Warning: session_start(): open(/tmp/sess_7f0e8fbe55705b458164f1413978f59a, O_RDWR) failed: Read-only file system (30) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cookie - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: session_start(): Cannot send session cache limiter - headers already sent (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 802

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 675

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 676

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 677

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 678

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php on line 679

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/filestore/classes/fileupload_class_inc.php on line 329

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/filestore/classes/fileupload_class_inc.php on line 334
ࡱ> %` VbjbjNN 4,,N5LLL8HDE (EEEEEEE$Gh Jt=E///=E/RE333/E3/E33r=T> 96L1S>DdhE0Ea>J-2J>J>3%*=E=EE3dE////d($( Title: What is Research and Teaching in African Higher Education for? A Deconstruction of Policies in Three African Universities Submission number: 0193 Presenter: Mary Goretti Nakabugo Author: Mary Goretti Nakabugo Affiliations i) Mary Immaculate College, Limerick, Ireland ii) Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda E-mail  HYPERLINK "mailto:mgnakabugo@educ.mak.ac.ug" mgnakabugo@educ.mak.ac.ug OR  HYPERLINK "mailto:Goretti.Nakabugo@mic.ul.ie" Goretti.Nakabugo@mic.ul.ie Abstract Higher Education has the responsibility of creating the capacity for sustainable development. Developed nations have made efforts to transform their higher education institutions into knowledge economies to act as the drivers of development. The rationale is that the main determinant of poverty is the lack of appropriate human capital to produce added value, make use of technology and attract investments. Africa is one of the most endowed continents in terms of natural resources, yet it is the poorest and most unsuccessful in providing the human and capital resources to sustain itself. This paper analyses the value that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Africa attach to being major contributors to their nations development. A deconstruction is made of the research and appointment and promotion policies of Makerere University (Uganda), University of Malawi and University of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). The three cases highlight the need to re-culture and reconsider African scholarship. Key words: Research, Teaching, Higher Education, Policy, Sustainable Development, Deconstruction Introduction According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda are among the worlds 50 poorest countries (UNDP 2007). This paper makes use of the deconstruction methodology to assess the role of higher education in these countries economic development and/or underdevelopment. A case study is made of the research and promotions and appointments policies of Makerere University (MAK), University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) and University of Malawi (UNIMA) to establish the extent to which development is at the heart of the policies driving the oldest HEIs of the three countries. The three universities are among the thirteen institutions participating in the Irish-African Partnership for Research Capacity Building, a 3-year project being funded by Irish-Aid and Centre for Cross-Border Studies, Ireland. Higher Education has the responsibility of creating the capacity for sustainable development (Afolayan, 2007). This paper analyses the efforts made by the three countries HEIs to transform themselves into knowledge economies to act as the drivers of development for their respective countries as has been the case by governments of most developed nations. The rationale is that the main determinant of poverty is the lack of appropriate human capital to produce added value, make use of technology and attract investments (Xabier Gorostiaga, 1999). The message systems entailed in the selected policy documents of the three universities are analysed in order to assess the value that African HEIs attach to being major contributors to their nations development. The analysis is done in relation to the universities visions and mission statements. Deconstruction as a policy analysis methodology is the positive use of criticism, and is instrumental in the reflective construction of meaning (Hlunka 1989; Tochon 1994). Codd (1988) describes it as the process of uncovering divergent meanings, contradictions and structured omissions from policy documents. The methodology is used in the context of this paper to point out conflicting projects, notions and beliefs entailed in the three African universities research and promotion and appointments policies in relation to the concept of higher education as a major contributor to development. Makerere University, University of Dar es Salaam and University of Malawi: An Overview All three universities are the largest and oldest national HEIs in their respective countries. Makerere University, the oldest of the three, was established in 1922 as a technical college. To-date, she has evolved into one of the leading universities in Sub-Saharan Africa. Her mission is to provide quality teaching, carry out research and offer professional services to meet the changing needs of society by utilizing world-wide and internally generated human resources, information and technology to enhance the Universitys leading position in Uganda and beyond. Makerere University strives to be a center of academic excellence, providing world-class teaching, research and service relevant to sustainable development needs of a society (MAK 2007:9). University of Malawi, established in 1965, operates on a federal system consisting of five constituent colleges that are administered by a central office under the leadership of the Vice Chancellor. Her vision is to be an academic institution providing relevant world-class education, research and services for sustainable development of Malawi and the world. Her overarching mission is to advance knowledge and to promote wisdom and understanding by engaging in teaching and research and by making provision for the dissemination, promotion, and preservation of learning; by engaging in such university education and research as is responsive to the needs of Malawi and the whole world (UNIMA 2004:5) The University of Dar es Salaam is the oldest and most prestigious university in Tanzania. It was founded in 1961 to serve three core functions: i) to transmit, through teaching, knowledge from one generation to another, and to meet the high-level human resource needs of the Tanzanian society. ii) to produce knowledge through research iii) to provide services to the community that address the countrys existing and future problems, through consultancy and outreach programmes. The three functions are realized through the universitys vision of becoming a reputable world-class university that is responsive to national, regional and global development needs through engagement in dynamic knowledge creation and application. The mission of the university positions it at the centre of the countrys economic development in the unrelenting pursuit of scholarly and strategic research, education, training and public service directed at the attainment of equitable and sustainable socio-economic development of Tanzania and the rest of Africa(UDSM 2008:3). While all the three universities have as their core function to contribute to the sustainable development of their respective countries and globally through research, teaching and service to the community, their impact has remained minimal over the years. The graduates they produce have largely remained job seekers rather than job creators. It appears, therefore, that the function of knowledge transmission, through teaching, from