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ࡱ> ÿq` bjbjqPqP z::Xi$(   P\D4(M  L"L"L"ZM\M\M\M\M\M\M$PhSM+-H"L"+-+-M hM111+-$  jK1+-ZM11HDJ   O.ZJ"VKM0M@JS/|SDJSJL"%1V(Z*L"L"L"MM%0~L"L"L"M+-+-+-+-((( ((( ((( International Networks for Future Learning Environment Research Eric Hamilton US Air Force Academy Mary Goretti Nakabugo Makerere University, Kampala Uganda Abstract - This presentation rounds out the Global Learning Environments Interactive Symposium by discussing efforts supported by the National Science Foundation, Microsoft Research, and various international agencies to build research collaborations focusing on future learning environments. The Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) series of symposia are discussed, involving meetings in Shanghai, Singapore, and Kampala Uganda. The most recent of these, in Kampala, involved delegates from seven African countries, the USA and Japan. A large part of the meeting involved building a research community in mathematics education focusing on the use of what are called model-eliciting-activities (MEAs) in mathematics classes. Index Terms international networks, collaboration, future learning environments Introduction to The Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) Symposium Series This AERA presentation originates in a series of National Science Foundation supported international symposia on advanced developments and research issues in learning technology and future learning environments. These Distributed Learning and Collaboration or DLAC symposia have taken the place in Shanghai (2006) and Singapore (2007) supported by NSFs Office of International Science and Engineering  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton20054724726Hamilton, E.Carmona, LupitaShen, RuiminInternational Collaboration on Web-based Learning: Theory, Research and Practice 2005National Science Award 0456434 (US Air Force Academy)DLAC-I GrantHamilton20071205120513Hamilton, E.Carmona, G.Looi, Chee-KitJacobson, M. U.S.-Singapore Seminar: A Collaboration with the Learning Science Laboratory of Singapore on Envisioning Learning Environments of the Future 2007National Science Foundation Grant OISE-0722334[1, 2] and the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research, in Kampala Uganda (2007)  ADDIN EN.CITE Nakabugo20071455145510Nakabugo, M.G. and E. HamiltonModeling In Mathematics Learning: Approaches For Classrooms Of The Future2007Makerere University, Kampala Ugandahttp://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/[3] and Tbingen Germany (June 2008)  ADDIN EN.CITE Hesse20081485148544Hesse, F.Engelmann, T.Baumesiter, T.Dehler, J.Hamilton, E.Participation and personalization: The main factors of social software (DLAC-IV) (http://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/dlac/)January 6, 20082008[4], supported by NSFs Human and Social Dynamics Program  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton200681581513Hamilton, E.Carmona, G.Hesse, F.Shen, R.HSD: Research Community Development: Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) for Next Generation Educational Settings2006National Science Foundation Award BCS-0623166 DLAC-III-Tuebingen[5]. The DLAC meetings have also attracted significant support from agencies and universities outside of the US. One indicator of this outside support, for example, is that the Shanghai DLAC, for which funding was only available for a bilateral meeting involving US and PRC investigators, eventually involved participation from thirteen countries through additional external sponsorship. Federal agencies including the Australian Research Council, National Institute for Education in Singapore, the UK Economics and Social Science Research Council and the German DFG have contributed to the DLAC series, with the DFG co-sponsoring this forthcoming (June) DLAC meeting in Tbingen. Through support of its government agencies, the Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico (UNAM) hosted a DLAC-related meeting in Tlaxcala Mexico in October 2007  ADDIN EN.CITE Huesca20071489148917Huesca, ErikCervantes, FranciscoInternational Workshop on Distance Learning and Collaboration (http://www.iwdlc.cuaed.unam.mx/wiki/index.php/Main_Page)2007[6]. The Kampala DLAC meeting was supported by Microsoft Research  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton20071452145213Hamilton, E. Virtual and Face-to-Face Workshops to Organize the International Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) Research Network 2007Microsoft Research USA[7] with travel support from Hiroshima Universitys Center for International Cooperation in Education (CICE) and the US Air Force Academy. Why this History is Important. This DLAC history is important to recount briefly for several reasons. It is foundational to nurturing a network devoted to research on learning environments of the future, a network that relies heavily not only on NSF but partners internationally. We are developing something on the order of a virtual research center, but shifting away from a model of wholly centralized sponsorship to one of distributed sponsorship. More importantly, virtual networks require this kind of nucleus of relationships, history and trust to grow and to progress as they build social and intellectual capital. And, the DLAC groundwork to date evidences genuine commitment and success in four defining features for the formal network we are attempting to grow, including 1) heavy and explicit focus on building international collaborations between early career (from PhD-2 to PhD+6) researchers; 2) multidisciplinary collaborations and paradigm-blending between research communities that do not typically interact in professional conferences or literatures; engagement of developing countries as value-added research partners; and systematic effort to advance national goals for participation of historically underrepresented minorities. Rationale for International Exploration of Future Learning Environments By future learning environments we mean a generational horizon of twenty to thirty years. A series of eight principles discussed elsewhere  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton200685185110Hamilton, EInternational collaborations blending new pedagogies and new technologies in engineering education: principles and examplesFifth Global Colloquium on Engineering Education2006Rio de JaneiroAmerican Society for Engineering EducationRioPaperHamiltonin press1094109410Hamilton, E.Principles and Grand Challenges: A Prospectus for the Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Community2007 International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learningin pressRutgers, NJ[8, 9] and describing future learning environments appears in Table 1. Computing technologies are rapidly altering the landscape of the possible in education. Some of the most compelling areas of promise include social software and networking  ADDIN EN.CITE Hesse20081485148544Hesse, F.Engelmann, T.Baumesiter, T.Dehler, J.Hamilton, E.Participation and personalization: The main factors of social software (DLAC-IV) (http://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/dlac/)January 6, 20082008[4], virtual collaboration spaces  ADDIN EN.CITE Dede200349549527Dede, Christopher Studying Situated Learning and Knowledge Transfer in a Multi-user Virtual Environment2003National Science Foundation Award REC-0310188 to Harvard University[10], immersive games  ADDIN EN.CITE Shaffer200782882849Shaffer, D. W.How computer games help children learn.2007New YorkPalgrave Macmillan [11], artificial intelligence and its renderings in the form of learner modeling  ADDIN EN.CITE Kay200050750747Kay, Judy A1A1 Basser Department of Computer Science University of Sydney AUSTRALIA 2006 judy@cs.usyd.edu.auAccretion Representation for Scrutable Student Modelling Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems514-5231839Chapter: p. 51420002000Lecture Notes in Computer ScienceISSN: 0302-9743 3-540-67655-4 article745815Springer-Verlag GmbH [12], virtual human agents and dialog systems  ADDIN EN.CITE Cole20003013016Ron ColeCreating the Next Generation of Intelligent Animated Conversational AgentsITR grant IIS-00861072000National Science Foundation[13]; and visualization systems  ADDIN EN.CITE Keller20055425425Keller, Tanja Grimm, Matthias Tergan, Sigmar-Olaf Keller, Tanja(1) Institut fr Wissensmedien (IWM), Konrad-Adenauer-Strae 40, 72072 Tuebingen, Germany Email: t.keller@iwm-kmrc.de (2) Zentrum fr Graphische Datenverarbeitung e.V., Fraunhoferstrae 5, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany Email: matthias.grimm@zgdv.deInformation Visualization The Impact of Dimensionality and Color Coding of Information Visualizations on Knowledge AcquisitionLecture Notes in Computer Science Knowledge and Information Visualization: Searching for Synergies 167 3426 / 20052005Springer-Verlag GmbH3-540-26921-5ISSN: 0302-9743 DOI: 10.1007/b138081 DOI: 10.1007/11510154_9 [14]. A growing recognition of modeling in the formation and maturation of complex reasoning structures is giving rise to more systematic implementation of modeling in K16 STEM curriculum  ADDIN EN.CITE Gobert20041121112113Gobert, J.Horwitz, P.Tinker, B.Buckley, B.Wilensky, U.Levy, S.Dede, C.Modeling