 2004; Kimaro, 2005). Ideally, manpower development and capacity building should not be limited to basic skills only but also to technical, planning, policy analysis and formulation, and management of ICTs. It involves activities related to the development of human resources through training, education and promotion (Paul, 1999; Targowski, 2001). It is also a continuous process whereby people and organizations develop their abilities individually and collectively with the aim to perform activities, deal with problems and formulate and achieve objectives (UNDP, 1994; Ball, 2001). Human capacity building depends on the institutional capacity to provide a conducive environment for learning (Mdumbaro, 2003). Institutions with unclear objectives, inadequate structures and resources, lack of incentives or weak practices are unlikely to achieve productive and motivated human resources because these factors do not lead to a conducive environment. Thus, local governments and donors need to create an enabling environment, supportive of capacity building to ensure the development of sustainable ICT projects such as databases. For the training database professionals and experts for which we recommend the establishment of a research and educational research institute where policy research into policies and regulation in the industry, commercialisation and marketing of products, database quality and standardization, coordination and cooperation, indexing and analysis, computer programming and related activities should be undertaken. Tiamiyu and Aiyepeku (2003) have expatiated on this problem; The currently low executive capacity in sub-Saharan Africa for designing and operationalising computer based information systems and networks, especially in the area of documentation, records management, and library services and the completely absent capacity for the local manufacture of computer and telecommunications equipment needed for an instructional purposes at all levels of education for information in Africa, need to be urgently addressed, primarily at the level of education for information (Tiamiyu and Aiyepeku, 2003). To address the problem of manpower in this regard, South Korea established the Information and Communication Institute one of whose aims is to train database manpower. There may not be need for the establishment of new institutions for the purpose of human resource development in Africa; existing institutional infrastructures could be harnessed for an initial start. For instance, at the regional level, the Consortium of African Schools of Information Science (CASIS), which consists of institutions that train information professionals, could be used as a strategy for developing databases human resources. Specifically, the joint sponsorship by the UNESCO and Canadas International Development Research Centre (IDRC) of Africa Regional Centre for Information Science (ARCIS), at the University of Ibadan in Nigeria in 1984 provides a springboard for addressing the problem developing required manpower regarding STI databases (Tiamiyu and Aiyepeku, 2003). Apart from the unavailability of information professionals in Africa, there is also an observed wide unfavourable differential in the remuneration of information workers across the economic sectors and across national and regional boundaries. This triggers off undesirable migration of African information workers to other parts of the world. This problem is related to the question of mainstreaming of information work. In many sectors of the economy, the information worker is still on the fringe, unable to rise to the peak of his career. Rigid government policies, which are sometimes not revised for many years, as well as policy makers who are not information conscious contribute in perpetuating this problem. Furthermore, it is that information work is unpopular in many African countries. From the soft information circles to the hard-core information activity, there is little priority accorded the information worker. 5.5 Sustainability Sustainability of ICT projects such as citation databases would require the ability to identify impacts and manage risks threatening the long-term viability of the system (Korpela et al 1998). The failure rate of ICT projects in least industrialized countries is 75 per cent higher than in developed countries mainly due to the lack of appropriate skills and knowledge to identify and deal with the risks associated with ICTs on a long-term basis (Odedra-Straub, 1995; Mursu et al, 1999). The development of knowledge and skills requires learning and training to use and support for the sustainability of ICT projects (Braa et al, 1995). Databases can have an impact on organizational work practices when the people have the necessary capacity to use, maintain, develop and sustain it. Traditionally, donors have used foreign experts to fill in professional gaps and transfer skills (World Bank, 1999). The process of transferring skills is often not possible due to the nature of the projects, which place little emphasis on learning. It has been observed