one generation to another as highlighted by University of Dar es Salaam, has remained the overriding function of these universities. The knowledge-transmission function appears to have overshadowed the parallel purpose of knowledge creation and application. The verb transmission implies surface learners who largely receive teacher-transmitted knowledge as opposed to deep learners, who are able to reflect on knowledge, make sense of it and produce new knowledge. According to Biggs (2003:14,16) surface learning includes rote learning of selected content for purposes of remembering it in an examination instead of understanding it, and flashing out points instead of building a coherent argument. Deep learning on the other hand, engages learners to focus on underlying meanings of academic tasks, focus on the main ideas, themes, principles and eventually successful knowledge applications. Nevertheless, the three universities occupy a unique position in their respective countries. They are the only universities that provide all round education, covering most of the academic disciplines. Their outputs in terms of human capital development can be seen in all areas of society. The vast majority of graduates working in the education sector, the health sector, in government and in the private sector are products of these universities. Such a position should be tapped as a niche through which the universities can contribute in a much more significant way to development by producing transformative graduates. In order to achieve this, the universities need to reconsider their definition of scholarship. Teaching and research should not be merely geared towards knowledge transmission and publication. They should be geared at empowering staff and students to think critically about how academic learning relates to critical issues affecting the African society such as bad governance, illiteracy, unemployment, corruption, external debt, political instability, hunger and ill-health. The universities research policies: is contribution to development valued? All three universities recognise the fact that research is at the heart of development, thereby instituting policies with statements that encourage and support research that is relevant to national development. Makerere universitys research policy is built around the concepts of research for development (R&D) and innovation. The policy stresses the fact that the ultimate benefit of research lies not only in the generation of new knowledge but in the translation of knowledge into technologies, interventions, and strategies effectively and appropriately delivered to the poor (MAK 2008:4). The University of Malawis policy on research and consultancy considers research to be important because it supports development of the country by providing solutions to problems, explaining phenomena, as well as opening up new opportunities. By being pro-active through development of research strategies that respond to national priorities, and by pursuing research that increases the stock of knowledge, the university places itself in the forefront of shaping the countrys transformation in critical areas of development (UNIMA 2006:iv) University of Dar es Salaams research policy begins with the recognition of the role of research in national development and asserts that neglecting university research capacity would amount to foregoing future development possibilities (UDSM, 2008:ii). The research policy is therefore developed to strengthen and improve research capacity within the university in order to continuously address the key measures of performance quality, relevance, internal efficiency and effectiveness. Consequently, all three universities have developed research policies with notions that position their research activities in relation to development. Some of the statements pointing to development notions include the following: The overall aim of the Research and Innovations Policy is to strengthen research capacity and output, and increase the contribution of Makerere University to the world of knowledge and innovation. It can be argued that innovation would necessarily contribute to development (MAK 2008:5, emphasis added). in recognition of the fact that research training represents one of the most significant areas of national investment in research and development, and that research students are a major resource, underpinning much of the leading edge research necessary for meaningful application in national development, the UDSM shall argue for increased government funding of research degree programmes... (UDSM 2008:iv). for the society to advance, UDSM shall contribute towards fostering and enhancement of research culture both within and outside the university through training, and promoting research teamwork (UDSM 2008a:v) Research should be directed at the solution of contemporary problems experienced by the community and providing plausible explanations of phenomena affecting them (UNIMA 2006:2) Through research, new technologies are developed that help to improve the quality of life of the human race. The university is in a unique position of having a concentration of highly trained individuals who can contribute to developing new knowledge for solving problems from different approaches (UNIMA 2006:3). Clearly, the universities documented strategic and research policies value the role of higher education in national and global development. It is recognized that universities should not only train professionals, but that the university staff and those they train should be equipped with knowledge and skills to actively contribute to national development through the research and teaching they undertake. Why is it then that even with the development-oriented visions, missions and research and teaching policies, the impact of Makerere University, University of Dar es Salaam and University of Malawi, has not greatly translated into significant economic development over the years? As already pointed out, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda remain among the 50 poorest countries in the world. Contradicting notions While teaching and research for development are central in the three universities major policy documents, the evaluation of research performance and reward systems give lip service to staff social engagement and contribution to national development. An examination of the three universities appointment and promotion policies shows that they put more focus on outputs in terms of publications and less on the quality of teaching and research impact. As Boyer (1990:xi) notes, the activities that are most highly prized by universities is where staff would invest most of their time. If the number of publication is what counts, then staff would spend more time undertaking research that would produce as many articles as possible and spend less time with students or disregard research that takes longer to yield publishable products. For example, in the University of Dar es Salaams research policy, a reference is made to the research evaluation criteria, thus: A transparent mechanism for research performance measurement shall be established. The mechanism shall be applied to evaluate research performance of individuals, academic units and multi-disciplinary research teams on an annual basis and reward of research performance at individual, academic unit and research teams each year shall be effected on the basis of the set criteria (UDSM 2008a:iv) Such a statement does not guarantee that any research undertaken by staff and research students would be tailored to development. The universities promotion and appointment policies are also silent about what quality of teaching is rewarded, and the research impact. Considering the fact that in real life what is rewarded is normally what gets done, most university staff are impelled to undertake research that would result in