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ࡱ> kmj[ fbjbj Dpΐΐ1A8To,+:www*******$?.0T*D%UU"D%D%*U+j*j*j*D%*j*D%*j*j*j*L s?*(Tj**k+0+j*51~)p51j*51j*0w<j*l%"www**)|www+D%D%D%D%51wwwwwwwww : Teaching Resources Utilization and Academic Performance in Technical Colleges in Oyo State, Nigeria Timothy Okemakinde, Segun O. Adedeji and Jude Ssempebwa Over the last two decades, the debate on technical education has centered on such issues as access to, the quality of, funding of and benefits of technical education. Hitherto, however, questions relating to the factors accounting for the differences in the resources allocated to them; and relationship between, on one hand, the availability and utilization of resources and academic performance in technical colleges in Oyo State, Nigeria, on the other, have remained unanswered. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the variations in the resources allocated to the colleges; and the relationship between the availability and utilization of resources and academic performance in the colleges. Data were collected using documentary analysis, questionnaire and observation. Analysis of variance in the resources allocated to the colleges indicated that there were variations in the resources allocated to the colleges. However, the study indicated that, these variations notwithstanding, all the colleges studied were under-facilitated. On the other hand, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and regression analysis indicated that there is relationship between the availability and utilization of resources and academic performance in the colleges, adding that increasing the resources availed to the colleges by 100% would enhance academic performance by 28%. It was, therefore, recommended that emphasis is put on, both, the acquisition and optimal utilization of resources. Keywords: Technical education; Teaching resources utilization; Financing higher education Introduction The tertiary education sector in Nigeria is tasked to be a driver of socioeconomic development (Adedeji et al., 2003). Over the years, therefore, it has expanded phenomenally, enrolling more students each year (Oyebade, 2007; Akintayo, 2003; Babalola & Jaiyeoba, 2008). However, there has also been a marked decline in academic performance at this level of education. This has been especially true of technical education, despite the fact that its provision and attainment is considered as one of the most important means towards the attainment of national development (Longe & Adedeji, 2003; Adedeji, 1998). This could be blamable on the availability, and utilization, of teaching resources in the colleges, among other factors. In spite of this hunch, hitherto, quality information on the relationship between the resourcing of technical colleges and academic performance of their students has been nonexistent, notwithstanding the fact that it is critically necessaryto highlight inadequacies in the facilitation of the colleges (if any) and to highlight the costs of these inadequacies (if any) so as to motivate and guide improvement. Research Hypotheses It is against this background that, taking the case of Oyo State, this study delved into the relationship between institutional resources and academic performance in technical colleges, specifically looking at the availability and utilization of resources in the colleges and the college students examination results. Grounded on the hunch that academic performance in the colleges could be related to the availability and utilization of the resources that are requisite to quality pedagogy and, subsequently, academic excellence, the study undertook to verify the hypotheses that: 1) there is no significant variation in the resources allocated to the technical colleges in Oyo State; 2) there is no significant relationship between the resources allocated to the technical colleges in Oyo State and the academic performance of their students; and 3) there is no significant relationship between the utilization of the resources allocated to the technical colleges in Oyo State and the academic performance of their students. Methodology Design and Instrument The study was conducted following a cross-sectional survey design, by which both primary and secondary data were collected through the administration of a questionnaire, on the availability and utilization of resources in the technical colleges; analysis, of the colleges records on resources acquisition and utilization and on their students academic performance; and observation of the occupancy of teaching spaces and frequency of use of the colleges resources. Data collection focused on the period 2002 to 2006. The validity of the data collection instruments was ascertained through expert judgment while the reliability of the questionnaire was established through a pretest, the results of which were subjected to an internal consistency test using (Spearman Browns formula), which returned a consistency coefficient of .86, meaning that it was consistent. Sample Two out of the five technical colleges in the state were involved in the study and, using stratified sampling, 80 subjects were purposively selected to represent all the categories of staff and students in the colleges; and all the trades that are offered in the colleges namely, motor mechanics; painting and decorating; woodwork and carpentry; bricklaying; electronics; metal work; and refrigeration and air conditioning. Data Analysis Analysis of Variance was used to examine the variation in the allocation of resources to the colleges. In addition, Pearson Product Moment Correlation test was used to measure the relationship between the allocation and utilization of resources, on one hand, and students academic performance on the other. Finally, Ordinary Least Squares regression was used to estimate the lag between the availability and utilization of resources after which the results were related to indicators of academic performance. Findings and Discussion Resources Allocated to the Colleges To test the hypothesis that there is no significant variation in the resources