across the curriculum: scaling up Modeling using Technology13492004Mahweh, NJLawrence Erlbaum AssociatesLesh20078618616Lesh, R.Hamilton, EKaput, J. (Eds)Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Education2007Mahweh, NJLawrence Erlbaum Associates[15, 16]. It is also spurring consideration of modeling activities shared in synchronous and asynchronous communications that involve youngsters or college students and reshape the potential for authentic and educationally powerful cross-cultural experiences  ADDIN EN.CITE Nakabugo20071455145510Nakabugo, M.G. and E. HamiltonModeling In Mathematics Learning: Approaches For Classrooms Of The Future2007Makerere University, Kampala Ugandahttp://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/[3]. The area of modeling as a potential strategic direction in basic education development in mathematics was the rationale behind the DLAC meeting in Kampala. Modeling By models we refer to the structure of conceptual systems that an individual possesses to solve authentic or real-world problems. Modeling is the dynamic process of creating and manipulating conceptual models in problem-solving. Modeling, in this use of the term, is essentially the adaptive process of creating solutions to previously unsolved problems. A large share of research on modeling has focused on how students mathematize elements of a problem situation, i.e., impose logical or mathematical understandings or interpretations, and how they make judgments about what parts of a situation are useful to consider with mathematical representations  ADDIN EN.CITE Lesh20078388388385Richard LeshJim KaputLesh, R.Hamilton, E.Kaput, J.What Kind of Instructional Activities Are Needed To Support the Development of New Levels and Types of Understanding and Ability?Models and Modeling as Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Curriculum2007Mahweh, NJErlbaum. [17]. (In mathematics education research, mathematizing a problem is sometimes used synonymously with the term modeling.) Table 1: Eight Principles of Future Learning Environments (Appearing in  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton200685185110Hamilton, EInternational collaborations blending new pedagogies and new technologies in engineering education: principles and examplesFifth Global Colloquium on Engineering Education2006Rio de JaneiroAmerican Society for Engineering EducationRioPaperHamiltonin press1094109410Hamilton, E.Principles and Grand Challenges: A Prospectus for the Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Community2007 International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learningin pressRutgers, NJ[8, 9]) Increased sightlines in the classroom greater ability for everyone in a learning environment, teachers and students alike, to see conceptual models others are using; content, cognition and affect become more visible. Increased emphasis on models and modeling a greater stress on systems of ideas and relationships both in how learning sequences are structured and in how assessment is carried out; connections and the structure and relationships of ideas become as salient as the ideas themselves. Increased connectedness individuals become more meaningfully connected in the learning experience to each other, to teachers, and to those outside of the classroom, not only through collaborative group work but also through evolving social software and collaboration software systems. Increased one-to-one-ness in the classroom a greater sense of individualization and customization for the individual learner under the management of a teacher, emulating a one-to-one tutoring experience. Increased fluidity of learning context transfer to and from virtual systems, greater emphasis on heterogeneous competencies functioning together, greater integration of cognitive, social and affective dimensions, more interoperability of individual-social-machine knowledge forms; a principle of hybrid modes of learning modes and content. Increased emphasis on generativity and creativity - Learners function in more imaginative settings in which they are able to be more imaginative. Increased emphasis on self-regulatory competencies Learning environments will increasingly offload onto students tasks previously carried out by teaching professionals. Teaching professionals will then engage more sophisticated competencies and skill sets. Increased interactional bandwidth the capacity of the learning environment to mediate meaningful content and affective representations that are shared by all participants. Much of the original research on models and modeling has involved problem-scenarios formulated as what have been referred to as model-eliciting activities, or MEAs  ADDIN EN.CITE Lesh200363163163120Lesh, R. Doerr, H.Beyond constructivism: A models & modeling perspective on mathematics teaching, learning, and problems solving2003Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum.Lesh20078388388385Richard LeshJim KaputLesh, R.Hamilton, E.Kaput, J.What Kind of Instructional Activities Are Needed To Support the Development of New Levels and Types of Understanding and Ability?Models and Modeling as Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Curriculum2007Mahweh, NJErlbaum. [17, 18]. MEAs are typically carried out in small groups of students. They are identifiable by their alignment with six principles that have been used in both presecondary  ADDIN EN.CITE Lesh20001721721725Lesh, R.Hoover, M.Hole, B.Kelly, A.Post, T.Kelly, A.Lesh, R.Principles for developing thought revealing activities for students and teachers. The handbook of research design in mathematics and science education.2000Mahweh NJErlbaum[19] and, more recently, in college environments such as the undergraduate engineering program at Purdue University. Purdue has moved into full adoption of MEAs for introductory courses  ADDIN EN.CITE Diefes-Dux200465865865810Diefes-Dux, H.Moore, T.Zawojewski, J.Imbrie, P.K.A Framework for Posing Open-Ended Engineering Problems: Model-Eliciting ActivitiesProceedings, Frontiers in Education Conference - group of 3 HA Diefes-Dux, T Moore, J Zawojewski, PK Imbrie, D - Proceedings, Frontiers in Education Conference, http://fie. , 2004 - rlab.cs.utep.edu 2004Diefes-Dux200482382382310Diefes-Dux, HeidiFollman, Deborah Haghighi, Kamyar Imbrie, P.K. Montgomery, Robert Oakes, WilliamWanka, Phillip Work in Progress: Establishing Formal Academic Programs in Engineering Education34th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference2004October 20 23, 2004 Savannah, GAhttp://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie2004/papers/1666.pdf[20, 21]. A modeling approach for engineering education is beginning to take deeper hold. A consortium of universities, led by the University of Pittsburghs School of Engineering and including the University of Minnesota, California State San Luis Obispo, Purdue University, the Colorado School of Mines, and the Air Force Academy was recently awarded by NSFs Course Curriculum and Laboratory (CCLI) Program a comprehensive grant to extend the MEA approach more broadly through the undergraduate engineering curriculum. The July 2007 thirteenth international conference on the teaching of mathematical modeling and applications (http://ictma13.org) was linked to the Kampala DLAC meeting through daily VTC meetings. NSFs Human and Social Dynamics Program currently supports a partnership with Englands Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) for research seminars designed in part to introduce models and modeling to UK researchers from a variety of life science and engineering fields  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton2007 (recommended)87287287213Hamilton, E.Lesh, RHoyles, R.Schofield, M..Enhancing and Assessing Complex Reasoning through Models and Modeling: UK-US Collaborative Research.2007 (recommended)Supplement to NSF 0433373 (Assessing and Enhancing Complex Reasoning, Hamilton PI)NSFUKSupplementHamilton200787287287213Hamilton, E.Lesh, RHoyles, R.Schofield, M..Enhancing and Assessing Complex Reasoning through Models and Modeling: UK-US Collaborative Research.2007 (recommended)Supplement to NSF 0433373 (Assessing and Enhancing Complex Reasoning, Hamilton PI)NSFUKSupplement[22]. A broad account of mathematical and scientific models and modeling in 21st century workforce settings, and the use of models and modeling as a foundation for mathematics education curriculum is the subject of a forthcoming volume  ADDIN EN.CITE Lesh20076366366Lesh, R.Hamilton, EKaput, J. (Eds)Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Education2007Mahweh, NJErlbaum. [16] that summarizes important research and principles for implementation at both K12 and postsecondary levels. One central assumption of modeling research is the notion that logical, mathematical, and scientific thought functions as a set of systems, where ideas are connected to and embedded in contexts in which they are learned and used. This may seem intuitively self-evident, but it is not a guiding assumption of typical mathematics and engineering education, where accumulation of often-times disconnected concepts is more important than being able to create models for the use of those concepts in problem contexts. Another central assumption of