as many publications as possible for promotion irrespective of whether the research is relevant to development or not. The University of Malawis promotion and award of merit policy (UNIMA 1996: 18-19) sets out the following criteria for promotion to Professor, for example: a) Research Publish at least 7 articles in refereed journals, OR Publish 1 refereed book in own speciality, OR Publish at least 6 articles in refereed journals plus 6 articles in conference proceedings or 2 refereed book reviews, OR Publish at least 3 articles in a refereed journal plus 9 articles in conference proceedings or 3 chapters in refereed books. b) Teaching Fulfillment of teaching obligations, Assessment of the students and timely submission of marks, Character of the candidate in relation to their teaching c) Administrative/university duties /community service Willingness to participate in departmental, faculty, college and university affairs Performance as head of department or dean of a faculty. Similarly, Makerere University sets out a points system for promotion of staff to Senior Lecturer, Associate Professor and Professor, which also prioritises publication output and gives less credit to innovation, social engagement and service to community (MAK 2006:16-17). The point system includes the following: Publications (25 points) Teaching ability and experience (13 points) Research (8 points) Other academic activities such as departmental headship, external examination (8 points) Supervision of graduate students (10 points) Service to the university and community (5 points) Membership of professional bodies (2 points) Conduct (5 points) Professional practice/outreach services (2 points) Innovation, e.g. patents, discovery of a new variety of seeds, (2 points) If universities are serious about playing a major role in development, then the way they evaluate and reward scholarship would need to be reconsidered. It is futile for the policies driving the universities to emphasis teaching and research for development while on the other hand what is rewarded is something else. If innovation, social engagement, service to community and research that addresses societal needs irrespective of whether it ends in refereed journals or not are encouraged and highly rewarded, university staff would also strive to engage in such activities. Without a shift in the way scholarship is defined and rewarded, the development-oriented teaching and research policies will remain on paper, and it is likely that African HEIs will always remain Ivory Towers with less impact on the development of their countries. References Afolayan, M.O. (2007) HIGHER EDUCATION IN POSTCOLONIAL AFRICA: Paradigms of Development, Decline and Dilemmas. NJ: Africa World Press Biggs, J. (2003) Teaching for Quality Learning at University (2nd edition). Berkshire: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press. Boyer, E. L. (1990) Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Codd, J.A. (1988) The construction and deconstruction of educational policy documents. Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 235-247. HEA (2004) The Programme for Research into Third Level Institutions (PRTLI) Impact Assessment Vol 1: Report by the International Assessment Committee. Dublin: Higher Education Authority. Hunkla, D. (1989) Making waves with educational technology: A deconstructionist reading of Ted Acki. Journal of Curriculum Theorising. Vol. 9, No.2. MAK (2007) Makerere University Quality Assurance Policy Framework. Kampala: Makerere University. MAK (2008) Makerere University Research and Innovations Policy. Kampala: Makerere University. MAK (2006) Makerere University Policy on Appointment and promotion of academic staff. Kampala: Makerere University. Tochon, F.V. (1994) Presence beyond narrative: semiotic tools for deconstructing the personal story. Curriculum Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2. UDSM (2008a) University of Dar es Salaam Research Policy and Operational Procedures (second edition): Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam. UDSM (2008b) University of Dar es Salaam Research Programmes 2009-18: Strengthening research capacity for poverty reduction and sustainable development: Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam. UNDP (2007) Human Development Report 2007/8: Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world. New York: Palgrave Macmillan UNIMA (2006) University of Malawi Policy on research and consultancy. Zomba: University Research and Publications Committee, University of Malawi. UNIMA (2004) University of Malawi Strategic Plan (2004/05 2009/10). Zomba: University of Malawi. UNIMA (1996) University of Malawi Report of Senate on Criteria for Promotion and Award of Merit Increments. Zomba: University Research and Publications Committee, University of Malawi. Xabier Gorostiaga, S. J. (1999). In Search of the Missing Link between Education and Development. In Altbach, P.G. (Ed) Private Prometheus: Private Higher Education and Development in the 21st Century. Boston: Boston College Center for International Higher Education and Greenwood.       PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1  ]astK T U վrcվվժK/jhB0JB*CJOJQJU\aJphhIhIB*OJQJphhXGhIB*OJQJph)hI0J5B*CJOJQJ\aJph&h>0JB*CJOJQJ\aJph&h0JB*CJOJQJ\aJph,hwOh>0JB*CJOJQJ\aJph)h0J5B*CJOJQJ\aJph)h>0J5B*CJOJQJ\aJphK HIV?Pw!&$d$& #$/-Ifa$gdZ $$Ifa$gdEph$$& #$/-Ifa$gd> $IfgdI$& #$/-Ifgd>VVU Լ욂k]kOAh>5B*OJQJphh(15B*OJQJphhNh0JOJQJ\,hh0JB*CJOJQJ\aJph/jh0JB*CJOJQJU\aJph&h0JB*CJOJQJ\aJphhyhB0JOJQJ\/jhB0JB*CJOJQJU\aJph/jhyhBB*OJQJU\ph&hB0JB*CJOJQJ\aJph Y Z W d j  ` +7GHI~rf~WIh/5B*OJQJphhbhbB*OJQJphh~3JB*OJQJphhbB*OJQJphhLTB*OJQJphhb6B*OJQJphh>B*OJQJphh(wB*OJQJphh@]B*OJQJphheB*OJQJphhyB*OJQJphh9&B*OJQJphhXGh>B*OJQJph hg|h>5B*OJQJphIV (%8   E涪撪zk\PPheo{B*OJQJphhXGh>B*OJQJphhEphhEphB*OJQJphhEphB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh!}B*OJQJphhHOB*OJQJphhJB*OJQJphh.B*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhtn@B*OJQJphhDB*OJQJphh>B*OJQJphh>5B*OJQJphEIb6NR;<̱ui]iQEQhh/B*OJQJphhDB*OJQJphhSB*OJQJphhpB*OJQJphhpB*OJQJphhowB*OJQJphh+B*OJQJphheo{B*OJQJphh31B*OJQJphhXGh:B*OJQJphh:B*OJQJphh!}B*OJQJphhXGh>B*OJQJphh>B*OJQJphhN~!B*OJQJph >?Tt"#:;?Rõwk\P\D\Dh> B*OJQJphhEOB*OJQJphhEOh*N_B*OJQJphh*N_B*OJQJphh6SB*OJQJphhQB*OJQJphh5B*OJQJphh2B*OJQJphhTU5B*OJQJphhZ5B*OJQJphhDB*OJQJphhSB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhm(B*OJQJphhWB*OJQJphRTaTVY?@OPopɾsgsg[OC7h[[FB*OJQJphh6 B*OJQJphh2B*OJQJphh oB*OJQJphhOB*OJQJphh^B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhrG@B*OJQJphhOJQJhZhEOOJQJhZOJQJhEOhEOOJQJhEOhEOB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphhEOh*N_B*OJQJphp(01 h!r!t!u!w!!!!!! ""E"G"f"u""""÷÷ß{ocWKWhnnB*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphhO;RB*OJQJphhbbB*OJQJphhhB*OJQJphh4B*OJQJphh8IFB*OJQJphhj2B*OJQJphh=dB*OJQJphh6B*OJQJphh`$B*OJQJphh{[B*OJQJphh8[B*OJQJphhM1B*OJQJphh6 B*OJQJph"" ##B#p########$0$M$U$i$$$$$$$ %%%%%%÷ë{ocWcKch1B;B*OJQJphh9B*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphhbbB*OJQJphhrP=B*OJQJphh5zrB*OJQJphh oB*OJQJphhG'B*OJQJphhF;B*OJQJphh"B*OJQJphhzB*OJQJphhqB*OJQJphhg(B*OJQJphh>`B*OJQJphh;{[B*OJQJph%%%% & &&&O&U&&&&&&_(a(p((()))))Ϸϫ{o{cWcKhT=B*OJQJphhO; B*OJQJphhQk'B*OJQJphh@-B*OJQJphhm+B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh!B*OJQJphhj2B*OJQJphh(B*OJQJphhqB*OJQJphh B*OJQJphh%TB*OJQJphhUB*OJQJphh@B*OJQJphh{tVB*OJQJph)**0*S*a*l*x*******++ +G+H+_++++÷wi]QE9h}B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhzB*OJQJphhf^B*OJQJphho 5B*OJQJphhR5B*OJQJphh}5B*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphh9B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhH&B*OJQJphh1B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhXB*OJQJphh'XB*OJQJph&*H+,-/123X5*6681;G;>?$$& #$/-Ifa$gdx$$& #$/-If^a$gdN u$$& #$/-If^a$gd$$& #$/-Ifa$gd$$& #$/-Ifa$gd>+++,,,,,,-----.