allocated to the colleges, the data collected on the resources that were allocated to them over the period that was studied was subjected to an analysis of variance test at the confidence level of =.05. The findings were that there are significant variations in, both, the quantity and quality of resources allocated to the colleges. The respondents said that these differences have been due to differences in the age, reputation, location and enrollment of the colleges. Differences in the vibrancy of the colleges staff and students associations; ability of the colleges to attract donations; lobbying power of the colleges managers; and favorability of the prevailing economic situation were also cited for the differences in the facilitation of the colleges. Specifically, the study established that the older, flagship, urban-based and larger college attracted more resources from, both, the government and philanthropy. This finding is corroborated by Adedeji (1998), Mamdani (2007), Ssegawa (1995), Mbaekwe (1986) and Ezewu (1998). Taking the case of vocational secondary schools in Osun State, Adedeji (1998) affirmed a direct relationship between the age, location and enrolment of the schools and their facilitation while, taking the case of Makerere University, Kampala, Ssegawa (1995) established a significant relationship between the vibrancy of the universitys staff and students associations, on one hand, and the facilitation of the university, by the Ministries of Education and Finance on the other hand, which is in consonance with Mamdani (2007). Furthermore, Ezewu (1998) and Mbaekwe (1986) observe that, compared to other schools, urban-area-based schools usually attract more resources. Availability of Resources and Students Academic Performance To test the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the resources allocated to the colleges and the academic performance of their students, the data collected on the resources allocated to the colleges and that collected on their students academic performance were subjected to regression analysis, using the Ordinary Least Squares model. Subsequently, the  coefficient and constant for the relationship were respectively established at .28 and 32.62, indicating that there is a positive relationship between the resources allocated to the colleges and the academic performance of their students. Specifically, the model Y=32.62+0.28x was established for the relationship, meaning that increasing the level of resources allocated to a college by 100% would improve the academic performance of its students by 28%. This finding rhymes with Adedeji (1998), who, taking the case of vocational secondary schools in Osun State, observed that there is a causal relationship between the availability of teaching resources and academic performance of learners, adding that imbalances in the allocation of tutors and other resources to schools would lead to academic performance gaps in the institutions. In addition, in affirming relationship between the availability of resources and the academic performance of learners, this study concurs with Oloyede (2003) in his contention that inadequate expenditure on teaching resources in vocational education institutions will impinge on students academic performance, which is appreciable, since mastery of the skills offered by the institutions invariably necessitates the availability of enough qualified tutors and quality equipment. At the level of confidence =.05, however, asymptotic sig. was established at .32, leading to the decision to accept the null hypothesis. This means that the relationship established between the availability of teaching resources and academic performance of learners established is not (statistically) significant. A possible explanation for this is that even though one of the colleges was found to be better facilitated, critical analysis of the findings (from observation and the questionnaires administered) indicated that, in general, both the colleges were ill-equipped, which is why the differences in the academic performance of their students were insignificant. In both the colleges, the workshops, which are supposed to help students to practise the skills that they acquire from their instructors, were either rundown, as a consequence of ill maintenance and, ironically, under- (or even non-) utilization or entirely nonexistent. This means that, even though more resources were allocated to one of the colleges in the past as is explained in the foregoing subsection, today, many of these resources are inoperative. Thus, the conclusion, from the study of investment in ICTs in Rwandan higher education, that the allocation of equipment to institutions must be complemented by a focus on their functionality (maintenance and utilization) (Ssempebwa et al., 2007) is relevant to investment in the facilitation of the colleges. Utilization of Resources and Students Academic Performance Through observation, data were collected on the occupancy and frequency of use factors of the physical teaching resources in the colleges while data on the utilization of the instructors were elicited from them (using questionnaire). To test the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the utilization of the resources allocated to the colleges and academic performance of their students, the findings on the occupancy of teaching spaces and frequency of use of the physical resources and the views of the instructors were correlated with the findings on the academic performance of the students of the colleges in a Pearson Product Moment Correlation test. The results were significant at the level of confidence =.05, hence the decision to reject the null hypothesis, meaning that there is a significant relationship between the utilization of the resources allocated to a college and the academic performance of its students. That way, the study affirms that, crucially important though it is, the availability of resources is not a sufficient condition for good academic performance; the resources must also be put to optimal use. Indeed, academic performance was