that donor projects are typically used to mobilize resources (e.g. vehicles, computers), and not developing human resources capacity (Kimaro and Nhampossa, 2004, Wood-Harper and Bell, 1990). Donor projects generally include poorly designed and short term training programmes, which are not culturally compatible with the local situation (Hanseth and Monteiro, 2006). The availability of ICTs needs to be complimented by the availability of well-designed training and practices to develop human capacity with appropriate skills and knowledge to sustain ICTs over time. The databases are a combination of people, tools (e.g. ICTs) and routine procedures to provide and use information (Wangwe and Rweyemamu, 2001). A sustainable STI database system can be simply defined as the one that meets the information scientific and technological information needs of the country over time. However, sustainability of the database is a complex process as it involves the capability (skills and knowledge) of humans to collect, analyse, use and disseminate information as well as to deal with risks threatening the database project. 5.6 Low level of information awareness and consciousness Another major obstacle would relate to the low level of awareness of information at the individual, community and national levels of the society in Africa. At the policy-making levels, this observation is very striking. In his nationwide survey in 1982, Aiyepeku (1982) showed that public policy makers at the federal level in Nigeria did not have as high a level of information consciousness as they might. This factor will affect scientific database systems to the extent that awareness of the utility of information should be directly related to attitudes and awareness towards the organization and processing information. Policy makers decide scientific and other priorities based on their efficacy, the low level of consciousness will therefore continue to downgrade the role of information in national development. African countries also have very low priority for education for information, which manifests in low educational investments. According to Tiamiyu and Aiyepeku (2003), investment for information education in Africa is characterised by absence of programmes to train trainers, lack of development of institutional capacity for training of trainers, and lack of funds for technical exchange programmes. As a result, there are no sufficient and appropriately trained information workers at all levels who could design, implement and evaluate electronic databases towards meeting Africas growth and development needs. At the policy making level, African leaders have consistently shown that they understand the implications of science and technology information in the development process. This can be attested to by the various OAU (now AU) declarations in this regard (Organisation of African Unity, 1980, Organisation of African Unity 1990). But there has not been any demonstrated will by any of the member states to develop science and technology information. There are issues often raised regarding the fact that ICT is relatively strange to the culture of African people (Organisation of African Unity. 1990; Arunachallam, 1992; Otite, 2004) and that this constitutes one of the explanations for the slow pace of ICT development in many sectors. 5.7 Institutional and management frameworks There are problems of non-existence, and in some cases, non-operational management and institutional frameworks for the control of scientific and technological literature at country levels. Where they exist, these frameworks are either designed when ICT were at their earliest development stages, or they addressed the relevance of information organization generally without any reference to databases, as we know them today. The frameworks were therefore not ICT- compliant, or were not accompanied by appropriate capacity development and deployment. This is typical of Nigeria where, for instance, the National University Commission (NUC) has prescribed a networking of the universities for the purpose of sharing primary literature among themselves without a clear understanding about databases of publications (Nigerian National University Commission, 2006). Similar initiatives exist in many other African countries, but there seems to exist a dissonance in the perceived role of ICT, and how they can be incorporated into the traditional ways of controlling scientific information. 5.8 Lack of a regional information policy Alabi (1994) has made a case for the need for an information policy in Africa within which information technology and other related policies should obtain. Rather, there exist information technology policies at both regional and country levels, which specify how information technology would be used for the development. However, the absence of a regional information policy would impinge upon the full utilization of information technology policies, irrespective of how well defined. This is because information technology policies are supposed to provide the basis for the operation of information technology. Otherwise, the very indicators that are used to measure the impacts and consequences of using such technologies and tools will be lacking entirely; will be poorly defined and understood, and inefficiently or inappropriately utilised. 