///80000Ϸ{ococWKW?hmB9B*OJQJphh4 kB*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh>2*B*OJQJphh|KB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh?B*OJQJphhn B*OJQJphhmkB*OJQJphh&DB*OJQJphhXt}B*OJQJphh}B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhB*OJQJph0n1u1w111111111122*2A2J2o222T3333Ź}qeYM?M?h6B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhzB*OJQJphhpB*OJQJphhNPB*OJQJphh_mB*OJQJphhjB*OJQJphhwAB*OJQJphhn5B*OJQJphh;B*OJQJphh}B*OJQJphh`V6B*OJQJph hN h`V65B*OJQJph hN hL5B*OJQJphhLB*OJQJph333F4Q444G5W5X5Y5s56)6*66888#8_888ؽر~r~fZNBh8B*OJQJphh:B*OJQJphh% B*OJQJphh(0ZB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh19B*OJQJphh16B*OJQJphh<[B*OJQJphhD\eh]eB*OJQJphh]eB*OJQJphhcB*OJQJphhD\eh_B*OJQJphh_B*OJQJphhhB*OJQJphhB*OJQJph8)9}99999:::.;/;0;1;F;G;M;;<÷{m\PD8h'B*OJQJphh|B*OJQJphhQB*OJQJph hfhf5B*OJQJphhf5B*OJQJphhxB*OJQJphh% B*OJQJphhPB*OJQJphhHdB*OJQJphhxYB*OJQJphhw *B*OJQJphhiB*OJQJphh&DB*OJQJphh B*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhVB*OJQJph<<B<x< =S==>H>R>v>>>>?@@@AA÷{ocWKo?hnS.B*OJQJphhCB*OJQJphh<[B*OJQJphhcLB*OJQJphh(wB*OJQJphh1OB*OJQJphhFEB*OJQJphhFB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh.B*OJQJphhLB*OJQJphh{B*OJQJphh7$B*OJQJphh9oB*OJQJphh'B*OJQJphhJqB*OJQJph?@AB^CjCCCGDDDD1EjEEE$ & F$& #$/-Ifa$gdU$$& #$/-Ifa$gdU$ & F$& #$/-Ifa$gdU$ & F$& #$/-Ifa$gdT$$& #$/-Ifa$gd>$$& #$/-If^a$gd<[AAAAB BkBBBCCOC\C^C`CiCjCkCCCCCCDDDDD-FFFGϷϫϫ{ocWch\sB*OJQJphh,B*OJQJphhccB*OJQJphhqB*OJQJphhTB*OJQJphhpB*OJQJphh`B*OJQJphhUB*OJQJphh%B*OJQJphhU2B*OJQJphhX%B*OJQJphhzB*OJQJphhnS.B*OJQJphhw^B*OJQJphE-FhGGGGHHH{HHHH9I:ILMM/N$& #$/-Ifgd0Y$& #$/-Ifgd>$$& #$/-Ifa$gd%$ & F$& #$/-Ifa$gdk$$& #$/-Ifa$gd,p$ & F$& #$/-Ifa$gdUG=G?GgGhG9I:IIBJcJwJKKK/K9KDK[KzKL LL\LLL÷{{{ocWcKhB*OJQJphh><1B*OJQJphh)B*OJQJphh%B*OJQJphhIZB*OJQJphhV-B*OJQJphhxTB*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphhh-B*OJQJphhrB*OJQJphhkB*OJQJphhgEB*OJQJphhccB*OJQJphh\sB*OJQJphh(EB*OJQJphLLLMM'M4MDMEMUMWMMMMN.N/NNNN~OOƶƅ{qfqYK?h4WYB*OJQJphh>6B*OJQJphh9h9OJQJ^Jh96OJQJ^Jh9OJQJ^Jh0YOJQJ^Jh0Yh0YH*OJQJ^Jh0Yh0Y5OJQJ\^J$h0Yh0Y56OJQJ\]^Jh0Yh0Y6OJQJ]^Jh0Yh0YOJQJ^Jh>B*OJQJph hh>5B*OJQJphhXGh>B*OJQJph/NOPuPPGQQbRSDTTbU|V}V~V}Fkd$$If<%% 6 -6-34<aytu$& #$/-Ifgd $Ifgdr$& #$/-Ifgdg}R $Ifgd6>$& #$/-Ifgd>OOPPPPP3PDPKPUPWPuPPPPPPP)QGQQQQٿ٥sesYKYht26B*OJQJphht2B*OJQJphh6>6B*OJQJphh6>B*OJQJphh_B*OJQJphh,>8B*OJQJphh66B*OJQJphh%B*OJQJphh;k6B*OJQJphhh6B*OJQJphh>NB*OJQJphhhB*OJQJphh%6B*OJQJphh%B*OJQJphQQQR4R`RaRbRlRmRnRoRRRR SSS%S&S(S䶪䞒sg[O[O[@hXGh>B*OJQJphhP2B*OJQJphhZ\B*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhT6B*OJQJph hThT6B*OJQJphhTB*OJQJphh4WYB*OJQJphh\gB*OJQJphhXGhBB*OJQJphhB6B*OJQJph hThB6B*OJQJphhBB*OJQJphht2ht2B*OJQJph(S4SUSnSSSSSSBTCTDTNTOTQTRTfTtTuTvTTTʼ|n|]OD<hTOJQJhThTOJQJhT6B*OJQJph hThT6B*OJQJphhg}R6B*OJQJphhoX}6B*OJQJphhoX}B*OJQJphhg}RB*OJQJphh2B*OJQJphh.6B*OJQJphhJ6B*OJQJphhJB*OJQJphh>56B*OJQJphh>6B*OJQJphh>B*OJQJphTTTTTTTU`UbU{V|V}V~VVVVVVVVVVVppp]H@<h?6jh?6U)h0J5B*CJOJQJ\aJph%hXGh{ B*CJOJQJaJphhXGh{ B*OJQJph hXGh{ #hXGh{ 5B*OJQJ\phh>B*OJQJphhXGh>B*OJQJphhr6B*OJQJphhrB*OJQJphhg}R6B*OJQJphh#H B*OJQJphhg}RB*OJQJphhTB*OJQJph~VVVVVVVV?Ykd$$If<06 6 -6n -34<aytYkdi$$If<06 6 -6n -34<ayt$& #$/-IfgdVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV dgdYYkdQ$$If<06 6 -6n -34<ayt$& #$/-IfgdVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV)h0J5B*CJOJQJ\aJphhBmHnHuhXjhXUhnhh?6jh?6UVVVVVVVVVVVV$a$ 21h:p~\"/ =!"#$% DyK mgnakabugo@educ.mak.ac.ugyK Zmailto:mgnakabugo@educ.mak.ac.ugyX;H,]ą'cd$$If!vh5%#v%:V < 6 -6-5%34<ytur$$If!vh55#v#v:V < 6 -6n -534<ytr$$If!vh55#v#v:V < 6 -6n -534<ytr$$If!vh55#v#v:V < 6 -6n -534<yt666666666vvvvvvvvv666666>6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666H666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666N@N { Normal dCJ_HaJmH nHsH tHDA@D Default Paragraph FontRi@R 0 Table Normal4 l4a (k( 0No List *W@* { Strong5\FOF { mainbody1B* CJOJQJaJo(ph0fROR { msonormal= dKCJOJPJQJaJtH >@"> Y0HeaderdH$>1> Y0 Char Char1OJPJQJ^J> @B> Y0FooterdH$<OQ< Y0 Char CharOJPJQJ^J6U@a6 0 Hyperlink >*B*phNKHIV ?Pw"H#$%')*+X-*..013G36789:^;j;;;G<<<<1=j===->h????@H@{@@@@9A:ADEE/FGHuHHGIIbJKDLLbM|N}N~NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN000000000000000000000000©000000000000000000 0 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000000000000000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0X00X00X00X00X00X00X00X00X00X00@0X00X00X00@0@0X00X00X00X00X00X00LHIV }N~NNNNZ00X00X00Z00Z00 X000Z00  0247U IERp"%)+038<AGLOQ(STVV,/012345678:;<=>@BCEFGHK&?E/N~VVVV-9?ADIJLV.TNXX*,7!X( # AA@0(  B S  ?` >` ?` >` D?` ?` @` D@` @` @` A` DA` Aa Aa Ba DBa Ba Ba Ca DCa Ca C a D a DD a D a D a Ea DEa Ea Ea Fa DFa Fa Fa Ga DGa Ga Ga Ha DHa Ha Ha Ia DIa I a I!a J"a DJ#a J$a J%a K&a DK'a K(a K)a L*a DL+a L,a L-a M.a DM/a M0a M1a N2a DN3a N4a N5a O6a DO7a O8a P9a DP:a P;a Pa Q?a Q@a RAa DRBa RCa RDa SEa DSFa SGa SHa TIa DTJa TKa TLa UMa DUNa UOa UPa VQa DVRa VSa VTa WUa DWVa WWa WXa XYa DXZa X[a X\a Y]a DY^a Y_a Y`a Zaa DZba Zca Zda [ea D[fa [ga [ha \ia D\ja \ka \la ]ma D]na ]oa ]pa ^qa D^ra ^sa ^ta _ua D_va _wa `xa D`ya `za `{a a|a Da}a a~a aa ba Dba ba ba c"/;;D3<H_jx$ - 6 ?HTbuuTbUUc%%%++++242@2N2`2`2n22222666:::DEbEFFFFF[G[GHH(HWH`H`HiHHHHHHHHHHH)I2I2I;IIIDJDJRJoJ}J K KKKKKKK-L-L;L_L_LLLLLLLKMKMYM,N4N;NCNqNqNN      !"$#%'&()*,+-./0123546879;:<=>?@BACDEFGIHJLKMNOPQRTSUVWYXZ[]\^`_abdcegfhikjlmnpoqrsutvwxzy{}|~!.9BJJ;FNet, 5 > GR^o  ^o_pp%%%+)+)+32>2J2[2j2t2t22222666:::D EkE FFF'F'FaGaG'H2H2H^HhHsHsHHHHHHHHHHH0I:IEIEIIINJ_J_JyJJK%K%KKKKKK7LALALeLeLLLLLLLUM_M_M2N:NBNINzNzNN  !"$#%'&()*,+-./0123546879;:<=>?@BACDEFGIHJLKMNOPQRTSUVWYXZ[]\^`_abdcegfhikjlmnpoqrsutvwxzy{}|~9*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplace=*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceName=*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceType8*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsCityB*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagscountry-region9>*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsState ̵p>>|~  # | fhfh%/gi_#h#'':-D-R2T266;;>>&D*DDD/F3FFF"G%GGGGGGHGIMIII9J;JVJXJJJJJJKKKKKLLMMbMhMiMsMMMNNNNNNNNNNNNNNKDJ{}R-U-55a8i8+A-ANNNNNNNNNNNNNN333333TIV ^;j;<<<<?????@@@@.A9AzCDbMMNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN|z ܄B&C#"e|KLh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohp^p`OJQJo(hHh@ ^@ `OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohP^P`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohp^p`OJQJo(hHh@ ^@ `OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohP^P`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohp^p`OJQJo(hHh@ ^@ `OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohP^P`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohp^p`OJQJo(hHh@ ^@ `OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohP^P`OJQJo(hHK|z C#B                                    g~w(1b !sMm<SX%  - 6 n { O; |T?Q`rIQG')/`n]'X %gdhufhqe j2!}Yp:Z_&yz@CJ"8 #H !N~!D"~\"7$`$X%Fi&Qk'(w *>2*m+h-E-V-nS.h/0O0131><122U2t2n5?6`V6,>8mB9:[>;1B;F;Y<rP=,=k?rG@tn@eABC{C&D(E-EFE-\EFE& F8IF[[FXG WIUJwJ~3J|K1OwOPNPO;Rg}R7Sa8S%T-UTU1 V{tV~LXZXY4WY(0Z<[;{[Z\rm^_*N_z_YbIbcc5*d=de eD\eEph`iZWj4 kmkm_mnn o9oZoEpQqr5zrN u@&uy~voweo{g|}oX}Xt}> 6Hf{BL&YJpDZ}C6Sw^96>W%vPJq z>wAUnw zg(,531%TkXxY;FFo9L>Nq{iV9{[JjFHNwxT4&DRakUy16D+IZ/zLT.^pru6T=akM1,pO iZ8[%8HOY\gN (w/.:.H&2_B_1bb"wqH o@->N>To \s'0Y e+|NcGEgE^>`]ep9&nzH?Um(U;kPf}L"P2f^19/RHHdcLEOxX pq@]S}N~NNNNNNNNNNN@ 5=N@Unknown Gz Times New Roman5Symbol3& z ArialA& Arial Narrow;SimSun[SO7&{ @Calibri7&  Verdana?5 z Courier New;Wingdings"1hˆ;&qo B( B(a4`N`N >qHX $P{ 2Mary Goretti NakabugoGoretti.Nakabugo    Oh+'0   @ L Xdlt|Mary Goretti NakabugoNormalGoretti.Nakabugo113Microsoft Office Word@ZD3@J@B6 B՜.+,D՜.+,, hp|   (`N'  Title< 8@ _PID_HLINKSA Uh"mailto:Goretti.Nakabugo@mic.ul.iePf!mailto:mgnakabugo@educ.mak.ac.ug  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMOPQRSTUWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{}~Root Entry F6Data N1TableVJWordDocument4SummaryInformation(|DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjqÿ  FMicrosoft Office Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q
Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 23

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 24

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 25

Warning: Cannot modify header information - headers already sent by (output started at /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/classes/core/engine_class_inc.php:802) in /srv/www/htdocs/cshe/modules/cshe/templates/page/download_page_tpl.php on line 26
ࡱ> %` VbjbjNN 4,,N5LLL8HDE (EEEEEEE$Gh Jt=E///=E/RE333/E3/E33r=T> 96L1S>DdhE0Ea>J-2J>J>3%*=E=EE3dE////d($( Title: What is Research and Teaching in African Higher Education for? A Deconstruction of Policies in Three African Universities Submission number: 0193 Presenter: Mary Goretti Nakabugo Author: Mary Goretti Nakabugo Affiliations i) Mary Immaculate College, Limerick, Ireland ii) Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda E-mail  HYPERLINK "mailto:mgnakabugo@educ.mak.ac.ug" mgnakabugo@educ.mak.ac.ug OR  HYPERLINK "mailto:Goretti.Nakabugo@mic.ul.ie" Goretti.Nakabugo@mic.ul.ie Abstract Higher Education has the responsibility of creating the capacity for sustainable development. Developed nations have made efforts to transform their higher education institutions into knowledge economies to act as the drivers of development. The rationale is that the main determinant of poverty is the lack of appropriate human capital to produce added value, make use of technology and attract investments. Africa is one of the most endowed continents in terms of natural resources, yet it is the poorest and most unsuccessful in providing the human and capital resources to sustain itself. This paper analyses the value that Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Africa attach to being major contributors to their nations development. A deconstruction is made of the research and appointment and promotion policies of Makerere University (Uganda), University of Malawi and University of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania). The three cases highlight the need to re-culture and reconsider African scholarship. Key words: Research, Teaching, Higher Education, Policy, Sustainable Development, Deconstruction Introduction According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda are among the worlds 50 poorest countries (UNDP 2007). This paper makes use of the deconstruction methodology to assess the role of higher education in these countries economic development and/or underdevelopment. A case study is made of the research and promotions and appointments policies of Makerere University (MAK), University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) and University of Malawi (UNIMA) to establish the extent to which development is at the heart of the policies driving the oldest HEIs of the three countries. The three universities are among the thirteen institutions participating in the Irish-African Partnership for Research Capacity Building, a 3-year project being funded by Irish-Aid and Centre for Cross-Border Studies, Ireland. Higher Education has the responsibility of creating the capacity for sustainable development (Afolayan, 2007). This paper analyses the efforts made by the three countries HEIs to transform themselves into knowledge economies to act as the drivers of development for their respective countries as has been the case by governments of most developed nations. The rationale is that the main determinant of poverty is the lack of appropriate human capital to produce added value, make use of technology and attract investments (Xabier Gorostiaga, 1999). The message systems entailed in the selected policy documents of the three universities are analysed in order to assess the value that African HEIs attach to being major contributors to their nations development. The analysis is done in relation to the universities visions and mission statements. Deconstruction as a policy analysis methodology is the positive use of criticism, and is instrumental in the reflective construction of meaning (Hlunka 1989; Tochon 1994). Codd (1988) describes it as the process of uncovering divergent meanings, contradictions and structured omissions from policy documents. The methodology is used in the context of this paper to point out conflicting projects, notions and beliefs entailed in the three African universities research and promotion and appointments policies in relation to the concept of higher education as a major contributor to development. Makerere University, University of Dar es Salaam and University of Malawi: An Overview All three universities are the largest and oldest national HEIs in their respective countries. Makerere University, the oldest of the three, was established in 1922 as a technical college. To-date, she has evolved into one of the leading universities in Sub-Saharan Africa. Her mission is to provide quality teaching, carry out research and offer professional services to meet the changing needs of society by utilizing world-wide and internally generated human resources, information and technology to enhance the Universitys leading position in Uganda and beyond. Makerere University strives to be a center of academic excellence, providing world-class teaching, research and service relevant to sustainable development needs of a society (MAK 2007:9). University of Malawi, established in 1965, operates on a federal system consisting of five constituent colleges that are administered by a central office under the leadership of the Vice Chancellor. Her vision is to be an academic institution providing relevant world-class education, research and services for sustainable development of Malawi and the world. Her overarching mission is to advance knowledge and to promote wisdom and understanding by engaging in teaching and research and by making provision for the dissemination, promotion, and preservation of learning; by engaging in such university education and research as is responsive to the needs of Malawi and the whole world (UNIMA 2004:5) The University of Dar es Salaam is the oldest and most prestigious university in Tanzania. It was founded in 1961 to serve three core functions: i) to transmit, through teaching, knowledge from one generation to another, and to meet the high-level human resource needs of the Tanzanian society. ii) to produce knowledge through research iii) to provide services to the community that address the countrys existing and future problems, through consultancy and outreach programmes. The three functions are realized through the universitys vision of becoming a reputable world-class university that is responsive to national, regional and global development needs through engagement in dynamic knowledge creation and application. The mission of the university positions it at the centre of the countrys economic development in the unrelenting pursuit of scholarly and strategic research, education, training and public service directed at the attainment of equitable and sustainable socio-economic development of Tanzania and the rest of Africa(UDSM 2008:3). While all the three universities have as their core function to contribute to the sustainable development of their respective countries and globally through research, teaching and service to the community, their impact has remained minimal over the years. The graduates they produce have largely remained job seekers rather than job creators. It appears, therefore, that the function of knowledge transmission, through teaching, from one generation to another as highlighted by University of Dar es Salaam, has remained the overriding function of these universities. The knowledge-transmission function appears to have overshadowed the parallel purpose of knowledge creation and application. The verb transmission implies surface learners who largely receive teacher-transmitted knowledge as opposed