modeling research is that while problem-solving at times is private, in real-life situations, especially including workplace settings, problem-solving more commonly is carried out with others. The Kampala Meeting The modeling approach to mathematics is the subject of a new edited volume, Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Education. The DLAC meeting in Kampala sought ways to consider the modeling and MEA approach to mathematics education for countries engaged in basic education development and for which nascent educational practices are proving ineffective in building interest and motivation in mathematics. In many cases, the curriculum is tied to dated and westernized curriculum that was not especially successful in their countries of origin, is not culturally connected, and is certainly inadequate for twenty-first century learning. The DLAC meeting in Kampala was devoted to sharing with participants from six African countries the basic features of MEAs, and inviting participants to develop and test their own MEAs for use in their home institutions and schools. A website for the meeting with the program appears at  HYPERLINK "http://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/" http://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/ Common Questions In This Interactive Symposium This section discusses the common questions posed across participants in the interactive session. 1. What lessons have been learned from these global programs that help to better conceptualized what it means to work effectively with international communities? And 2. In what ways does guiding faculty and students in a paradigm shift change ways of thinking and doing for collaborating with international communities? Discussion. One of the most important lessons is that the traditional westernized notion of directed help is a flawed paradigm. Large scale and transformative change is generative and spurred by local and national communities. Ironically, the most important lesson we took into our efforts entailed coming alongside partners seeking to gain something rather than to give something. What we sought to gain were research partners who could help us explore exciting new areas by rendering our research questions into their own language, culture and experience. This is the essence of research: to test theories and frameworks under variation, and working with African, co-equal partners, is a crucial pathway. This does not mean being blind to or denying crucial infrastructural problems. Much of our research entails use of advanced technologies that are not so readily available in developing countries. It was crucial for us to work with the technology infrastructures at hand and in such a way as to leverage those that are forthcoming. In that sense, the models we shared were not inherently technology-oriented. The problem-based learning approach that we use called model-eliciting activities, or MEAs, focuses on well-defined principles for eliciting from learners strategies for expressing, testing and revising conceptual models as they work on realistic problems; technology is not required, but the approach permits the inclusion of technology where possible. 3. What are some of the strengths and obstacles for engaging in international work? How can those strengths and abilities be used to improve global research and collaboration? Discussion. Obviously, the availability of new communications technologies is altering the way we connect and interact. There is a natural human eagerness to connect to others; while this impulse is not necessarily the most salient dimension of literature in international educational research collaboration, it is one of the most powerful animators of such collaboration and should be leveraged. In our interactions with Africans, we find a sense of private celebration simply in the collaboration itself. There is wisdom in recognizing this energizing element. A crucial asset is the availability of synchronous communication capabilities. Even limited videoconferencing proved to be an important element of connecting groups between the US, Japan and Africa. An unexpected obstacle comes in the form of moving money. Bureaucracies that have strict rules on how money can be moved and spent interact with each other and create what might be termed synergistic dysfunctions. In our case, we faced the difficulty of a US military academy moving $15,000 to an government research office in London to move money through a massive US government disbursement system to a university in financial straits in Uganda through a banking system that would not honor single check distributions over $10,000USD. Heroic efforts in any single one of these bureaucracies was insufficient to prevent cascading problems through the chain of bureaucracies. The net result was a meltdown on finances for the project within Uganda with the investigator there intervening to personally covering US expenses for over half of a year, an absolutely unacceptable way to run a collaboration. We have seen this problem arise in numerous other collaboration undertakings. Even small amounts of money require more attention and advance work than most realize. In the US, we have learned that any kind of systemic educational reform requires unified effort for good across a range of subsystems: changes in instruction entail seeding or catalyzing change in teacher professional development, curriculum and assessment; this entails mobilizing school partnerships, especially with the higher education community but with other community stakeholders, around reform. Resources with divergent priorities must be aligned and accountability systems must work in connection with reform directions. Cross-cutting priorities of diversity and school performance must maintain visibility and traction through reform. The overall policy structure must support rather than undermine change. Similar emphasis on systemic connections apply in other cultures and with other international collaborators. We have discovered that these connections must be at least appreciably understood in working with collaborators. On the one hand, finding influential and red-tape-cutting partners who can establish a viable collaboration with traction is powerful. On the other, it is essential to grasp the connections that drive the policy, resource, partnership and cultural context. 4. What do these programs tell us about the skills and dispositions that are needed for successful global collaboration? Discussion. One of the most crucial developments in education research over the past ten years has been the ascendancy of design research. With striking parallels to practices of the engineering profession and its ethos of innovation, aesthetics, and problem-solving within constraint systems, education researchers are finding that knowledge generation that invokes multiple theoretical and practical frameworks is generally more effective than slavish adherence to single frameworks and ideologies. Adaptive problem solving in education research entails flexibility and a capacity to mix, match, iterate, refine, express, test and revise approaches and solution models. These same traits similarly loom large in global collaboration, with some interesting collateral points. Just as theoretical frameworks might be considered conceptual and knowledge generation tools that should be embraced and flexibly employed to advance research ends, so should cultural, political and social distinctives be considered dynamics to embrace and flexibly leverage to advance research ends. For example: Collaborations with African partners are fundamentally different than with Chinese partners. In the PRC, a centralized government and centralized telecommunication makes it possible to indertake collaborations that stretch across the country and into western and underserved regions of the country. In Africa, the seeming limitless number of individual national jurisdictions fundamentally fragments the opportunities for collaborations. It also, though, fuels variation which serves research purposes. Collaboration with Japanese partners working in developing countries also has a unique vector. Basic educational development is a much more salient feature of Japanese diplomacy and aid than of US diplomacy and aid. The models for collaboration in Japan and the US are different. Japanese cultural patterns of consensus and co-equality may be more suited for collaborative educational research than US aid models, while US cultural traditions of innovation and flexibility may serve an important role in generative and creative collaborations. Some middleware skills are indispensable for successful collaboration. Expertise and creativity by the collaborator or the collaboration team on information and communication technologies, the ability to use social software and messaging systems, and to handle multiple mobile communication systems are indispensible. Collaboration demands implicit respect that is indifferent to the resourcing level that partners bring in, and makes no demands based on differential resourcing. Prompt responses to communication, clarity of expectations and definitions, willingness to communicate outside of business hours to account for time zone differences are all essential traits. Acknowledgments Portions of the research presented in this article have been supported by Microsoft Research, by the National Science Foundation, and by the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research. The views in this paper do not reflect those of sponsoring organizations. References  ADDIN EN.REFLIST 1. Hamilton, E., L. Carmona, and R. Shen, International Collaboration on Web-based Learning: Theory, Research and Practice 2005: National Science Award 0456434 (US Air Force Academy). 