6.0 Strategies for mobilising stakeholders support There exist some international NGOs in Africa around which ACI could be located. For instance, Council for the Development of Social Research in Africa (CODESRIA) located in Dakar Senegal has sufficient clout both for mobilising as well as hosting the database. Presently CODESRIA, which is prominent and visible in mobilising for knowledge development in Africa, has a functional bibliographic database. While CODESRIA or any other organisation with similar reputation is expected to host the database, a linkage with other organisations that have Africa-wide mandate such as Association of African Universities (AAU), set up by the universities in Africa since 1967 to promote cooperation among the universities, will be required to create a link with various universities. AAU has also experimented with the database of thesis and dissertations through its DATAD project, although both the database projects of CODESRIA and AAU do not include use data. Interestingly, AAU has a vision similar to CODESRIAs in relation to the need to organise research activities and their outputs. In the recent years, the focus of both CODESRIA and AAU has been on higher education in Africa, a path that was also adopted by many professional associations. AAU is a membership organisation, with the implication that not all universities in Africa are members; their activities might therefore be omitted if the AAU is used as a sole strategy for networking the universities. In this regard, other agencies such as the Committee of Vice Chancellors to which all universities belong could also be used as a strategy to reach those institutions that are not members of AAU, and to mobilise individual universities to participate in the project. The continental and national associations of heads of polytechnics, colleges of education etc also have great roles to play. The Vice Chancellors and heads of other tertiary institutions require to be mainstreamed into the project because in their capacities as research managers. The culture of repository in which researchers deposit their publications in a central database is not existent in most universities in Africa. The VCs also have the great task of mobilising the researchers to comply with repository policies, which the universities require to put in place in order to benefit maximally from ACI. Similarly, we need the input of research and development, and, management institutions in various countries. There is also the need for roles to be created for professional associations and science coordinating bodies at continental and national levels in their capacities as the major proprietors of serials in Africa. A major task before the ACI will be the identification and collection of serials to be included in the index, a very daunting task. However, journal proprietors know that it is at their interest for their journals to be indexed in a regional database. Journals that are not listed in the database may loose their customers, and researchers may also not want to publish in them. This factor is a crucial strength that ACI has tap to secure the cooperation of serial proprietors. Presently, all serials are expected to be hosted by a database in order to be considered as a credible source of primary knowledge, and there are very few such services in Africa. A strong ACI will also constitute a channel for the internationalisation of journals and their publications, a privilege all journals in Africa would want to enjoy. Another crucial element of this index will relate to the policy that will guide the selection of the sources, indexing protocols, software and hardware issues as well as management and control. These and various other issues require to be put before an expert panel that will work out the details. 7.0 Enhancing South North information flow, a conclusive remark Most projects that are geared towards addressing the digital divide focus on North-South flow of information, and there already exist many of such projects. But projects that emphasise South-North flow are hardly ever identifiable. One way of addressing this issue will be through ACI. There exist in Africa information resources that will contribute to problem solving in the world but which have not merited approval by mainstream science. 