to deep learners, who are able to reflect on knowledge, make sense of it and produce new knowledge. According to Biggs (2003:14,16) surface learning includes rote learning of selected content for purposes of remembering it in an examination instead of understanding it, and flashing out points instead of building a coherent argument. Deep learning on the other hand, engages learners to focus on underlying meanings of academic tasks, focus on the main ideas, themes, principles and eventually successful knowledge applications. Nevertheless, the three universities occupy a unique position in their respective countries. They are the only universities that provide all round education, covering most of the academic disciplines. Their outputs in terms of human capital development can be seen in all areas of society. The vast majority of graduates working in the education sector, the health sector, in government and in the private sector are products of these universities. Such a position should be tapped as a niche through which the universities can contribute in a much more significant way to development by producing transformative graduates. In order to achieve this, the universities need to reconsider their definition of scholarship. Teaching and research should not be merely geared towards knowledge transmission and publication. They should be geared at empowering staff and students to think critically about how academic learning relates to critical issues affecting the African society such as bad governance, illiteracy, unemployment, corruption, external debt, political instability, hunger and ill-health. The universities research policies: is contribution to development valued? All three universities recognise the fact that research is at the heart of development, thereby instituting policies with statements that encourage and support research that is relevant to national development. Makerere universitys research policy is built around the concepts of research for development (R&D) and innovation. The policy stresses the fact that the ultimate benefit of research lies not only in the generation of new knowledge but in the translation of knowledge into technologies, interventions, and strategies effectively and appropriately delivered to the poor (MAK 2008:4). The University of Malawis policy on research and consultancy considers research to be important because it supports development of the country by providing solutions to problems, explaining phenomena, as well as opening up new opportunities. By being pro-active through development of research strategies that respond to national priorities, and by pursuing research that increases the stock of knowledge, the university places itself in the forefront of shaping the countrys transformation in critical areas of development (UNIMA 2006:iv) University of Dar es Salaams research policy begins with the recognition of the role of research in national development and asserts that neglecting university research capacity would amount to foregoing future development possibilities (UDSM, 2008:ii). The research policy is therefore developed to strengthen and improve research capacity within the university in order to continuously address the key measures of performance quality, relevance, internal efficiency and effectiveness. Consequently, all three universities have developed research policies with notions that position their research activities in relation to development. Some of the statements pointing to development notions include the following: The overall aim of the Research and Innovations Policy is to strengthen research capacity and output, and increase the contribution of Makerere University to the world of knowledge and innovation. It can be argued that innovation would necessarily contribute to development (MAK 2008:5, emphasis added). in recognition of the fact that research training represents one of the most significant areas of national investment in research and development, and that research students are a major resource, underpinning much of the leading edge research necessary for meaningful application in national development, the UDSM shall argue for increased government funding of research degree programmes... (UDSM 2008:iv). for the society to advance, UDSM shall contribute towards fostering and enhancement of research culture both within and outside the university through training, and promoting research teamwork (UDSM 2008a:v) Research should be directed at the solution of contemporary problems experienced by the community and providing plausible explanations of phenomena affecting them (UNIMA 2006:2) Through research, new technologies are developed that help to improve the quality of life of the human race. The university is in a unique position of having a concentration of highly trained individuals who can contribute to developing new knowledge for solving problems from different approaches (UNIMA 2006:3). Clearly, the universities documented strategic and research policies value the role of higher education in national and global development. It is recognized that universities should not only train professionals, but that the university staff and those they train should be equipped with knowledge and skills to actively contribute to national development through the research and teaching they undertake. Why is it then that even with the development-oriented visions, missions and research and teaching policies, the impact of Makerere University, University of Dar es Salaam and University of Malawi, has not greatly translated into significant economic development over the years? As already pointed out, Malawi, Tanzania and Uganda remain among the 50 poorest countries in the world. Contradicting notions While teaching and research for development are central in the three universities major policy documents, the evaluation of research performance and reward systems give lip service to staff social engagement and contribution to national development. An examination of the three universities appointment and promotion policies shows that they put more focus on outputs in terms of publications and less on the quality of teaching and research impact. As Boyer (1990:xi) notes, the activities that are most highly prized by universities is where staff would invest most of their time. If the number of publication is what counts, then staff would spend more time undertaking research that would produce as many articles as possible and spend less time with students or disregard research that takes longer to yield publishable products. For example, in the University of Dar es Salaams research policy, a reference is made to the research evaluation criteria, thus: A transparent mechanism for research performance measurement shall be established. The mechanism shall be applied to evaluate research performance of individuals, academic units and multi-disciplinary research teams on an annual basis and reward of research performance at individual, academic unit and research teams each year shall be effected on the basis of the set criteria (UDSM 2008a:iv) Such a statement does not guarantee that any research undertaken by staff and research students would be tailored to development. The universities promotion and appointment policies are also silent about what quality of teaching is rewarded, and the research impact. Considering the fact that in real life what is rewarded is normally what gets done, most university staff are impelled to undertake research that would result in as many publications as possible for promotion irrespective of whether the research is relevant to development or not. The University of Malawis promotion and award of merit policy (UNIMA 1996: 18-19) sets out the following criteria for promotion to Professor, for example: a) Research Publish at least 7 articles in refereed journals, OR Publish 1 refereed book in own speciality, OR Publish