2. Hamilton, E., et al., U.S.-Singapore Seminar: A Collaboration with the Learning Science Laboratory of Singapore on Envisioning Learning Environments of the Future 2007, National Science Foundation Grant OISE-0722334. 3. Nakabugo, M.G.a.E.H. Modeling In Mathematics Learning: Approaches For Classrooms Of The Future. 2007. Makerere University, Kampala Uganda:  HYPERLINK "http://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/" http://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/. 4. Hesse, F., et al., Participation and personalization: The main factors of social software (DLAC-IV) ( HYPERLINK "http://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/dlac/)" http://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/dlac/). 2008. 5. Hamilton, E., et al., HSD: Research Community Development: Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) for Next Generation Educational Settings. 2006, National Science Foundation Award BCS-0623166 6. Huesca, E. and F. Cervantes, International Workshop on Distance Learning and Collaboration ( HYPERLINK "http://www.iwdlc.cuaed.unam.mx/wiki/index.php/Main_Page)" http://www.iwdlc.cuaed.unam.mx/wiki/index.php/Main_Page). 2007. 7. Hamilton, E., Virtual and Face-to-Face Workshops to Organize the International Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) Research Network 2007, Microsoft Research USA. 8. Hamilton, E. International collaborations blending new pedagogies and new technologies in engineering education: principles and examples. in Fifth Global Colloquium on Engineering Education. 2006. Rio de Janeiro: American Society for Engineering Education. 9. Hamilton, E. Principles and Grand Challenges: A Prospectus for the Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Community. in 2007 International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. in press. Rutgers, NJ. 10. Dede, C., Studying Situated Learning and Knowledge Transfer in a Multi-user Virtual Environment. 2003, National Science Foundation Award REC-0310188 to Harvard University. 11. Shaffer, D.W., How computer games help children learn. 2007, Palgrave Macmillan: New York. 12. Kay, J.A., Accretion Representation for Scrutable Student Modelling, in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. 2000, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. p. 514-523. 13. Cole, R., Creating the Next Generation of Intelligent Animated Conversational Agents. ITR grant IIS-0086107. 2000: National Science Foundation. 14. Keller, T. and M. Grimm, Information Visualization The Impact of Dimensionality and Color Coding of Information Visualizations on Knowledge Acquisition, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Knowledge and Information Visualization: Searching for Synergies S.-O. Tergan and T. Keller, Editors. 2005, Springer-Verlag GmbH. p. 167 15. Gobert, J., et al., Modeling across the curriculum: scaling up Modeling using Technology. 2004, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahweh, NJ. p. 1349. 16. Lesh, R., E. Hamilton, and J.E. Kaput, Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Education. 2007, Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 17. Lesh, R. and J. Kaput, What Kind of Instructional Activities Are Needed To Support the Development of New Levels and Types of Understanding and Ability?, in Models and Modeling as Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Curriculum, R. Lesh, E. Hamilton, and J. Kaput, Editors. 2007, Erlbaum. : Mahweh, NJ. 18. Lesh, R. and H. Doerr, Beyond constructivism: A models & modeling perspective on mathematics teaching, learning, and problems solving. 2003, Lawrence Erlbaum.: Mahwah, NJ. 19. Lesh, R., et al., Principles for developing thought revealing activities for students and teachers., in The handbook of research design in mathematics and science education., A. Kelly and R. Lesh, Editors. 2000, Erlbaum: Mahweh NJ. 20. Diefes-Dux, H., et al. A Framework for Posing Open-Ended Engineering Problems: Model-Eliciting Activities. in Proceedings, Frontiers in Education Conference. 2004. 21. Diefes-Dux, H., et al. Work in Progress: Establishing Formal Academic Programs in Engineering Education. in 34th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference. 2004. Savannah, GA. 22. Hamilton, E., et al., Enhancing and Assessing Complex Reasoning through Models and Modeling: UK-US Collaborative Research. 2007 (recommended), NSF: Supplement to NSF 0433373 (Assessing and Enhancing Complex Reasoning, Hamilton PI). 23. AAAS, Benchmarks for science literacy. 1993, American Association for the Advancement of Science: Washington, DC.   Eric R. Hamilton, Director, Center for Research on Learning and Teaching, US Air Force Academy. Effective April 1, 2008, Associate Dean for Education, Graduate School of Education, Pepperdine University, eric.hamilton@pepperdine.edu  Mary Goretti Nakabugo, Senior Lecturer, School of Education, Makerere University, Kampala Uganda, gnakabugo@yahoo.co.uk     Hamilton and Nakabugo (draft) Global Learning Environments Interactive Symposium March 25, 2008 2008 AERA Annual Conference and Exposition, New York City  PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1 ?@AOPRgh~ , - vw}~%&)*µꉦꦉ~~vrvrv~vrvrvhYjjh@mUh@m hrQKh7 hlh7hlh76 h1h7 h~h7h~jhFh~jCJaJjhn"h~j0JUh~jCJaJh7CJaJhFh7CJaJjhn"h70JUh7 h#bh~jhaM h~jh~j,ABRhi - ""'':JCJPgd2gdaMgd@m@&gd7gd7gd7'gd7gd7X*LM  ""#"&"'"""""%% &;&'6(T(h(i(|-}-----.!.".J.S.q.r.s.00001113333%3&3'355"5#5$5o5¹¹h2h2CJjh2h2CJUh2 heh@m h3h@mhb)6 h@mh@mhaMhYjjh@mUh@mIo5p5q59999999;;;;;;;@@@@@@AAA7F8F@FAFGFGIIIIIFJLJJJKKLLUPVPZP[PPPPQQQQ/V0V6V7V8V9V:V_VVطخh>()h@mCJhLh@mCJaJjh>()h@m5CJU h@m5CJh>()h@m5CJ h@mh@m heh@mhYjjh@mUh@mBP9V:VW0Xx,,K/ & FV$&#$$d%d&d'd+D-D./7$8$H$M N6_O6_P6_Q6_b$gdFMCV$&#$$d%d&d'd+D-D./M N6_O6_P6_Q6_`b$gdFMB$V$&#$$d%d&d'd+D-D./M N6_O6_P6_Q6_a$b$gdFMVVW>WWWXX#X/X0XGXXNYOY{Y ZFZx[[\ \ \$\%\<\\\ ].]]]]_^`^LdMdUdVdddqhrhvhwh-i.iupvp~ppZt[tzzzzzz{{{}}}}}}~~߀^ٿٻh2 hKh@m hs>2h@mhYjjh@mUh@mh>()h@mCJo(h>()h@m5CJh>()h@mCJ h@mCJH0XOY Zx[ \ ]]}߀MSW`gd2`gdaMgd21gdYjgd@mK/ & FV$&#$$d%d&d'd+D-D./7$8$H$M N6_O6_P6_Q6_b$gdFM^߄26QRlmwzUVϙЙڙݙ ڤ 6¾|q|qhFMhYjCJaJjhFMhYjCJUaJhYjnH tH h7 h@mh@mh2h25h@mh2h26h2h@m6hYjh2haMh2CJhaMhaM0JCJjhaMhaMCJUhaMhaMCJjhaMhaMCJUhaM)WlmmUVϙЙs 5ڤĦ$ & FPd^`Pa$gdFMgdFMgdYjgd2gd2gd@m`gd26ܦj./xyzΨ !VWXt456NͫΫw|puٺ󕩇sjhFM6CJaJ&jhFMhYj6CJUaJhFMhYj0J6CJaJ&jhFMhYj6CJUaJ jhFMhYj6CJUaJhFMhYj0JCJaJ#jhFMhYjCJUaJjhFMhYjCJUaJhFMhYjCJaJhFMhYj6CJaJ)T=حM0;޷UVXEgd~j 0^`0gd7)$ & FPd^`Pa$gdFMu;®.2ǯjQ[ڲ[`X3V۶ pVWXYEF¹ĹŹǹȹʹ˹͹¾¾jhMUhM h[Ch;h;jh;0JUh7jhFMhYjCJUaJhFM6CJaJhFMhYjCJaJhFMhYj6CJaJ?ùĹƹǹɹʹ̹͹.h$ & FPd^`Pa$gdFM$a$$ `'a$  !(gd7͹.hiÿh7hMh;mHnHujh;U h;5h~jh;5\h~jh;5h;haMh;5CJaJ 9 0&PP:p7/ =!"#8$% = 0&PP:pFM/ =!`"`#$% P hDyK yK xhttp://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/DyK yK xhttp://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/DyK yK Phttp://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/dlac/)DyK yK rhttp://www.iwdlc.cuaed.unam.mx/wiki/index.php/Main_Page)4<@< YjNormalCJ_HmH sH tHL@L  Heading 1$$@&a$ 5:CJF@F  Heading 2$$@&a$5V@V  Heading 3$<@&5CJOJQJ\^JaJ`@`  Heading 4 $<5$7$8$9D@&H$5CJOJQJtH Z@Z  Heading 5<5$7$8$9D@&H$CJOJQJtH V@V  Heading 6<5$7$8$9D@&H$ 6CJtH V@V  Heading 7<5$7$8$9D@&H$ OJQJtH Z@Z  Heading 8<5$7$8$9D@&H$6OJQJtH ` @`  Heading 9 <5$7$8$9D@&H$56CJOJQJtH DA@D Default Paragraph FontViV  Table Normal :V 44 la (k(No List <B@< 0 Body Text$h`ha$0U@0 Hyperlink>*B*4>@4 #bTitle$a$CJ0aJ0RY"R  Document Map-D M OJQJ^J6O26 (lAbstract$a$5BOBB First Paragraph `6OR6 #bAuthorCJ\]aJ2Ob2 Bullets  & FB@rB Header$ !a$5CJROR References & F hx^hCJaJ4 @4 Footer  !6)@6 Page NumberOJQJ:@:  Footnote TextCJH&@H Footnote Reference H*mH sH ^O^ 1Section Heading$a$5:_HmH sH tH JOJ 70Figure Heading$a$ ;CJaJPOP qI Sub Headings xx6_HmH sH tH \O\ 70Figure Captions $a$:CJ_HaJmH sH tH POP Text)!$d1$5$7$8$9DH$`a$tH HO"H chairlist"dd[$\$ CJaJtH FV@1F FollowedHyperlink >*B* ph^^@B^ Normal (Web)$dd[$\$CJOJPJQJ^JaJtH $OQ$ bold12e@b HTML Preformatted7& 2( Px 4 #\'*.25@9OJPJQJ^JtH :OQr: 1 Affiliation'CJaJFOF l Abstract Char5_HmH sH tH4O4 d3 Table text)aJVVl6HVisiting ProffesorCJOJQJ^JaJphP"@P Caption+xx]`5PJ\tH DOD T BodyNoIndent,dd`DD j Balloon Text-CJOJQJaJnn JH\ Table Grid7:V.0.PJnOn @m List Paragraph#/$<<^`a$m$CJOJQJnHtH0O0 @m Char ChartH6O6 3Yj PaperBodyText1<O1< 1YjPaperBodyText CharO~hk;ABRhi-:BCBH9N:NO0POQ RxS T UUuxx|}M}}}S~W~~~lmmUVϑБs 5ڜĞT=إM0;ޯUVXEñıƱDZɱʱ̱ͱ.h000'0'0'0000000000000000:B0:B0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B01000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000I00I0000h@0I00'@0I00'@0I00'@0I00'@0I0 0 ,)@0@0@0I00' ++*o5V^6u͹^abdfhjlP0XW_cegik`v } % ) L "&h |%%r&(()++&+-"-p-1113338897>@>=?AADUHZHI/N6N_VL\U\\q`v`-auh~hZlrrsuu||} .y W4VQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQXQXXXĕ!t  ,b$#za>lyeF@ 0(  B S  ?H0(  @8 |v9 u: u;  v? 