8.0 References Abifarin, F.P; Agunbekun, T. (1993). Nigerian Scientific Journals. Present Problems and Future Solutions. New Library World 94(1105), p4-7. Aiyepeku, W.O. (1982). Information Utilization by Policy Makers in Nigeria Part 1: Assessing degrees of information consciousness. Journal of Information Science 4, 203-211. Akhigbe, O.O. (1992). Archives, Registry, and Health Literature: The Evolutionary Process of a National Health Information System. In Proceedings of the National Conference on Health Information System (draft), Federal Ministry of Health, Lagos, Nigeria. Alabi, G. (1996). A survey of informatics policies in Nigeria. Preliminary Report (UNESCO, Paris) Allam, A; Nwagwu, W.E (2006). Challenges and Opportunities of E-learning Networks in Africa, Development 49, 8692. Arunachallam, S. (1992). Access to information and science development in the developing world. Paper presented during IFLA General Conference (New Delhi, India, August 30-September 3, 1992). Association of Africa Universities, The Birth of a Database of African Theses and Dissertations, Available  HYPERLINK "http://www.aau.org/datad/announce/pressrel5.htm" http://www.aau.org/datad/announce/pressrel5.htm (accessed July 11, 2006). Ball, K.S. (2001). The use of human resource in information systems: a survey, Personnel Review, 30, (5/66) 677- 693. Besley, T.; Pande, R. (1998). Read My Lips: The political economy of information transmission Available at:  HYPERLINK "http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/te/te355.pdf" http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/te/te355.pdf (accessed 4 July 2006). Bhatnagar, S. (1992). . Information Technology and Socio-Development: Some strategies for developing countries. In: S. C. Bhatnagar and M. Odedra (eds.) Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries (Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi). Boerma, J.T. (1991). Health Information for primary health care. In: Health Information for Primary Health Care, (African Medical Research Foundation, Brazzaville). Braa, J.; E. Monteiro; E. Reinert ((1995). Technology transfer versus technological learning: IT infrastructure and health in developing countries. Information Technology for Development, 6(1) 15-23. Gaillard, J. (1996). Science Policies and Cooperation in Africa. Knowledge 14(2), 212-226. Garfield, E. (1977). Citation indexing: Histo-bibliography and the sociology of science. Essays of an Information Scientist 1 158-174. General Assembly of the United Nations (1948), Article 19, Fiftieth Anniversary Declaration of Human Rights, Universal 1948-1998 Declaration of Human Rights. Available  HYPERLINK "http://www.un.org/rights/50/decla.htm" http://www.un.org/rights/50/decla.htm, (accessed 4 July 2006). Hanseth, O. and E. Monteiro, (1998) Understanding Information Infrastructure, Unpublished book, (1998). Available at  HYPERLINK "http://heim.ifi.uio.no/~oleha/Publications/bok.html" http://heim.ifi.uio.no/~oleha/Publications/bok.html (accessed 4 July 2006). Heeks, R. (2002). Information Systems and Developing Countries: Failure, Success, and Local Improvisations. The Information Society 18 (2002) 101-102. http://pdf.dec.org/pdf_docs/PNACM119.pdf (accessed Kimaro, C. H. (2005). Importance of Human Resource Capacity in the Context of Low Income Countries. In: Bada, A and Okunoye, A. (eds) Proceedings of the Eight International Working Conference of IFIP WG 9.4, Enhancing Human Resource Development Through ICT (IFIP, Abuja 2005). Kimaro, H.C.; J.L Nhampossa, (2004) The challenges of sustainability of health information systems in developing countries: comparative studies of Mozambique and Tanzania, In: T. Leino, T. Saarinen and S. Klein (eds.), Proceedings of the 12th European Conference on Information Systems, (Turku, Finland, 2004). Korpela, M; H.A.Soriyan; K.C. Olufokunbi, A.A.Onayade, A. Davies-Adetugbo; D. Adesanmi. (1998). Community participation in health informatics in Africa: and experiment in tripartite partnership in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, Computer Supported Cooperative Work 7 (3-4), 341-361. Korpela; H.A. Soriyan; K.C. Olufokumbi; A. Mursu (2000). Made-in Nigeria systems development methodologies: An action research project in the health sector. In: C. Avgerou and G. Walsham (eds), Information Technology in Context: Studies from the perspective of developing countries, (Aldershot publications, Ashgate). Layashi, Y. (1994) Closing remark, Workshop on Databases: The Needs and Contributions of African Researchers, co-organized by the Sub-Saharan Africa Program of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and the Pan African Development Information System (PADIS) of the UN Economic Commission for Africa, October 1012, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp.16. Mursu, A.; H.A Soriyan; K.C. Olufokunbi M. Korpela (1999). Towards successful ISD in developing countries: First results from a Nigeria risk study using the Delphi Method, Proceedings of IRIS 22, 90-101. National University Commission (1994), NUNet: Organisational structure, Objectives and Performance (1994). Available at  HYPERLINK "http://www.kanoonline.com/buk/other%20units/Nunet/nunet%202.htm" http://www.kanoonline.com/buk/other%20units/Nunet/nunet%202.htm (accessed 9 January 2006). Ndumbaro, E.S.E. (2003). ICT application in the health sector, A case study in Tanzania, Unpublished Master of Engineering Management thesis, University of Dares Salaam, Tanzania, (2003) 109. Nwagwu, W (2005). Deficits in the visibility of African scientists: implications for developing