at least 6 articles in refereed journals plus 6 articles in conference proceedings or 2 refereed book reviews, OR Publish at least 3 articles in a refereed journal plus 9 articles in conference proceedings or 3 chapters in refereed books. b) Teaching Fulfillment of teaching obligations, Assessment of the students and timely submission of marks, Character of the candidate in relation to their teaching c) Administrative/university duties /community service Willingness to participate in departmental, faculty, college and university affairs Performance as head of department or dean of a faculty. Similarly, Makerere University sets out a points system for promotion of staff to Senior Lecturer, Associate Professor and Professor, which also prioritises publication output and gives less credit to innovation, social engagement and service to community (MAK 2006:16-17). The point system includes the following: Publications (25 points) Teaching ability and experience (13 points) Research (8 points) Other academic activities such as departmental headship, external examination (8 points) Supervision of graduate students (10 points) Service to the university and community (5 points) Membership of professional bodies (2 points) Conduct (5 points) Professional practice/outreach services (2 points) Innovation, e.g. patents, discovery of a new variety of seeds, (2 points) If universities are serious about playing a major role in development, then the way they evaluate and reward scholarship would need to be reconsidered. It is futile for the policies driving the universities to emphasis teaching and research for development while on the other hand what is rewarded is something else. If innovation, social engagement, service to community and research that addresses societal needs irrespective of whether it ends in refereed journals or not are encouraged and highly rewarded, university staff would also strive to engage in such activities. Without a shift in the way scholarship is defined and rewarded, the development-oriented teaching and research policies will remain on paper, and it is likely that African HEIs will always remain Ivory Towers with less impact on the development of their countries. References Afolayan, M.O. (2007) HIGHER EDUCATION IN POSTCOLONIAL AFRICA: Paradigms of Development, Decline and Dilemmas. NJ: Africa World Press Biggs, J. (2003) Teaching for Quality Learning at University (2nd edition). Berkshire: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press. Boyer, E. L. (1990) Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities of the Professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Codd, J.A. (1988) The construction and deconstruction of educational policy documents. Journal of Education Policy, Vol. 3, Issue 3, pp. 235-247. HEA (2004) The Programme for Research into Third Level Institutions (PRTLI) Impact Assessment Vol 1: Report by the International Assessment Committee. Dublin: Higher Education Authority. Hunkla, D. (1989) Making waves with educational technology: A deconstructionist reading of Ted Acki. Journal of Curriculum Theorising. Vol. 9, No.2. MAK (2007) Makerere University Quality Assurance Policy Framework. Kampala: Makerere University. MAK (2008) Makerere University Research and Innovations Policy. Kampala: Makerere University. MAK (2006) Makerere University Policy on Appointment and promotion of academic staff. Kampala: Makerere University. Tochon, F.V. (1994) Presence beyond narrative: semiotic tools for deconstructing the personal story. Curriculum Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2. UDSM (2008a) University of Dar es Salaam Research Policy and Operational Procedures (second edition): Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam. UDSM (2008b) University of Dar es Salaam Research Programmes 2009-18: Strengthening research capacity for poverty reduction and sustainable development: Dar es Salaam: University of Dar es Salaam. UNDP (2007) Human Development Report 2007/8: Fighting climate change: Human solidarity in a divided world. New York: Palgrave Macmillan UNIMA (2006) University of Malawi Policy on research and consultancy. Zomba: University Research and Publications Committee, University of Malawi. UNIMA (2004) University of Malawi Strategic Plan (2004/05 2009/10). Zomba: University of Malawi. UNIMA (1996) University of Malawi Report of Senate on Criteria for Promotion and Award of Merit Increments. Zomba: University Research and Publications Committee, University of Malawi. Xabier Gorostiaga, S. J. (1999). In Search of the Missing Link between Education and Development. In Altbach, P.G. (Ed) Private Prometheus: Private Higher Education and Development in the 21st Century. Boston: Boston College Center for International Higher Education and Greenwood.       PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1  ]astK T U վrcվվժK/jhB0JB*CJOJQJU\aJphhIhIB*OJQJphhXGhIB*OJQJph)hI0J5B*CJOJQJ\aJph&h>0JB*CJOJQJ\aJph&h0JB*CJOJQJ\aJph,hwOh>0JB*CJOJQJ\aJph)h0J5B*CJOJQJ\aJph)h>0J5B*CJOJQJ\aJphK HIV?Pw!&$d$& #$/-Ifa$gdZ $$Ifa$gdEph$$& #$/-Ifa$gd> $IfgdI$& #$/-Ifgd>VVU Լ욂k]kOAh>5B*OJQJphh(15B*OJQJphhNh0JOJQJ\,hh0JB*CJOJQJ\aJph/jh0JB*CJOJQJU\aJph&h0JB*CJOJQJ\aJphhyhB0JOJQJ\/jhB0JB*CJOJQJU\aJph/jhyhBB*OJQJU\ph&hB0JB*CJOJQJ\aJph Y Z W d j  ` +7GHI~rf~WIh/5B*OJQJphhbhbB*OJQJphh~3JB*OJQJphhbB*OJQJphhLTB*OJQJphhb6B*OJQJphh>B*OJQJphh(wB*OJQJphh@]B*OJQJphheB*OJQJphhyB*OJQJphh9&B*OJQJphhXGh>B*OJQJph hg|h>5B*OJQJphIV (%8   E涪撪zk\PPheo{B*OJQJphhXGh>B*OJQJphhEphhEphB*OJQJphhEphB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh!}B*OJQJphhHOB*OJQJphhJB*OJQJphh.B*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhtn@B*OJQJphhDB*OJQJphh>B*OJQJphh>5B*OJQJphEIb6NR;<̱ui]iQEQhh/B*OJQJphhDB*OJQJphhSB*OJQJphhpB*OJQJphhpB*OJQJphhowB*OJQJphh+B*OJQJphheo{B*OJQJphh31B*OJQJphhXGh:B*OJQJphh:B*OJQJphh!}B*OJQJphhXGh>B*OJQJphh>B*OJQJphhN~!B*OJQJph >?Tt"#:;?Rõwk\P\D\Dh> B*OJQJphhEOB*OJQJphhEOh*N_B*OJQJphh*N_B*OJQJphh6SB*OJQJphhQB*OJQJphh5B*OJQJphh2B*OJQJphhTU5B*OJQJphhZ5B*OJQJphhDB*OJQJphhSB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhm(B*OJQJphhWB*OJQJphRTaTVY?@OPopɾsgsg[OC7h[[FB*OJQJphh6 B*OJQJphh2B*OJQJphh oB*OJQJphhOB*OJQJphh^B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhrG@B*OJQJphhOJQJhZhEOOJQJhZOJQJhEOhEOOJQJhEOhEOB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphhEOh*N_B*OJQJphp(01 h!r!t!u!w!!!!!! ""E"G"f"u""""÷÷ß{ocWKWhnnB*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphhO;RB*OJQJphhbbB*OJQJphhhB*OJQJphh4B*OJQJphh8IFB*OJQJphhj2B*OJQJphh=dB*OJQJphh6B*OJQJphh`$B*OJQJphh{[B*OJQJphh8[B*OJQJphhM1B*OJQJphh6 B*OJQJph"" ##B#p########$0$M$U$i$$$$$$$ %%%%%%÷ë{ocWcKch1B;B*OJQJphh9B*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphhbbB*OJQJphhrP=B*OJQJphh5zrB*OJQJphh oB*OJQJphhG'B*OJQJphhF;B*OJQJphh"B*OJQJphhzB*OJQJphhqB*OJQJphhg(B*OJQJphh>`B*OJQJphh;{[B*OJQJph%%%% & &&&O&U&&&&&&_(a(p((()))))Ϸϫ{o{cWcKhT=B*OJQJphhO; B*OJQJphhQk'B*OJQJphh@-B*OJQJphhm+B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh!B*OJQJphhj2B*OJQJphh(B*OJQJphhqB*OJQJphh B*OJQJphh%TB*OJQJphhUB*OJQJphh@B*OJQJphh{tVB*OJQJph)**0*S*a*l*x*******++ +G+H+_++++÷wi]QE9h}B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhzB*OJQJphhf^B*OJQJphho 5B*OJQJphhR5B*OJQJphh}5B*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphh9B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhH&B*OJQJphh1B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhXB*OJQJphh'XB*OJQJph&*H+,-/123X5*6681;G;>?$$& #$/-Ifa$gdx$$& #$/-If^a$gdN u$$& #$/-If^a$gd$$& #$/-Ifa$gd$$& #$/-Ifa$gd>+++,,,,,,-----.