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ࡱ> ÿq` bjbjqPqP z::Xi$(   P\D4(M  L"L"L"ZM\M\M\M\M\M\M$PhSM+-H"L"+-+-M hM111+-$  jK1+-ZM11HDJ   O.ZJ"VKM0M@JS/|SDJSJL"%1V(Z*L"L"L"MM%0~L"L"L"M+-+-+-+-((( ((( ((( International Networks for Future Learning Environment Research Eric Hamilton US Air Force Academy Mary Goretti Nakabugo Makerere University, Kampala Uganda Abstract - This presentation rounds out the Global Learning Environments Interactive Symposium by discussing efforts supported by the National Science Foundation, Microsoft Research, and various international agencies to build research collaborations focusing on future learning environments. The Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) series of symposia are discussed, involving meetings in Shanghai, Singapore, and Kampala Uganda. The most recent of these, in Kampala, involved delegates from seven African countries, the USA and Japan. A large part of the meeting involved building a research community in mathematics education focusing on the use of what are called model-eliciting-activities (MEAs) in mathematics classes. Index Terms international networks, collaboration, future learning environments Introduction to The Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) Symposium Series This AERA presentation originates in a series of National Science Foundation supported international symposia on advanced developments and research issues in learning technology and future learning environments. These Distributed Learning and Collaboration or DLAC symposia have taken the place in Shanghai (2006) and Singapore (2007) supported by NSFs Office of International Science and Engineering  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton20054724726Hamilton, E.Carmona, LupitaShen, RuiminInternational Collaboration on Web-based Learning: Theory, Research and Practice 2005National Science Award 0456434 (US Air Force Academy)DLAC-I GrantHamilton20071205120513Hamilton, E.Carmona, G.Looi, Chee-KitJacobson, M. U.S.-Singapore Seminar: A Collaboration with the Learning Science Laboratory of Singapore on Envisioning Learning Environments of the Future 2007National Science Foundation Grant OISE-0722334[1, 2] and the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research, in Kampala Uganda (2007)  ADDIN EN.CITE Nakabugo20071455145510Nakabugo, M.G. and E. HamiltonModeling In Mathematics Learning: Approaches For Classrooms Of The Future2007Makerere University, Kampala Ugandahttp://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/[3] and Tbingen Germany (June 2008)  ADDIN EN.CITE Hesse20081485148544Hesse, F.Engelmann, T.Baumesiter, T.Dehler, J.Hamilton, E.Participation and personalization: The main factors of social software (DLAC-IV) (http://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/dlac/)January 6, 20082008[4], supported by NSFs Human and Social Dynamics Program  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton200681581513Hamilton, E.Carmona, G.Hesse, F.Shen, R.HSD: Research Community Development: Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) for Next Generation Educational Settings2006National Science Foundation Award BCS-0623166 DLAC-III-Tuebingen[5]. The DLAC meetings have also attracted significant support from agencies and universities outside of the US. One indicator of this outside support, for example, is that the Shanghai DLAC, for which funding was only available for a bilateral meeting involving US and PRC investigators, eventually involved participation from thirteen countries through additional external sponsorship. Federal agencies including the Australian Research Council, National Institute for Education in Singapore, the UK Economics and Social Science Research Council and the German DFG have contributed to the DLAC series, with the DFG co-sponsoring this forthcoming (June) DLAC meeting in Tbingen. Through support of its government agencies, the Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mxico (UNAM) hosted a DLAC-related meeting in Tlaxcala Mexico in October 2007  ADDIN EN.CITE Huesca20071489148917Huesca, ErikCervantes, FranciscoInternational Workshop on Distance Learning and Collaboration (http://www.iwdlc.cuaed.unam.mx/wiki/index.php/Main_Page)2007[6]. The Kampala DLAC meeting was supported by Microsoft Research  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton20071452145213Hamilton, E. Virtual and Face-to-Face Workshops to Organize the International Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) Research Network 2007Microsoft Research USA[7] with travel support from Hiroshima Universitys Center for International Cooperation in Education (CICE) and the US Air Force Academy. Why this History is Important. This DLAC history is important to recount briefly for several reasons. It is foundational to nurturing a network devoted to research on learning environments of the future, a network that relies heavily not only on NSF but partners internationally. We are developing something on the order of a virtual research center, but shifting away from a model of wholly centralized sponsorship to one of distributed sponsorship. More importantly, virtual networks require this kind of nucleus of relationships, history and trust to grow and to progress as they build social and intellectual capital. And, the DLAC groundwork to date evidences genuine commitment and success in four defining features for the formal network we are attempting to grow, including 1) heavy and explicit focus on building international collaborations between early career (from PhD-2 to PhD+6) researchers; 2) multidisciplinary collaborations and paradigm-blending between research communities that do not typically interact in professional conferences or literatures; engagement of developing countries as value-added research partners; and systematic effort to advance national goals for participation of historically underrepresented minorities. Rationale for International Exploration of Future Learning Environments By future learning environments we mean a generational horizon of twenty to thirty years. A series of eight principles discussed elsewhere  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton200685185110Hamilton, EInternational collaborations blending new pedagogies and new technologies in engineering education: principles and examplesFifth Global Colloquium on Engineering Education2006Rio de JaneiroAmerican Society for Engineering EducationRioPaperHamiltonin press1094109410Hamilton, E.Principles and Grand Challenges: A Prospectus for the Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Community2007 International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learningin pressRutgers, NJ[8, 9] and describing future learning environments appears in Table 1. Computing technologies are rapidly altering the landscape of the possible in education. Some of the most compelling areas of promise include social software and networking  ADDIN EN.CITE Hesse20081485148544Hesse, F.Engelmann, T.Baumesiter, T.Dehler, J.Hamilton, E.Participation and personalization: The main factors of social software (DLAC-IV) (http://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/dlac/)January 6, 20082008[4], virtual collaboration spaces  ADDIN EN.CITE Dede200349549527Dede, Christopher Studying Situated Learning and Knowledge Transfer in a Multi-user Virtual Environment2003National Science Foundation Award REC-0310188 to Harvard University[10], immersive games  ADDIN EN.CITE Shaffer200782882849Shaffer, D. W.How computer games help children learn.2007New YorkPalgrave Macmillan [11], artificial intelligence and its renderings in the form of learner modeling  ADDIN EN.CITE Kay200050750747Kay, Judy A1A1 Basser Department of Computer Science University of Sydney AUSTRALIA 2006 judy@cs.usyd.edu.auAccretion Representation for Scrutable Student Modelling Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems514-5231839Chapter: p. 51420002000Lecture Notes in Computer ScienceISSN: 0302-9743 3-540-67655-4 article745815Springer-Verlag GmbH [12], virtual human agents and dialog systems  ADDIN EN.CITE Cole20003013016Ron ColeCreating the Next Generation of Intelligent Animated Conversational AgentsITR grant IIS-00861072000National Science Foundation[13]; and visualization systems  ADDIN EN.CITE Keller20055425425Keller, Tanja Grimm, Matthias Tergan, Sigmar-Olaf Keller, Tanja(1) Institut fr Wissensmedien (IWM), Konrad-Adenauer-Strae 40, 72072 Tuebingen, Germany Email: t.keller@iwm-kmrc.de (2) Zentrum fr Graphische Datenverarbeitung e.V., Fraunhoferstrae 5, 64283 Darmstadt, Germany Email: matthias.grimm@zgdv.deInformation Visualization The Impact of Dimensionality and Color Coding of Information Visualizations on Knowledge AcquisitionLecture Notes in Computer Science Knowledge and Information Visualization: Searching for Synergies 167 3426 / 20052005Springer-Verlag GmbH3-540-26921-5ISSN: 0302-9743 DOI: 10.1007/b138081 DOI: 10.1007/11510154_9 [14]. A growing recognition of modeling in the formation and maturation of complex reasoning structures is giving rise to more systematic implementation of modeling in K16 STEM curriculum  ADDIN EN.CITE Gobert20041121112113Gobert, J.Horwitz, P.Tinker, B.Buckley, B.Wilensky, U.Levy, S.Dede, C.Modeling