information and communication technology (ICT) capacity, World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable development, Vol. 3, No.2, 12-27 Odedra-Straub, M. (1993). Critical factors affecting success of CBIS: Cases from Africa. Journal of Global Information Management 1(3) 16. Organisation of African Unity (1980). The Kilimanjaro Declaration, CASTAFRICA II, Final Report Sc/M.D/88, (UNESCO, Paris) Organisation of African Unity (OAU). (1980). The Lagos Plan of Action on Science and Technology for Development of Africa, 1980-2000, (Addis Ababa: OAU). Organisation of African Unity. (1990). Addis Ababa Declaration on the Political and Socio-Economic Situation in Africa and the Fundamental Changes Taking Place in the World. (OAU, Addis Ababa) Otite, M. (2004). Partnering for community development. A study of Selected Communities in Delta State. Ph.D. Thesis Submitted in the Department of Adult education, University of Ibadan, 2004. Palmer, C.L. (1999). Structures and Strategies of Interdisciplinary Science. Journal of American Society for Information Science. 50(3), pp244-247. Paul, S. (2001). Capacity building for health sector reform. Forum on Health Sector Reform, Proceedings of the Eight International Working Conference of IFIP WG 9.4, Enhancing Human Resource Development Through ICT (IFIP, Abuja, 2005). Review, 30, (5/66), 677- 693. Rolland, K.H; E. Monteiro (2001). Balancing the Local and the Global Infrastructural Information Systems, The Information Society, 18, 87-100. Sahay, S. (2001). IT and Health Care in Developing Countries. Electronic Journal on Information Systems in Developing Countries, (Special Issue). Sahay, S. (2003). IT and Health Care in Developing Countries. Electronic Journal on Salaam, Tanzania, 109. Shoyinka P.H; DeCola F.D (1984). Patterns of journal publication by staff of the College of Medicine University of Ibadan Nigeria 1961-1980. Bulletin of Medical Library Association 72(2), 168-178. Storper, M. (1997) The Regional World-Territorial Development in a Global Economy, Guilford Press, New York, p.338. Targowski, A.S; S.P. Deshpande (2001), The Utility and Selection of an HRIS, Advances in Competitiveness Research 9 (1), 42-56. Tiamiyu, M.A.; W.O Aiyepeku (2003). Investments in education for information in Africa: Tradeoffs, Benefits and Sustainability. In: Feeney, M. and Grieves M (Eds) Changing Information Technologies: Research Challenges in Economics of Information, (British Library, London). United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report (1990). Available at  HYPERLINK "http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/January" http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/January, (accessed 9 January 2006). United Nations Development Programme (1994), Capacity Development: Lessons of Experience and Guiding Principles (UNDP, Paris). Waema, T. M. (2002). ICT human resource development in Africa: Challenges and strategies. African Technology Policy Studies Network Series (ATPS, Nairobi). Waema, T. M. (2002). ICT human resource development in Africa: Challenges and strategies. African Technology Policy Studies Network Series (ATPS, Nairobi). Walsham, G. V. Symons; T. Waema, T. (1988). Information systems as social systems: implications for developing countries. Information Technology for Development, 3(3), 189-204. Wangwe, S. M.; D. C..Rweyemamu (2001). Human Resource and Institutional development in Africa: An overview, (First Pan African Capacity Building Forum, Bamako. Westrup, C. (2005). From Digital Divides to Digital Societies. In Bada, A and Okunoye, A. (Eds) Proceedings of the Eight International Working Conference of IFIP WG 9.4, Enhancing Human Resource Development Through ICT (IFIP, Abuja). Westrup, C. (1999). From Digital Divides to Digital Societies. In Bada, A and Okunoye, A. (Eds) WHO/SHS/NHP/95. 8, Paper No. 5. Winclawska, M. (1996) Polish sociology citation index, (Principles for Creation and the First Results) Scientometrics, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp.387391. Wood-Harper, T. and S. Bell (1990). Information systems development for developing countries. In: S.C. Bhatnagar and N. Bjrn-Andersen (eds.). Information technology in developing countries, (Elsevier Science Publishers, North-Holland). World Bank, (1999). World Development Report: Knowledge for Development. Available at: http://www.worldbank.org/wdr/wdr98/contents.htm (accessed 9 December, 2004). PAGE  PAGE 11  EMBED Excel.Chart.8 \s   EMBED Excel.Chart.8 \s  Rhn/ M U 2vPUw`J%N"<%['\''(T)---ɱ~jCJUaJmHnHu6]aJmH sH  aJmH sH 5\mH sH B*aJmH phsH B*CJaJmH phsH  aJmH sH 6]5B*CJ\aJmH phsH %56B*CJ\]aJmH phsH  56\]6]mH sH mH sH 1Jhimnefy $a$$a$d %b`J%5 -!!("N"['\''----`$`a$$ & Fa$7$8$H$$`a$$a$-------*/000d66:U<V<g=h=TDH}NUQTRRRRVd$a$7$8$H$$a$$`a$-0000002369V<g=H|KK2M}NQR(RRVVYZ[.[C[[[7]8]9]O]]]`VaMbbde e e ee;h?@ACD\˺ݳݓjp UmH sH jH CJUVaJjUmH sH 0JmHnHu0J j0JU aJmH sH 6]aJmH sH  aJmH sH aJ6]mH sH mH sH 6B*]mH phsH B*mH phsH  * j *U5!uu`:ub "#&`#$ $7$8$H$a$7$8$H$ d^` $7$8$H$^a$$07$8$H$^`0a$#$%BC`abc $7$8$H$a$ !\]^_bcmH sH jUmH sH jyUmH sH jaqH CJUVaJ 1h/ =!"