///80000Ϸ{ococWKW?hmB9B*OJQJphh4 kB*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh>2*B*OJQJphh|KB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh?B*OJQJphhn B*OJQJphhmkB*OJQJphh&DB*OJQJphhXt}B*OJQJphh}B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhB*OJQJph0n1u1w111111111122*2A2J2o222T3333Ź}qeYM?M?h6B*OJQJphhB*OJQJphhzB*OJQJphhpB*OJQJphhNPB*OJQJphh_mB*OJQJphhjB*OJQJphhwAB*OJQJphhn5B*OJQJphh;B*OJQJphh}B*OJQJphh`V6B*OJQJph hN h`V65B*OJQJph hN hL5B*OJQJphhLB*OJQJph333F4Q444G5W5X5Y5s56)6*66888#8_888ؽر~r~fZNBh8B*OJQJphh:B*OJQJphh% B*OJQJphh(0ZB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh19B*OJQJphh16B*OJQJphh<[B*OJQJphhD\eh]eB*OJQJphh]eB*OJQJphhcB*OJQJphhD\eh_B*OJQJphh_B*OJQJphhhB*OJQJphhB*OJQJph8)9}99999:::.;/;0;1;F;G;M;;<÷{m\PD8h'B*OJQJphh|B*OJQJphhQB*OJQJph hfhf5B*OJQJphhf5B*OJQJphhxB*OJQJphh% B*OJQJphhPB*OJQJphhHdB*OJQJphhxYB*OJQJphhw *B*OJQJphhiB*OJQJphh&DB*OJQJphh B*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhVB*OJQJph<<B<x< =S==>H>R>v>>>>?@@@AA÷{ocWKo?hnS.B*OJQJphhCB*OJQJphh<[B*OJQJphhcLB*OJQJphh(wB*OJQJphh1OB*OJQJphhFEB*OJQJphhFB*OJQJphhB*OJQJphh.B*OJQJphhLB*OJQJphh{B*OJQJphh7$B*OJQJphh9oB*OJQJphh'B*OJQJphhJqB*OJQJph?@AB^CjCCCGDDDD1EjEEE$ & F$& #$/-Ifa$gdU$$& #$/-Ifa$gdU$ & F$& #$/-Ifa$gdU$ & F$& #$/-Ifa$gdT$$& #$/-Ifa$gd>$$& #$/-If^a$gd<[AAAAB BkBBBCCOC\C^C`CiCjCkCCCCCCDDDDD-FFFGϷϫϫ{ocWch\sB*OJQJphh,B*OJQJphhccB*OJQJphhqB*OJQJphhTB*OJQJphhpB*OJQJphh`B*OJQJphhUB*OJQJphh%B*OJQJphhU2B*OJQJphhX%B*OJQJphhzB*OJQJphhnS.B*OJQJphhw^B*OJQJphE-FhGGGGHHH{HHHH9I:ILMM/N$& #$/-Ifgd0Y$& #$/-Ifgd>$$& #$/-Ifa$gd%$ & F$& #$/-Ifa$gdk$$& #$/-Ifa$gd,p$ & F$& #$/-Ifa$gdUG=G?GgGhG9I:IIBJcJwJKKK/K9KDK[KzKL LL\LLL÷{{{ocWcKhB*OJQJphh><1B*OJQJphh)B*OJQJphh%B*OJQJphhIZB*OJQJphhV-B*OJQJphhxTB*OJQJphhHB*OJQJphhh-B*OJQJphhrB*OJQJphhkB*OJQJphhgEB*OJQJphhccB*OJQJphh\sB*OJQJphh(EB*OJQJphLLLMM'M4MDMEMUMWMMMMN.N/NNNN~OOƶƅ{qfqYK?h4WYB*OJQJphh>6B*OJQJphh9h9OJQJ^Jh96OJQJ^Jh9OJQJ^Jh0YOJQJ^Jh0Yh0YH*OJQJ^Jh0Yh0Y5OJQJ\^J$h0Yh0Y56OJQJ\]^Jh0Yh0Y6OJQJ]^Jh0Yh0YOJQJ^Jh>B*OJQJph hh>5B*OJQJphhXGh>B*OJQJph/NOPuPPGQQbRSDTTbU|V}V~V}Fkd$$If<%% 6 -6-34<aytu$& #$/-Ifgd $Ifgdr$& #$/-Ifgdg}R $Ifgd6>$& #$/-Ifgd>OOPPPPP3PDPKPUPWPuPPPPPPP)QGQQQQٿ٥sesYKYht26B*OJQJphht2B*OJQJphh6>6B*OJQJphh6>B*OJQJphh_B*OJQJphh,>8B*OJQJphh66B*OJQJphh%B*OJQJphh;k6B*OJQJphhh6B*OJQJphh>NB*OJQJphhhB*OJQJphh%6B*OJQJphh%B*OJQJphQQQR4R`RaRbRlRmRnRoRRRR SSS%S&S(S䶪䞒sg[O[O[@hXGh>B*OJQJphhP2B*OJQJphhZ\B*OJQJphh B*OJQJphhT6B*OJQJph hThT6B*OJQJphhTB*OJQJphh4WYB*OJQJphh\gB*OJQJphhXGhBB*OJQJphhB6B*OJQJph hThB6B*OJQJphhBB*OJQJphht2ht2B*OJQJph(S4SUSnSSSSSSBTCTDTNTOTQTRTfTtTuTvTTTʼ|n|]OD<hTOJQJhThTOJQJhT6B*OJQJph hThT6B*OJQJphhg}R6B*OJQJphhoX}6B*OJQJphhoX}B*OJQJphhg}RB*OJQJphh2B*OJQJphh.6B*OJQJphhJ6B*OJQJphhJB*OJQJphh>56B*OJQJphh>6B*OJQJphh>B*OJQJphTTTTTTTU`UbU{V|V}V~VVVVVVVVVVVppp]H@<h?6jh?6U)h0J5B*CJOJQJ\aJph%hXGh{ B*CJOJQJaJphhXGh{ B*OJQJph hXGh{ #hXGh{ 5B*OJQJ\phh>B*OJQJphhXGh>B*OJQJphhr6B*OJQJphhrB*OJQJphhg}R6B*OJQJphh#H B*OJQJphhg}RB*OJQJphhTB*OJQJph~VVVVVVVV?Ykd$$If<06 6 -6n -34<aytYkdi$$If<06 6 -6n -34<ayt$& #$/-IfgdVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV dgdYYkdQ$$If<06 6 -6n -34<ayt$& #$/-IfgdVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVVV)h0J5B*CJOJQJ\aJphhBmHnHuhXjhXUhnhh?6jh?6UVVVVVVVVVVVV$a$ 21h:p~\"/ =!"#$% DyK mgnakabugo@educ.mak.ac.ugyK Zmailto:mgnakabugo@educ.mak.ac.ugyX;H,]ą'cd$$If!vh5%#v%:V < 6 -6-5%34<ytur$$If!vh55#v#v:V < 6 -6n -534<ytr$$If!vh55#v#v:V < 6 -6n -534<ytr$$If!vh55#v#v:V < 6 -6n -534<yt666666666vvvvvvvvv666666>6666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666H666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666666N@N { Normal dCJ_HaJmH nHsH tHDA@D Default Paragraph FontRi@R 0 Table Normal4 l4a (k( 0No List *W@* { Strong5\FOF { mainbody1B* CJOJQJaJo(ph0fROR { msonormal= dKCJOJPJQJaJtH >@"> Y0HeaderdH$>1> Y0 Char Char1OJPJQJ^J> @B> Y0FooterdH$<OQ< Y0 Char CharOJPJQJ^J6U@a6 0 Hyperlink >*B*phNKHIV ?Pw"H#$%')*+X-*..013G36789:^;j;;;G<<<<1=j===->h????@H@{@@@@9A:ADEE/FGHuHHGIIbJKDLLbM|N}N~NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN000000000000000000000000©000000000000000000 0 0 0 00 0 0 00 0 00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0000000000000000000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0X00X00X00X00X00X00X00X00X00X00@0X00X00X00@0@0X00X00X00X00X00X00LHIV }N~NNNNZ00X00X00Z00Z00 X000Z00  0247U IERp"%)+038<AGLOQ(STVV,/012345678:;<=>@BCEFGHK&?E/N~VVVV-9?ADIJLV.TNXX*,7!X( # AA@0(  B S  ?` >` ?` >` D?` ?` @` D@` @` @` A` DA` Aa Aa Ba DBa Ba Ba Ca DCa Ca C a D a DD a D a D a Ea DEa Ea Ea Fa DFa Fa Fa Ga DGa Ga Ga Ha DHa Ha Ha Ia DIa I a I!a J"a DJ#a J$a J%a K&a DK'a K(a K)a L*a DL+a L,a L-a M.a DM/a M0a M1a N2a DN3a N4a N5a O6a DO7a O8a P9a DP:a P;a P
a Q?a Q@a RAa DRBa RCa RDa SEa DSFa SGa SHa TIa DTJa TKa TLa UMa DUNa UOa UPa VQa DVRa VSa VTa WUa DWVa WWa WXa XYa DXZa X[a X\a Y]a DY^a Y_a Y`a Zaa DZba Zca Zda [ea D[fa [ga [ha \ia D\ja \ka \la ]ma D]na ]oa ]pa ^qa D^ra ^sa ^ta _ua D_va _wa `xa D`ya `za `{a a|a Da}a a~a aa ba Dba ba ba c"/;;D3<H_jx$ - 6 ?HTbuuTbUUc%%%++++242@2N2`2`2n22222666:::DEbEFFFFF[G[GHH(HWH`H`HiHHHHHHHHHHH)I2I2I;IIIDJDJRJoJ}J K KKKKKKK-L-L;L_L_LLLLLLLKMKMYM,N4N;NCNqNqNN      !"$#%'&()*,+-./0123546879;:<=>?@BACDEFGIHJLKMNOPQRTSUVWYXZ[]\^`_abdcegfhikjlmnpoqrsutvwxzy{}|~!.9BJJ;FNet, 5 > GR^o  ^o_pp%%%+)+)+32>2J2[2j2t2t22222666:::D EkE FFF'F'FaGaG'H2H2H^HhHsHsHHHHHHHHHHH0I:IEIEIIINJ_J_JyJJK%K%KKKKKK7LALALeLeLLLLLLLUM_M_M2N:NBNINzNzNN  !"$#%'&()*,+-./0123546879;:<=>?@BACDEFGIHJLKMNOPQRTSUVWYXZ[]\^`_abdcegfhikjlmnpoqrsutvwxzy{}|~9*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsplace=*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceName=*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags PlaceType8*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsCityB*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagscountry-region9>*urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttagsState ̵p>>|~  # | fhfh%/gi_#h#'':-D-R2T266;;>>&D*DDD/F3FFF"G%GGGGGGHGIMIII9J;JVJXJJJJJJKKKKKLLMMbMhMiMsMMMNNNNNNNNNNNNNNKDJ{}R-U-55a8i8+A-ANNNNNNNNNNNNNN333333TIV ^;j;<<<<?????@@@@.A9AzCDbMMNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN|z ܄B&C#"e|KLh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohp^p`OJQJo(hHh@ ^@ `OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohP^P`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohp^p`OJQJo(hHh@ ^@ `OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohP^P`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohp^p`OJQJo(hHh@ ^@ `OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohP^P`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohp^p`OJQJo(hHh@ ^@ `OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHoh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJo(hHh^`OJQJ^Jo(hHohP^P`OJQJo(hHK|z C#B                                    g~w(1b !sMm<SX%  - 6 n { O; |T?Q`rIQG')/`n]'X %gdhufhqe j2!}Yp:Z_&yz@CJ"8 #H !N~!D"~\"7$`$X%Fi&Qk'(w *>2*m+h-E-V-nS.h/0O0131><122U2t2n5?6`V6,>8mB9:[>;1B;F;Y<rP=,=k?rG@tn@eABC{C&D(E-EFE-\EFE& F8IF[[FXG WIUJwJ~3J|K1OwOPNPO;Rg}R7Sa8S%T-UTU1 V{tV~LXZXY4WY(0Z<[;{[Z\rm^_*N_z_YbIbcc5*d=de eD\eEph`iZWj4 kmkm_mnn o9oZoEpQqr5zrN u@&uy~voweo{g|}oX}Xt}> 6Hf{BL&YJpDZ}C6Sw^96>W%vPJq z>wAUnw zg(,531%TkXxY;FFo9L>Nq{iV9{[JjFHNwxT4&DRakUy16D+IZ/zLT.^pru6T=akM1,pO iZ8[%8HOY\gN (w/.:.H&2_B_1bb"wqH o@->N>To \s'0Y e+|NcGEgE^>`]ep9&nzH?Um(U;kPf}L"P2f^19/RHHdcLEOxX pq@]S}N~NNNNNNNNNNN@ 5=N@Unknown Gz Times New Roman5Symbol3& z ArialA& Arial Narrow;SimSun[SO7&{ @Calibri7&  Verdana?5 z Courier New;Wingdings"1hˆ;&qo B( B(a4`N`N >qHX $P{ 2Mary Goretti NakabugoGoretti.Nakabugo    Oh+'0   @ L Xdlt|Mary Goretti NakabugoNormalGoretti.Nakabugo113Microsoft Office Word@ZD3@J@B6 B՜.+,D՜.+,, hp|   (`N'  Title< 8@ _PID_HLINKSA Uh"mailto:Goretti.Nakabugo@mic.ul.iePf!mailto:mgnakabugo@educ.mak.ac.ug  !"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?@ABCDEFGHIJKLMOPQRSTUWXYZ[\]^_`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{}~Root Entry F6Data N1TableVJWordDocument4SummaryInformation(|DocumentSummaryInformation8CompObjqÿ  FMicrosoft Office Word Document MSWordDocWord.Document.89q
Warning: Unknown(): open(/tmp/sess_7f0e8fbe55705b458164f1413978f59a, O_RDWR) failed: Read-only file system (30) in Unknown on line 0

Warning: Unknown(): Failed to write session data (files). Please verify that the current setting of session.save_path is correct (/tmp) in Unknown on line 0