found to be better in departments where resources were put to better use, which is in congruence with Owolabi (1993), who reports that streamlined utilization of teaching resources improved the quality of pedagogy at the University College of Winneba, Ghana; Oloyede (2003), who observes that effective utilization of school resources significantly impacts on the level of students academic attainment; and Farombi (1998), who concludes that effective utilization of educational resources could enhance the academic performance of learners. Conclusions and Recommendations It was, therefore, concluded that, the differences in the facilities allocated to the technical colleges in Oyo State (established by the study) notwithstanding, on the whole, these colleges are inadequately facilitated. This has affected the quality of pedagogy and, subsequently, academic performance in the institutions. To this end, it is recommended that their managers, as well as staff and students, lobby the relevant government departments for greater facilitation and devise alternative means of acquiring the necessitated facilities like the attraction of philanthropic donations and levy of fees, since governmental capacity to facilitate the colleges may be limited by the prevailing economic hardships. However, it was also concluded that acquisition of the facilities necessitated is a necessary but insufficient condition for the enhancement of pedagogy and, subsequently, academic performance in these colleges. Thus, the study recommends that the managers, as well as staff and students, of the colleges endeavour to put their facilities to optimal use. References Adedeji, S. O. (1998). Relationship between resource utilization and academic performance in vocational education in Osun State secondary schools. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Adedeji, S. O., Osasona, O. and Durosaro, D. O. (2003). Students enrollment pattern in Nigerian Universities. In Babalola, J. and Adedeji, S. O. (Eds.) Contemporary issues in educational management: Book of honor (pp. 13-23), Ibadan: University of Ibadan. Akintayo, M. O. (2003). Effective management of access to education through value chain analysis. In Babalola, J. and Adedeji, S. O. (Eds) Contemporary issues in educational management: a book of honor (pp. 81116), Ibadan, University of Ibadan. Babalola, J. B. and Jaiyeoba, A. O. (2008) Curriculum development for effective learning in higher education during knowledge and digital revolutions: the Nigerian experience, Ibadan, Awemark. Ezewu, E. (1998). Sociology of education. Lagos: Longman. Farombi, J. A. (1998). Resource concentration, utilization and management as correlates of student learning outcomes. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Longe, R. S. and Adedeji, S. O. (2003). Increasing girls access to technical and vocational education in Nigeria: Education this millennium; innovation in theory and practice. Ibadan: Macmillan Nigeria. Mamdani, M. (2007) Scholars in the market place: Dilemmas of neo-liberal reform at Makerere University, 1989-2005. Kampala: Fountain Publishers. Mbaekwe, F. E. (1986). Location and resource factors in the development of the Nigerian Army School size. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Oloyede, D. O. (2003). Resources availability, utilization and academics achievements of students in selected secondary schools in Ibadan. Ibadan Journal of Education Studies. 3(1&2), 40-47. Owolabi, S. O. (1993). Utilization of teaching spaces and teaching time at the University College of Education Winneba, Report Number 1. Accra: Ministry of Education. Ssegawa D. E. (1995). The impact of staff and student pressure groups on Makerere University management and administration. Unpublished MA (Ed. Mgt.) thesis. Kampala: Makerere University School of Education. Ssempebwa, J., Canene, A. P. & Mugabe, M. (2007) ICT investment in Rwandan higher education: highlighting the cost of downtime and end-users operations. Kampala International University Research Digest, 1, 1930. AUTHORS TIMOTHY OKEMAKINDE is a lecturer at the Department of Educational Management at the University of Ibadan. SEGUN O. 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ࡱ> kmj[ fbjbj Dpΐΐ1A8To,+:www*******$?.0T*D%UU"D%D%*U+j*j*j*D%*j*D%*j*j*j*L s?*(Tj**k+0+j*51~)p51j*51j*0w<j*l%"www**)|www+D%D%D%D%51wwwwwwwww : Teaching Resources Utilization and Academic Performance in Technical Colleges in Oyo State, Nigeria Timothy Okemakinde, Segun O. Adedeji and Jude Ssempebwa Over the last two decades, the debate on technical education has centered on such issues as access to, the quality of, funding of and benefits of technical education. Hitherto, however, questions relating to the factors accounting for the differences in the resources allocated to them; and relationship between, on one hand, the availability and utilization of resources and academic performance in technical colleges in Oyo State, Nigeria, on the other, have remained unanswered. Thus, this study was conducted to examine the variations in the resources allocated to the colleges; and the relationship between the availability and utilization of resources and academic performance in the colleges. Data were collected using documentary analysis, questionnaire and observation. Analysis of variance in the resources allocated to the colleges indicated that there were variations in the resources allocated to the colleges. However, the study indicated that, these variations notwithstanding, all the colleges studied were under-facilitated. On the other hand, Pearson Product Moment Correlation and regression analysis indicated that there is relationship between the availability and utilization of resources and academic performance in the colleges, adding that increasing the resources availed to the colleges by 100% would enhance academic performance by 28%. It was, therefore, recommended that emphasis is put on, both, the acquisition and optimal utilization of resources. Keywords: Technical education; Teaching resources utilization; Financing higher education Introduction The tertiary education