across the curriculum: scaling up Modeling using Technology13492004Mahweh, NJLawrence Erlbaum AssociatesLesh20078618616Lesh, R.Hamilton, EKaput, J. (Eds)Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Education2007Mahweh, NJLawrence Erlbaum Associates[15, 16]. It is also spurring consideration of modeling activities shared in synchronous and asynchronous communications that involve youngsters or college students and reshape the potential for authentic and educationally powerful cross-cultural experiences  ADDIN EN.CITE Nakabugo20071455145510Nakabugo, M.G. and E. HamiltonModeling In Mathematics Learning: Approaches For Classrooms Of The Future2007Makerere University, Kampala Ugandahttp://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/[3]. The area of modeling as a potential strategic direction in basic education development in mathematics was the rationale behind the DLAC meeting in Kampala. Modeling By models we refer to the structure of conceptual systems that an individual possesses to solve authentic or real-world problems. Modeling is the dynamic process of creating and manipulating conceptual models in problem-solving. Modeling, in this use of the term, is essentially the adaptive process of creating solutions to previously unsolved problems. A large share of research on modeling has focused on how students mathematize elements of a problem situation, i.e., impose logical or mathematical understandings or interpretations, and how they make judgments about what parts of a situation are useful to consider with mathematical representations  ADDIN EN.CITE Lesh20078388388385Richard LeshJim KaputLesh, R.Hamilton, E.Kaput, J.What Kind of Instructional Activities Are Needed To Support the Development of New Levels and Types of Understanding and Ability?Models and Modeling as Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Curriculum2007Mahweh, NJErlbaum. [17]. (In mathematics education research, mathematizing a problem is sometimes used synonymously with the term modeling.) Table 1: Eight Principles of Future Learning Environments (Appearing in  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton200685185110Hamilton, EInternational collaborations blending new pedagogies and new technologies in engineering education: principles and examplesFifth Global Colloquium on Engineering Education2006Rio de JaneiroAmerican Society for Engineering EducationRioPaperHamiltonin press1094109410Hamilton, E.Principles and Grand Challenges: A Prospectus for the Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Community2007 International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learningin pressRutgers, NJ[8, 9]) Increased sightlines in the classroom greater ability for everyone in a learning environment, teachers and students alike, to see conceptual models others are using; content, cognition and affect become more visible. Increased emphasis on models and modeling a greater stress on systems of ideas and relationships both in how learning sequences are structured and in how assessment is carried out; connections and the structure and relationships of ideas become as salient as the ideas themselves. Increased connectedness individuals become more meaningfully connected in the learning experience to each other, to teachers, and to those outside of the classroom, not only through collaborative group work but also through evolving social software and collaboration software systems. Increased one-to-one-ness in the classroom a greater sense of individualization and customization for the individual learner under the management of a teacher, emulating a one-to-one tutoring experience. Increased fluidity of learning context transfer to and from virtual systems, greater emphasis on heterogeneous competencies functioning together, greater integration of cognitive, social and affective dimensions, more interoperability of individual-social-machine knowledge forms; a principle of hybrid modes of learning modes and content. Increased emphasis on generativity and creativity - Learners function in more imaginative settings in which they are able to be more imaginative. Increased emphasis on self-regulatory competencies Learning environments will increasingly offload onto students tasks previously carried out by teaching professionals. Teaching professionals will then engage more sophisticated competencies and skill sets. Increased interactional bandwidth the capacity of the learning environment to mediate meaningful content and affective representations that are shared by all participants. Much of the original research on models and modeling has involved problem-scenarios formulated as what have been referred to as model-eliciting activities, or MEAs  ADDIN EN.CITE Lesh200363163163120Lesh, R. Doerr, H.Beyond constructivism: A models & modeling perspective on mathematics teaching, learning, and problems solving2003Mahwah, NJ Lawrence Erlbaum.Lesh20078388388385Richard LeshJim KaputLesh, R.Hamilton, E.Kaput, J.What Kind of Instructional Activities Are Needed To Support the Development of New Levels and Types of Understanding and Ability?Models and Modeling as Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Curriculum2007Mahweh, NJErlbaum. [17, 18]. MEAs are typically carried out in small groups of students. They are identifiable by their alignment with six principles that have been used in both presecondary  ADDIN EN.CITE Lesh20001721721725Lesh, R.Hoover, M.Hole, B.Kelly, A.Post, T.Kelly, A.Lesh, R.Principles for developing thought revealing activities for students and teachers. The handbook of research design in mathematics and science education.2000Mahweh NJErlbaum[19] and, more recently, in college environments such as the undergraduate engineering program at Purdue University. Purdue has moved into full adoption of MEAs for introductory courses  ADDIN EN.CITE Diefes-Dux200465865865810Diefes-Dux, H.Moore, T.Zawojewski, J.Imbrie, P.K.A Framework for Posing Open-Ended Engineering Problems: Model-Eliciting ActivitiesProceedings, Frontiers in Education Conference - group of 3 HA Diefes-Dux, T Moore, J Zawojewski, PK Imbrie, D - Proceedings, Frontiers in Education Conference, http://fie. , 2004 - rlab.cs.utep.edu 2004Diefes-Dux200482382382310Diefes-Dux, HeidiFollman, Deborah Haghighi, Kamyar Imbrie, P.K. Montgomery, Robert Oakes, WilliamWanka, Phillip Work in Progress: Establishing Formal Academic Programs in Engineering Education34th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference2004October 20 23, 2004 Savannah, GAhttp://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie2004/papers/1666.pdf[20, 21]. A modeling approach for engineering education is beginning to take deeper hold. A consortium of universities, led by the University of Pittsburghs School of Engineering and including the University of Minnesota, California State San Luis Obispo, Purdue University, the Colorado School of Mines, and the Air Force Academy was recently awarded by NSFs Course Curriculum and Laboratory (CCLI) Program a comprehensive grant to extend the MEA approach more broadly through the undergraduate engineering curriculum. The July 2007 thirteenth international conference on the teaching of mathematical modeling and applications (http://ictma13.org) was linked to the Kampala DLAC meeting through daily VTC meetings. NSFs Human and Social Dynamics Program currently supports a partnership with Englands Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) for research seminars designed in part to introduce models and modeling to UK researchers from a variety of life science and engineering fields  ADDIN EN.CITE Hamilton2007 (recommended)87287287213Hamilton, E.Lesh, RHoyles, R.Schofield, M..Enhancing and Assessing Complex Reasoning through Models and Modeling: UK-US Collaborative Research.2007 (recommended)Supplement to NSF 0433373 (Assessing and Enhancing Complex Reasoning, Hamilton PI)NSFUKSupplementHamilton200787287287213Hamilton, E.Lesh, RHoyles, R.Schofield, M..Enhancing and Assessing Complex Reasoning through Models and Modeling: UK-US Collaborative Research.2007 (recommended)Supplement to NSF 0433373 (Assessing and Enhancing Complex Reasoning, Hamilton PI)NSFUKSupplement[22]. A broad account of mathematical and scientific models and modeling in 21st century workforce settings, and the use of models and modeling as a foundation for mathematics education curriculum is the subject of a forthcoming volume  ADDIN EN.CITE Lesh20076366366Lesh, R.Hamilton, EKaput, J. (Eds)Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Education2007Mahweh, NJErlbaum. [16] that summarizes important research and principles for implementation at both K12 and postsecondary levels. One central assumption of modeling research is the notion that logical, mathematical, and scientific thought functions as a set of systems, where ideas are connected to and embedded in contexts in which they are learned and used. This may seem intuitively self-evident, but it is not a guiding assumption of typical mathematics and engineering education, where accumulation of often-times disconnected concepts is more important than being able to create models for the use of those concepts in problem contexts. Another central assumption of modeling research is that while problem-solving at times is private, in real-life situations, especially including workplace settings, problem-solving more commonly is carried out with others. The Kampala Meeting The modeling approach to mathematics is the subject of a new edited volume, Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Education. The DLAC meeting in Kampala sought ways to consider the modeling and MEA approach to mathematics education for countries engaged in basic education development and for which nascent educational practices are proving ineffective in building interest and motivation in mathematics. In many cases, the curriculum is tied to dated and westernized curriculum that was not especially successful in their countries of origin, is not culturally connected, and is certainly inadequate for twenty-first century learning. The DLAC meeting in Kampala was devoted to sharing with participants from six African countries the basic features of MEAs, and inviting participants to develop and test their own MEAs for use in their home institutions and schools. A website for the meeting with the program appears at  HYPERLINK "http://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/" http://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/ Common Questions In This Interactive Symposium This section discusses the common questions posed across participants in the interactive session. 