#$%Dd J  C A? "2h!(tʿ/.ŀ\Dd`!Th!(tʿ/.ŀ"">08.("xZ]hUl6ihJE%PJIR!4kKKv%&ٍIkBV! ŨE!NJ(B"{޻;2v{sw\握utW?Z cF\0&1f|XzO!L{YlV›}Zq#,Lvy,YV*I/3+-R,Bs 1FaXAaJJFm-_@만7o_vEE["?ꨴ_/1uqѓƬV$zWuJlkSN5KL =vCbؔLm5.VZolaӑ5k1(vWkiJgWvUfI( ʯ|*wE;3UenV1OюLպ5 ;pqP@ln5E;X672 F[o *jqcI| n:v$lZkv6ƭF*ڠd7f]EVc-C g(W3[FXҙ?`Mo6}To-Hz>WS6t;=?I+&2|bdtO2S&td7B[|/D=g \*[)lMJ ie&z\&?I+NsDcG7wS \kJ]?%^/S}d8MQ ĵrw2ykCJO㍞M0 U:#.ETV.+XXmuq z_,Ԝ%59EʹR\!5Um/j|\%5/UsJ_5RCj.zQ#f\'59/j~%xE 5U5Pjh~57I͟5Vjv7?y%fOEjO5eRWFo]_1M1~g&欻 7z¬_×CC/սDz#ofgj=ĹT/N3=܄UY9O(O,S4UXTA1mC">R5DyK 0http://www.aau.org/datad/announce/pressrel5.htmyK `http://www.aau.org/datad/announce/pressrel5.htmDyK *http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/te/te355.pdfyK Thttp://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/te/te355.pdf DyK &http://www.un.org/rights/50/decla.htmyK Lhttp://www.un.org/rights/50/decla.htmEDyK 4http://heim.ifi.uio.no/~oleha/Publications/bok.htmlyK hhttp://heim.ifi.uio.no/~oleha/Publications/bok.htmlmDyK @http://www.kanoonline.com/buk/other%20units/Nunet/nunet%202.htmyK xhttp://www.kanoonline.com/buk/other units/Nunet/nunet 2.htmADyK 3http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/JanuaryyK fhttp://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/January DdJ  C A? "2k)#=n4&E<+G c`!?)#=n4&E<+ & xY]hU>3ͯW|iiٍm X)ښ&.l`!VeE|)(>|R>}>-%ưs=wgƙ! [nν{;wƀDg@'Ka0gFCFLTn6ػaHKXצ Hc+IhԎo4?. =3|HG6R0}$N9._wFiCD ˘݋Us!;gHj¡)XL*3Pe+جk)<:)hlXcc ]Sؤ ؐƆ46 jlVcg5vVc5v^c5vQcW5vUc4vMc74vCckq2D De q3@yuj6.  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~Root Entry F4*Data oWordDocument"ObjectPool mT4*4*_1220452084!FmT4*mT4*Ole PRINT$CompObjb  !#$%&()*+,-.0123456789:;<=>?@ABCE !FMicrosoft Excel ChartBiff8Excel.Chart.89qOh+'0@HXh userfuserfMicrosoft Excel@@, ; U F   ''  Arial) ԰ww 0wf---------Arial dww 0wf-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------"Systemf !$-'- -- k!!---'---  -s`s`ssaHHtt  55aa---'--- j!!---'--- wr---'--- wr-- hh))UU-$---'--- wrh $h}hSh---'--- wr $---'--- wr $~---'--- wr) $)>))---'--- wr $---'--- wrU $UjU@U---'--- wr $ ---'--- wr $k---'--- wr $+---'--- wr---'--- wr---'--- -------'--- n7V F2 I`*Figure 3: Articles on NIgerian indexed in )))%%-%%%))0)%%)))%%%))(2 }Science Citation Index-%%)%%0%))))%%----'--- ---'--- ----'---   2 00% 2 8200%%% 2 400%%% 2 p600%%%---'--- ---'--- -----'---  Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k#1995-----'--- -----'--- h Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k1996-----'--- -----'--- E Arial $ww 0wf- 2 kO1997-----'--- -----'---  Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k1998-----'--- -----'--- )p Arial $ww 0wf- 2 kz1999-----'--- -----'---  Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k2000-----'--- -----'--- U Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k2001-----'--- -----'--- 2 Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k<2002-----'--- -----'---  Arial $ww 0wf- 2 k2003-----'--- -----'--- ] Arial $ww 0wf- 2 kg2004-----'--- ---'--- ------'--- '"  2 ,Year,%%----'--- -----'--- ^d Arial ww 0wf-2 TtNumber of articles-----'--- ---'--- -- k!!--'  '  'ObjInfo WorkbookI2SummaryInformation( DocumentSummaryInformation8, @\puser Ba=9= V9X@"1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial"$"#,##0_);\("$"#,##0\)!"$"#,##0_);[Red]\("$"#,##0\)""$"#,##0.00_);\("$"#,##0.00\)'""$"#,##0.00_);[Red]\("$"#,##0.00\)7*2_("$"* #,##0_);_("$"* \(#,##0\);_("$"* "-"_);_(@_).))_(* #,##0_);_(* \(#,##0\);_(* "-"_);_(@_)?,:_("$"* #,##0.00_);_("$"* \(#,##0.00\);_("$"* "-"??_);_(@_)6+1_(* #,##0.00_);_(* \(#,##0.00\);_(* "-"??_);_(@_)                + ) , *  `$Chart1Sheet1c0Sheet2V1Sheet3`iZR3  @@  SCISSCIAHCI   @MHP LaserJet 1220 Series PS (MSS odXXLetterPRIV0''''\KhCjX "dXX??3` / ` / ` / ` /3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O& Q4FAP 3Ob 3 b#M-43*#M4%  yM3O& Q  Year'4% MZ3O$>& Q (Number of articles'43" 44% .[C 2M3O$& Q @Figure 3: Articles on NIgerian indexed in Science Citation Index'44 e,@0@4@8@<@@@D@H@L@ P@ew@ x@z@x@|@}@x@y@@~@ p}@e>  @  dMbP?_*+%"??U                ,@w@ ,@`@,@=@0@ x@ 0@`@0@9@4@z@ 4@Z@4@@@8@x@ 8@^@8@3@<@|@ <@`@<@H@@@}@ @@@a@@@?@D@x@ D@`@D@B@ H@y@  H@`@  H@:@ L@@~@  L@@_@  L@4@ P@p}@  P@a@  P@?@JZZZZZZZZZ(  p  6NMM? <K]`t   @"t ??3` /` /` /` /3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FA7 3ON} 3 b#M43*#M4% L zM3O&Q  Year'4% sMZ3Oj&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% R M3O$&Q `.Figure XX: Articles on NIgerian indexed in SCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM?`!]`   @" ??3` /` /` /` /?p3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FAR 3O 3 b#M43*#M4% p AM3O!&Q  Year'4% [iMZ3Ox&Q (Number of articles'43" :"D3O:"% M,3OQ4444%  T M3Oc&Q `.Figure XX: Articles indexed on NIgeria in SSCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM? @]`\  @"\??3` / ` / ` /` /?p3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O& Q4$% M 3O& Q4FAR 3O 3 b#M43*#M4% p AM3O!&Q  Year'4% [iMZ3Ox&Q (Number of articles'43" :"D3O:"% M,3OQ4444% T_ M3O^&Q ^-Figure XX Articles indexed on NIgeria in AHCI'44 e e e >@ 7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 ՜.