1. What lessons have been learned from these global programs that help to better conceptualized what it means to work effectively with international communities? And 2. In what ways does guiding faculty and students in a paradigm shift change ways of thinking and doing for collaborating with international communities? Discussion. One of the most important lessons is that the traditional westernized notion of directed help is a flawed paradigm. Large scale and transformative change is generative and spurred by local and national communities. Ironically, the most important lesson we took into our efforts entailed coming alongside partners seeking to gain something rather than to give something. What we sought to gain were research partners who could help us explore exciting new areas by rendering our research questions into their own language, culture and experience. This is the essence of research: to test theories and frameworks under variation, and working with African, co-equal partners, is a crucial pathway. This does not mean being blind to or denying crucial infrastructural problems. Much of our research entails use of advanced technologies that are not so readily available in developing countries. It was crucial for us to work with the technology infrastructures at hand and in such a way as to leverage those that are forthcoming. In that sense, the models we shared were not inherently technology-oriented. The problem-based learning approach that we use called model-eliciting activities, or MEAs, focuses on well-defined principles for eliciting from learners strategies for expressing, testing and revising conceptual models as they work on realistic problems; technology is not required, but the approach permits the inclusion of technology where possible. 3. What are some of the strengths and obstacles for engaging in international work? How can those strengths and abilities be used to improve global research and collaboration? Discussion. Obviously, the availability of new communications technologies is altering the way we connect and interact. There is a natural human eagerness to connect to others; while this impulse is not necessarily the most salient dimension of literature in international educational research collaboration, it is one of the most powerful animators of such collaboration and should be leveraged. In our interactions with Africans, we find a sense of private celebration simply in the collaboration itself. There is wisdom in recognizing this energizing element. A crucial asset is the availability of synchronous communication capabilities. Even limited videoconferencing proved to be an important element of connecting groups between the US, Japan and Africa. An unexpected obstacle comes in the form of moving money. Bureaucracies that have strict rules on how money can be moved and spent interact with each other and create what might be termed synergistic dysfunctions. In our case, we faced the difficulty of a US military academy moving $15,000 to an government research office in London to move money through a massive US government disbursement system to a university in financial straits in Uganda through a banking system that would not honor single check distributions over $10,000USD. Heroic efforts in any single one of these bureaucracies was insufficient to prevent cascading problems through the chain of bureaucracies. The net result was a meltdown on finances for the project within Uganda with the investigator there intervening to personally covering US expenses for over half of a year, an absolutely unacceptable way to run a collaboration. We have seen this problem arise in numerous other collaboration undertakings. Even small amounts of money require more attention and advance work than most realize. In the US, we have learned that any kind of systemic educational reform requires unified effort for good across a range of subsystems: changes in instruction entail seeding or catalyzing change in teacher professional development, curriculum and assessment; this entails mobilizing school partnerships, especially with the higher education community but with other community stakeholders, around reform. Resources with divergent priorities must be aligned and accountability systems must work in connection with reform directions. Cross-cutting priorities of diversity and school performance must maintain visibility and traction through reform. The overall policy structure must support rather than undermine change. Similar emphasis on systemic connections apply in other cultures and with other international collaborators. We have discovered that these connections must be at least appreciably understood in working with collaborators. On the one hand, finding influential and red-tape-cutting partners who can establish a viable collaboration with traction is powerful. On the other, it is essential to grasp the connections that drive the policy, resource, partnership and cultural context. 4. What do these programs tell us about the skills and dispositions that are needed for successful global collaboration? Discussion. One of the most crucial developments in education research over the past ten years has been the ascendancy of design research. With striking parallels to practices of the engineering profession and its ethos of innovation, aesthetics, and problem-solving within constraint systems, education researchers are finding that knowledge generation that invokes multiple theoretical and practical frameworks is generally more effective than slavish adherence to single frameworks and ideologies. Adaptive problem solving in education research entails flexibility and a capacity to mix, match, iterate, refine, express, test and revise approaches and solution models. These same traits similarly loom large in global collaboration, with some interesting collateral points. Just as theoretical frameworks might be considered conceptual and knowledge generation tools that should be embraced and flexibly employed to advance research ends, so should cultural, political and social distinctives be considered dynamics to embrace and flexibly leverage to advance research ends. For example: Collaborations with African partners are fundamentally different than with Chinese partners. In the PRC, a centralized government and centralized telecommunication makes it possible to indertake collaborations that stretch across the country and into western and underserved regions of the country. In Africa, the seeming limitless number of individual national jurisdictions fundamentally fragments the opportunities for collaborations. It also, though, fuels variation which serves research purposes. Collaboration with Japanese partners working in developing countries also has a unique vector. Basic educational development is a much more salient feature of Japanese diplomacy and aid than of US diplomacy and aid. The models for collaboration in Japan and the US are different. Japanese cultural patterns of consensus and co-equality may be more suited for collaborative educational research than US aid models, while US cultural traditions of innovation and flexibility may serve an important role in generative and creative collaborations. Some middleware skills are indispensable for successful collaboration. Expertise and creativity by the collaborator or the collaboration team on information and communication technologies, the ability to use social software and messaging systems, and to handle multiple mobile communication systems are indispensible. Collaboration demands implicit respect that is indifferent to the resourcing level that partners bring in, and makes no demands based on differential resourcing. Prompt responses to communication, clarity of expectations and definitions, willingness to communicate outside of business hours to account for time zone differences are all essential traits. Acknowledgments Portions of the research presented in this article have been supported by Microsoft Research, by the National Science Foundation, and by the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research. The views in this paper do not reflect those of sponsoring organizations. References  ADDIN EN.REFLIST 1. Hamilton, E., L. Carmona, and R. Shen, International Collaboration on Web-based Learning: Theory, Research and Practice 2005: National Science Award 0456434 (US Air Force Academy). 