+,0 PXd lt| 1 Sheet1Sheet2Sheet3Chart1  WorksheetsCharts !FMicrosoft Excel ChartBiff8Excel.Chart.89q_1220452021!Fyt4*0|4*Ole  PRINT dCompObjb  R   ''  ArialE Iww 0w$f'-Arial Lww 0w$f'------Arialu ww 0w$f'-----ArialD ww 0w$f'------------"System$f' !-'- -- j!!---'--- E -aa((~~EE(  !!((---'--- j!!---'--- >0---'--- >0- -H   OO..UU\\(c(cH-$H]H 3H---'--- >0  $ ! ---'--- >0O $OdO:O---'--- >0. $.C.---'--- >0U $UtjU@Ut---'--- >0 $---'--- >0\ $\q\G\---'--- >0 $---'--- >0(c $cx(c=N(c---'--- >0 $---'--- >0---'--- >0---'--- -------'--- o3 R2 @#2Figure 1: Articles indexed on NIgeria in Arts and    !     #    !  -2 Humanities Citation Index#+   #   ----'--- ---'--- ----'---   2 0 2 F10 2 20 2 30 2 40 2 c50 2 *60---'--- ---'---   2 1995 2 1996 2 !1997 2 1998 2 '1999 2 2000 2 .2001 2 2002 2 52003 2 2004---'--- ------'--- Ld  2 jYear----'--- -----'--- 1d Arial 6`ww 0w$f'- 2 nNumber of articles- ----'--- ---'--- - -  j!!-- '  '  'ObjInfoWorkbook1SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8,Oh+'0@HXh userfuserfMicrosoft Excel@@bz՜.+,0 PXd lt| 2  @\puser Ba=  = h <X@"1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1dArial1dArial1dArial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial"$"#,##0_);\("$"#,##0\)!"$"#,##0_);[Red]\("$"#,##0\)""$"#,##0.00_);\("$"#,##0.00\)'""$"#,##0.00_);[Red]\("$"#,##0.00\)7*2_("$"* #,##0_);_("$"* \(#,##0\);_("$"* "-"_);_(@_).))_(* #,##0_);_(* \(#,##0\);_(* "-"_);_(@_)?,:_("$"* #,##0.00_);_("$"* \(#,##0.00\);_("$"* "-"??_);_(@_)6+1_(* #,##0.00_);_(* \(#,##0.00\);_(* "-"??_);_(@_)                + ) , *  `$Chart2Sheet1/Sheet20Sheet3`iZR3  @@  SCISSCIAHCI   @MHP LaserJet 1220 Series PS (MSS odXXLetterPRIV0''''\KhCjX "dXX??3` / ` / ` / ` /?q3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% rM 3O&Q4$% rM 3O& Q4FAE3 p3O>m R3 b#M43*#M4% k tM3O& Q  Year'4% RMZ3O0& Q (Number of articles'43" 44% U< M3O3& Q KFigure 1: Articles indexed on NIgeria in Arts and Humanities Citation Index'44 e,@0@4@8@<@@@D@H@L@ P@e=@9@@@3@H@?@B@:@4@ ?@e>  @  dMbP?_*+%"??U                ,@w@ ,@`@,@=@0@ x@ 0@`@0@9@4@z@ 4@Z@4@@@8@x@ 8@^@8@3@<@|@ <@`@<@H@@@}@ @@@a@@@?@D@x@ D@`@D@B@ H@y@  H@`@  H@:@ L@@~@  L@@_@  L@4@ P@p}@  P@a@  P@?@JZZZZZZZZZ(  p  6NMM? <K]`  @"??3` /` /` /` /3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FA7 3ON} 3 b#M43*#M4% L zM3O&Q  Year'4% sMZ3Oj&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% R M3O$&Q `.Figure XX: Articles on NIgerian indexed in SCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM?`!]`$  @"$??3` /` /` /` /?p3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FAR 3O 3 b#M43*#M4% p AM3O!&Q  Year'4% [iMZ3Ox&Q (Number of articles'43" :"D3O:"% M,3OQ4444%  T M3Oc&Q `.Figure XX: Articles indexed on NIgeria in SSCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM?p Z]`  @"??3` / ` / ` /` /?3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O& Q4$% M 3O& Q4FA{ E3O " 3 b#M43*#M4% B& \M3O&Q  Year'4% S3MZ3Oj&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% O M3O&Q ^-Figure XX Articles indexed on NIgeria in AHCI'44 e e e >@ 7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 7 Sheet1Sheet2Sheet3Chart2  WorksheetsCharts !FMicrosoft Excel ChartBiff8Excel.Chart.89qOh+'0@HXh _1215389958!F 4* 4*Ole PRINTCompObjbu J @   @''  Arial G$ww 0w fk-----Arial ww 0w fk-----Arial "ww 0w fk------------"System fk !-'- @-- !!---'--- @| -KK||}}ppcc---'--- !!---'--- g---'--- g--Z MM@@33''Z-$ZoZEZ---'--- g $---'--- gM $MbM8M---'--- g $---'--- g@ $@U@+@---'--- g $---'--- g3 $3H33---'--- g $---'--- g' $'<''---'--- g $---'--- g---'--- g---'--- @-------'--- p3 @2 E&Figure 2: Articles indexed on Nigeria )))%%-%%%))%%%)))0)%%72 ' in Social Science Citation Index)-)%%-%%)%%0%))))%%----'--- @---'--- @----'--- @  2 0 2 050 2 100 2 a150---'--- @---'--- @  2 ,1995 2 1996 2 1997 2 1998 2 1999 2 2000 2 2001 2 2002 2 2003 2 r2004---'--- @------'--- eJ  2 "PYear----'--- @-----'--- Yd ArialA `ww 0w fk- 2 nNumber of articles- ----'--- @---'--- @- - !!-- ' @ '  'ObjInfoWorkbookE1SummaryInformation(DocumentSummaryInformation8",      !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<= @\puser Ba=$*" = ? <X@"1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1dArial1dArial1dArial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial1Arial"$"#,##0_);\("$"#,##0\)!"$"#,##0_);[Red]\("$"#,##0\)""$"#,##0.00_);\("$"#,##0.00\)'""$"#,##0.00_);[Red]\("$"#,##0.00\)7*2_("$"* #,##0_);_("$"* \(#,##0\);_("$"* "-"_);_(@_).))_(* #,##0_);_(* \(#,##0\);_(* "-"_);_(@_)?,:_("$"* #,##0.00_);_("$"* \(#,##0.00\);_("$"* "-"??_);_(@_)6+1_(* #,##0.00_);_(* \(#,##0.00\);_(* "-"??_);_(@_)                + ) , *  `$Chart3Sheet1_/Sheet2R0Sheet3`iZR3  @@  SCISSCIAHCI   @MHP LaserJet 1220 Series PS (MSS odXXLetterPRIV0''''\KhCjX "dXX??3` / ` / ` / ` /?t3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% vM 3O&Q4$% vM 3O& Q4FA~ 3OZ8 3 b#M43*#M4% s M3O& Q  Year'4% ,MZ3O0& Q (Number of articles'43" 44% S M3O3& Q FFigure 2: Articles indexed on Nigeria in Social Science Citation Index'44 e,@0@4@8@<@@@D@H@L@ P@e`@`@Z@^@`@@a@`@`@@_@ a@e>  @  dMbP?_*+%"??U                ,@w@ ,@`@,@=@0@ x@ 0@`@0@9@4@z@ 4@Z@4@@@8@x@ 8@^@8@3@<@|@ <@`@<@H@@@}@ @@@a@@@?@D@x@ D@`@D@B@ H@y@  H@`@  H@:@ L@@~@  L@@_@  L@4@ P@p}@  P@a@  P@?@JZZZZZZZZZ(  p  6NMM? <K]` ~  @" ??3` /` /` /` /3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FA7 3ON} 3 b#M43*#M4% L zM3O&Q  Year'4% sMZ3Oj&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% R M3O$&Q `.Figure XX: Articles on NIgerian indexed in SCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM?0 "]` ~  @" ??3` /` /` /` /3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O&Q4$% M 3O&Q4FA~ 3O^ 3 b#M43*#M4%  vM3O&Q  Year'4% =MZ3O$>&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% 8[= 2M3O$&Q `.Figure XX: Articles indexed on NIgeria in SSCI'44 e e e xp  6NMM?p Z]` ~  @" ??3` / ` / ` /` /?3d23 M NM4  3Q: Q ; Q ; Q3_4E4D $% M 3O& Q4$% M 3O& Q4FA{ E3O " 3 b#M43*#M4% B& \M3O&Q  Year'4% S3MZ3Oj&Q (Number of articles'43" 44% O M3O&Q ^-Figure XX Articles indexed on NIgeria in AHCI'44 e e e >@ 7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 @  dMbP?_*+%"??tU>@7 userfuserfMicrosoft Excel@@R՜.+,0 PXd lt| 3 Sheet1Sheet2Sheet3Chart3  WorksheetsChartsOh+'0QՒ Y5}\5UFqm`/?˽dxvX5;Px 3s;Qr˘PT2 =ZU#Zw^+l .+{jQǷ},iK^5>[h#g|=[5##}$egUMa]<-I)2>}"[S; VvRddKX@RyIY=2:?l u*'[loӲzZ]]DZ5;w=i5 Gz臛<}]w#3z;x{ e=e +Eg*)'oMI` )R@(-pIӈ1e])Wr`aP"3][gRR-TJ#җݴ%F EZѨͅ.= s"45W[Y[a<[Wazp6!/. {[`⮝fs-Noϕ9/2I?a^?s90Tpzl99'4ku~d~MfN}ht}o wV\:yS+]sJguQywG|(cxz+k[o=3M[UZ-mI BIt1mV6+TB)R[D/! @P_*Q$,WYϹ?'3̐];9ݟYDdM]3F!jI]aa&I`nHv>T&qNi2H"$٢, \~#qjQCi #9 uR!6@ɲkW⍈f/tEPܝX CRJ־xuFrpҍX|KҧN06X/cvIa.zac0Va4cdlˌ]f*cW5Ʈ3v%Wluoo}0#z0m}OTcgOY/؛TThIy2jScF/C ^Φ/)r.t(< =gو2,7apk9 TA80]#l)16Yn<ۘgWzmhGZOj݂D [s@ZiAuӽjfֿjѓ"0 glǭ42MaI=%,24|]܋稍 EV_y 3k9m=TG) I3P&#iwڧ?O<ވ:ƣ?!#Nʊ ۰KQ& $ݑO6#+"W)фUs^Ԝ5q?9O9g4y_p0tH<)|94g4;ޛV{o][ ߖ5.\7p>NނsBA{R'f{e ^z)N ^K NjNW C:i̪N ,K=벬x-au->Fn~T:^g qge4llS!ZW~Zy1bTq~ѣ E?3http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2002/en/January{&<http://www.kanoonline.com/buk/other units/Nunet/nunet 2.htm6/ 4http://heim.ifi.uio.no/~oleha/Publications/bok.htmlF &http://www.un.org/rights/50/decla.htmK*http://sticerd.lse.ac.uk/dps/te/te355.pdf900http://www.aau.org/datad/announce/pressrel5.htm  FMicrosoft Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q! i8@8 NormalCJ_HaJmH sH tH J@J Heading 1$$@&a$5B*CJ\aJphjj Heading 2 d h@&)56B*CJ\]^JaJmH phsH \\ Heading 3$$$ 7d <@&a$\^JaJmH sH VV Heading 4$$d <@&a$5CJ\aJmH sH ZZ Heading 5$d <@&a$56CJ\]aJmH sH TT Heading 6$d <@&a$5CJ\aJmH sH FF Heading 7$d <@&a$mH sH LL Heading 8$d <@&a$6]mH sH Z Z Heading 9 $d <@&a$CJOJQJ^JaJmH sH <A@< Default Paragraph Font*>@* Title$a$5\NON Default 7$8$H$!B*CJ_HaJmH phsH tH >B@> Body Text$a$B*CJaJph:P@": Body Text 2$7$8$H$a$NQ@2N Body Text 3$7$8$H$a$CJOJQJ^JaJZOBZ Quotation&$d P(]^a$CJaJmH sH LC@RL Body Text Indent$d`a$aJHTbH Block Text$]^a$ 6]aJHJ@rH Subtitle$da$5B*CJ\aJph, @, Footer  !&)@& Page NumberJ^J Normal (Web)dd[$\$OJPJQJ^JXOX Reference($ 70P(^`0a$ aJmH sH 8Z@8 Plain TextCJOJQJaJ.U@. Hyperlink >*B*ph>V@> FollowedHyperlink >*B* ph6`6 Footnote TextCJaJ8&`8 Footnote ReferenceH*<c<?cJhimnefy `J%5-(N[#\##))))))))))*+,,,d226U8V8g9h9T@D}JUMTNNNNRRW8Y9YOYYYY\V]M^^`;ddzXd?B,/M#S#))*+-+X9^9 R)RWWKYNY[['h-h2h7hiij jll$l)l1l6l>lEllll mImOm nnnnsowoopqqoxsx+}.}}}}}~~~~vyƁˁԁbfEHgjȍԍ܍03x{KNY\  ͙ҙ Xb՚ݚ{~vyKSUXZc^jժ٪vJNioqt$)0[`ر߲߱ '-0ostvǴɴ̴ϴҴӴܴty~ "-9AFNŶ!#-27÷Ʒ;B[`¹ȹ˹̹ӹչعڹ ʻͻ"0:ÿȿ+.3;gvFK 48} tx!(06;@u|MPRV`gIW5= $%d'){}34))LONO^^^^ssKoZ©:<^vvͭЭg֯12Fر?@޲KuʹδOsazh '*)T!"CDFWX>?vDFngB utua $%d3333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333333/w6:JVXvwx77u } = @DRRCH"Z###+,,,///656V8V8NNNNRRRRW7Y;<qq-2;=gh}}9KK duserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserfC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Desktop\New Folder\Leiden\Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.docuserC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Application Data\Microsoft\Word\AutoRecovery save of Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.asduserC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Application Data\Microsoft\Word\AutoRecovery save of Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.asduserC:\Documents and Settings\welcome\Application Data\Microsoft\Word\AutoRecovery save of Monitoring research in Africa CODESRIA.asdu<$e+HQtd6Cd o zh  ^ `CJOJQJo(qh ^`OJQJo(oh ^`OJQJo(h | | ^| `OJQJo(h LL^L`OJQJo(oh ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJQJo(h ^`OJQJo(oh ^`OJQJo(808^8`0o(()^`.pLp^p`L.@ @ ^@ `.^`.L^`L.^`.^`.PLP^P`L.P^`P56CJaJo(hH. @@^@`o(hH.. 0^`0o(hH.. ``^``o(hH... ^`o(hH .... ^`o(hH ..... ^`o(hH ......  `^``o(hH.......  00^0`o(hH........d6Cdu<+H         H-        K %C_d@JJ!JJcP@UnknownGz Times New Roman5Symbol3& z ArialKTimesNewRomanPSMTU&Arial Unicode MSArial?5 z Courier New;Wingdings"1hBF]٦FyVj!0d  2q@Monitoring research in Africa: Towards an African Citation Indexuseruser
Warning: Unknown(): open(/tmp/sess_30c0fd754ba0feb060ad98667cfa3794, O_RDWR) failed: Read-only file system (30) in Unknown on line 0

Warning: Unknown(): Failed to write session data (files). Please verify that the current setting of session.save_path is correct (/tmp) in Unknown on line 0