2. Hamilton, E., et al., U.S.-Singapore Seminar: A Collaboration with the Learning Science Laboratory of Singapore on Envisioning Learning Environments of the Future 2007, National Science Foundation Grant OISE-0722334. 3. Nakabugo, M.G.a.E.H. Modeling In Mathematics Learning: Approaches For Classrooms Of The Future. 2007. Makerere University, Kampala Uganda:  HYPERLINK "http://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/" http://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/. 4. Hesse, F., et al., Participation and personalization: The main factors of social software (DLAC-IV) ( HYPERLINK "http://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/dlac/)" http://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/dlac/). 2008. 5. Hamilton, E., et al., HSD: Research Community Development: Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) for Next Generation Educational Settings. 2006, National Science Foundation Award BCS-0623166 6. Huesca, E. and F. Cervantes, International Workshop on Distance Learning and Collaboration ( HYPERLINK "http://www.iwdlc.cuaed.unam.mx/wiki/index.php/Main_Page)" http://www.iwdlc.cuaed.unam.mx/wiki/index.php/Main_Page). 2007. 7. Hamilton, E., Virtual and Face-to-Face Workshops to Organize the International Distributed Learning and Collaboration (DLAC) Research Network 2007, Microsoft Research USA. 8. Hamilton, E. International collaborations blending new pedagogies and new technologies in engineering education: principles and examples. in Fifth Global Colloquium on Engineering Education. 2006. Rio de Janeiro: American Society for Engineering Education. 9. Hamilton, E. Principles and Grand Challenges: A Prospectus for the Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) Community. in 2007 International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning. in press. Rutgers, NJ. 10. Dede, C., Studying Situated Learning and Knowledge Transfer in a Multi-user Virtual Environment. 2003, National Science Foundation Award REC-0310188 to Harvard University. 11. Shaffer, D.W., How computer games help children learn. 2007, Palgrave Macmillan: New York. 12. Kay, J.A., Accretion Representation for Scrutable Student Modelling, in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. 2000, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. p. 514-523. 13. Cole, R., Creating the Next Generation of Intelligent Animated Conversational Agents. ITR grant IIS-0086107. 2000: National Science Foundation. 14. Keller, T. and M. Grimm, Information Visualization The Impact of Dimensionality and Color Coding of Information Visualizations on Knowledge Acquisition, in Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Knowledge and Information Visualization: Searching for Synergies S.-O. Tergan and T. Keller, Editors. 2005, Springer-Verlag GmbH. p. 167 15. Gobert, J., et al., Modeling across the curriculum: scaling up Modeling using Technology. 2004, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: Mahweh, NJ. p. 1349. 16. Lesh, R., E. Hamilton, and J.E. Kaput, Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Education. 2007, Mahweh, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 17. Lesh, R. and J. Kaput, What Kind of Instructional Activities Are Needed To Support the Development of New Levels and Types of Understanding and Ability?, in Models and Modeling as Foundations for the Future in Mathematics Curriculum, R. Lesh, E. Hamilton, and J. Kaput, Editors. 2007, Erlbaum. : Mahweh, NJ. 18. Lesh, R. and H. Doerr, Beyond constructivism: A models & modeling perspective on mathematics teaching, learning, and problems solving. 2003, Lawrence Erlbaum.: Mahwah, NJ. 19. Lesh, R., et al., Principles for developing thought revealing activities for students and teachers., in The handbook of research design in mathematics and science education., A. Kelly and R. Lesh, Editors. 2000, Erlbaum: Mahweh NJ. 20. Diefes-Dux, H., et al. A Framework for Posing Open-Ended Engineering Problems: Model-Eliciting Activities. in Proceedings, Frontiers in Education Conference. 2004. 21. Diefes-Dux, H., et al. Work in Progress: Establishing Formal Academic Programs in Engineering Education. in 34th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference. 2004. Savannah, GA. 22. Hamilton, E., et al., Enhancing and Assessing Complex Reasoning through Models and Modeling: UK-US Collaborative Research. 2007 (recommended), NSF: Supplement to NSF 0433373 (Assessing and Enhancing Complex Reasoning, Hamilton PI). 23. AAAS, Benchmarks for science literacy. 1993, American Association for the Advancement of Science: Washington, DC.   Eric R. Hamilton, Director, Center for Research on Learning and Teaching, US Air Force Academy. Effective April 1, 2008, Associate Dean for Education, Graduate School of Education, Pepperdine University, eric.hamilton@pepperdine.edu  Mary Goretti Nakabugo, Senior Lecturer, School of Education, Makerere University, Kampala Uganda, gnakabugo@yahoo.co.uk     Hamilton and Nakabugo (draft) Global Learning Environments Interactive Symposium March 25, 2008 2008 AERA Annual Conference and Exposition, New York City  PAGE \* MERGEFORMAT 1 ?@AOPRgh~ , - vw}~%&)*µꉦꦉ~~vrvrv~vrvrvhYjjh@mUh@m hrQKh7 hlh7hlh76 h1h7 h~h7h~jhFh~jCJaJjhn"h~j0JUh~jCJaJh7CJaJhFh7CJaJjhn"h70JUh7 h#bh~jhaM h~jh~j,ABRhi - ""'':JCJPgd2gdaMgd@m@&gd7gd7gd7'gd7gd7X*LM  ""#"&"'"""""%% &;&'6(T(h(i(|-}-----.!.".J.S.q.r.s.00001113333%3&3'355"5#5$5o5¹¹h2h2CJjh2h2CJUh2 heh@m h3h@mhb)6 h@mh@mhaMhYjjh@mUh@mIo5p5q59999999;;;;;;;@@@@@@AAA7F8F@FAFGFGIIIIIFJLJJJKKLLUPVPZP[PPPPQQQQ/V0V6V7V8V9V:V_VVطخh>()h@mCJhLh@mCJaJjh>()h@m5CJU h@m5CJh>()h@m5CJ h@mh@m heh@mhYjjh@mUh@mBP9V:VW0Xx,,K/ & FV$&#$$d%d&d'd+D-D./7$8$H$M N6_O6_P6_Q6_b$gdFMCV$&#$$d%d&d'd+D-D./M N6_O6_P6_Q6_`b$gdFMB$V$&#$$d%d&d'd+D-D./M N6_O6_P6_Q6_a$b$gdFMVVW>WWWXX#X/X0XGXXNYOY{Y ZFZx[[\ \ \$\%\<\\\ ].]]]]_^`^LdMdUdVdddqhrhvhwh-i.iupvp~ppZt[tzzzzzz{{{}}}}}}~~߀^ٿٻh2 hKh@m hs>2h@mhYjjh@mUh@mh>()h@mCJo(h>()h@m5CJh>()h@mCJ h@mCJH0XOY Zx[ \ ]]}߀MSW`gd2`gdaMgd21gdYjgd@mK/ & FV$&#$$d%d&d'd+D-D./7$8$H$M N6_O6_P6_Q6_b$gdFM^߄26QRlmwzUVϙЙڙݙ ڤ 6¾|q|qhFMhYjCJaJjhFMhYjCJUaJhYjnH tH h7 h@mh@mh2h25h@mh2h26h2h@m6hYjh2haMh2CJhaMhaM0JCJjhaMhaMCJUhaMhaMCJjhaMhaMCJUhaM)WlmmUVϙЙs 5ڤĦ$ & FPd^`Pa$gdFMgdFMgdYjgd2gd2gd@m`gd26ܦj./xyzΨ !VWXt456NͫΫw|puٺ󕩇sjhFM6CJaJ&jhFMhYj6CJUaJhFMhYj0J6CJaJ&jhFMhYj6CJUaJ jhFMhYj6CJUaJhFMhYj0JCJaJ#jhFMhYjCJUaJjhFMhYjCJUaJhFMhYjCJaJhFMhYj6CJaJ)T=حM0;޷UVXEgd~j 0^`0gd7)$ & FPd^`Pa$gdFMu;®.2ǯjQ[ڲ[`X3V۶ pVWXYEF¹ĹŹǹȹʹ˹͹¾¾jhMUhM h[Ch;h;jh;0JUh7jhFMhYjCJUaJhFM6CJaJhFMhYjCJaJhFMhYj6CJaJ?ùĹƹǹɹʹ̹͹.h$ & FPd^`Pa$gdFM$a$$ `'a$  !(gd7͹.hiÿh7hMh;mHnHujh;U h;5h~jh;5\h~jh;5h;haMh;5CJaJ 9 0&PP:p7/ =!"#8$% = 0&PP:pFM/ =!`"`#$% P hDyK yK xhttp://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/DyK yK xhttp://www.crlt.org/modelsandmodeling/dlac-iii-kampala2007/DyK yK Phttp://www.iwm-kmrc.de/workshops/dlac/)DyK yK rhttp://www.iwdlc.cuaed.unam.mx/wiki/index.php/Main_Page)4<@< YjNormalCJ_HmH sH tHL@L  Heading 1$$@&a$ 5:CJF@F  Heading 2$$@&a$5V@V  Heading 3$<@&5CJOJQJ\^JaJ`@`  Heading 4 $<5$7$8$9D@&H$5CJOJQJtH Z@Z  Heading 5<5$7$8$9D@&H$CJOJQJtH V@V  Heading 6<5$7$8$9D@&H$ 6CJtH V@V  Heading 7<5$7$8$9D@&H$ OJQJtH Z@Z  Heading 8<5$7$8$9D@&H$6OJQJtH ` @`  Heading 9 <5$7$8$9D@&H$56CJOJQJtH DA@D Default Paragraph FontViV  Table Normal :V 44 la (k(No List <B@< 0 Body Text$h`ha$0U@0 Hyperlink>*B*4>@4 #bTitle$a$CJ0aJ0RY"R  Document Map-D M OJQJ^J6O26 (lAbstract$a$5BOBB First Paragraph `6OR6 #bAuthorCJ\]aJ2Ob2 Bullets  & FB@rB Header$ !a$5CJROR References & F hx^hCJaJ4 @4 Footer  !6)@6 Page NumberOJQJ:@:  Footnote TextCJH&@H Footnote Reference H*mH sH ^O^ 1Section Heading$a$5:_HmH sH tH JOJ 70Figure Heading$a$ ;CJaJPOP qI Sub Headings xx6_HmH sH tH \O\ 70Figure Captions $a$:CJ_HaJmH sH tH POP Text)!$d1$5$7$8$9DH$`a$tH HO"H chairlist"dd[$\$ CJaJtH FV@1F FollowedHyperlink >*B* ph^^@B^ Normal (Web)$dd[$\$CJOJPJQJ^JaJtH $OQ$ bold12e@b HTML Preformatted7& 2( Px 4 #\'*.25@9OJPJQJ^JtH :OQr: 1 Affiliation'CJaJFOF l Abstract Char5_HmH sH tH4O4 d3 Table text)aJVVl6HVisiting ProffesorCJOJQJ^JaJphP"@P Caption+xx]`5PJ\tH DOD T BodyNoIndent,dd`DD j Balloon Text-CJOJQJaJnn JH\ Table Grid7:V.0.PJnOn @m List Paragraph#/$<<^`a$m$CJOJQJnHtH0O0 @m Char ChartH6O6 3Yj PaperBodyText1<O1< 1YjPaperBodyText CharO~hk;ABRhi-:BCBH9N:NO0POQ RxS T UUuxx|}M}}}S~W~~~lmmUVϑБs 5ڜĞT=إM0;ޯUVXEñıƱDZɱʱ̱ͱ.h000'0'0'0000000000000000:B0:B0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B /0:B01000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000I00I0000h@0I00'@0I00'@0I00'@0I00'@0I0 0 ,)@0@0@0I00' ++*o5V^6u͹^abdfhjlP0XW_cegik`v } % ) L "&h |%%r&(()++&+-"-p-1113338897>@>=?AADUHZHI/N6N_VL\U\\q`v`-auh~hZlrrsuu||} .y W4VQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQQXQXXXĕ!t  ,b$#za>lyeF@ 0(  B S  ?H0(  @8 |v9 u: u;  v? 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