sector in Nigeria is tasked to be a driver of socioeconomic development (Adedeji et al., 2003). Over the years, therefore, it has expanded phenomenally, enrolling more students each year (Oyebade, 2007; Akintayo, 2003; Babalola & Jaiyeoba, 2008). However, there has also been a marked decline in academic performance at this level of education. This has been especially true of technical education, despite the fact that its provision and attainment is considered as one of the most important means towards the attainment of national development (Longe & Adedeji, 2003; Adedeji, 1998). This could be blamable on the availability, and utilization, of teaching resources in the colleges, among other factors. In spite of this hunch, hitherto, quality information on the relationship between the resourcing of technical colleges and academic performance of their students has been nonexistent, notwithstanding the fact that it is critically necessaryto highlight inadequacies in the facilitation of the colleges (if any) and to highlight the costs of these inadequacies (if any) so as to motivate and guide improvement. Research Hypotheses It is against this background that, taking the case of Oyo State, this study delved into the relationship between institutional resources and academic performance in technical colleges, specifically looking at the availability and utilization of resources in the colleges and the college students examination results. Grounded on the hunch that academic performance in the colleges could be related to the availability and utilization of the resources that are requisite to quality pedagogy and, subsequently, academic excellence, the study undertook to verify the hypotheses that: 1) there is no significant variation in the resources allocated to the technical colleges in Oyo State; 2) there is no significant relationship between the resources allocated to the technical colleges in Oyo State and the academic performance of their students; and 3) there is no significant relationship between the utilization of the resources allocated to the technical colleges in Oyo State and the academic performance of their students. Methodology Design and Instrument The study was conducted following a cross-sectional survey design, by which both primary and secondary data were collected through the administration of a questionnaire, on the availability and utilization of resources in the technical colleges; analysis, of the colleges records on resources acquisition and utilization and on their students academic performance; and observation of the occupancy of teaching spaces and frequency of use of the colleges resources. Data collection focused on the period 2002 to 2006. The validity of the data collection instruments was ascertained through expert judgment while the reliability of the questionnaire was established through a pretest, the results of which were subjected to an internal consistency test using (Spearman Browns formula), which returned a consistency coefficient of .86, meaning that it was consistent. Sample Two out of the five technical colleges in the state were involved in the study and, using stratified sampling, 80 subjects were purposively selected to represent all the categories of staff and students in the colleges; and all the trades that are offered in the colleges namely, motor mechanics; painting and decorating; woodwork and carpentry; bricklaying; electronics; metal work; and refrigeration and air conditioning. Data Analysis Analysis of Variance was used to examine the variation in the allocation of resources to the colleges. In addition, Pearson Product Moment Correlation test was used to measure the relationship between the allocation and utilization of resources, on one hand, and students academic performance on the other. Finally, Ordinary Least Squares regression was used to estimate the lag between the availability and utilization of resources after which the results were related to indicators of academic performance. Findings and Discussion Resources Allocated to the Colleges To test the hypothesis that there is no significant variation in the resources allocated to the colleges, the data collected on the resources that were allocated to them over the period that was studied was subjected to an analysis of variance test at the confidence level of =.05. The findings were that there are significant variations in, both, the quantity and quality of resources allocated to the colleges. The respondents said that these differences have been due to differences in the age, reputation, location and enrollment of the colleges. Differences in the vibrancy of the colleges staff and students associations; ability of the colleges to attract donations; lobbying power of the colleges managers; and favorability of the prevailing economic situation were also cited for the differences in the facilitation of the colleges. Specifically, the study established that the older, flagship, urban-based and larger college attracted more resources from, both, the government and philanthropy. This finding is corroborated by Adedeji (1998), Mamdani (2007), Ssegawa (1995), Mbaekwe (1986) and Ezewu (1998). Taking the case of vocational secondary schools in Osun State, Adedeji (1998) affirmed a direct relationship between the age, location and enrolment of the schools and their facilitation while, taking the case of Makerere University, Kampala, Ssegawa (1995) established a significant relationship between the vibrancy of the universitys staff and students associations, on one hand, and the facilitation of the university, by the Ministries of Education and Finance on the other hand, which is in consonance with Mamdani (2007). Furthermore, Ezewu (1998) and Mbaekwe (1986) observe that, compared to other schools, urban-area-based schools usually attract more resources. Availability of Resources and Students Academic Performance To test the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the resources allocated to the colleges and the academic performance of their students, the data collected on the resources allocated to the colleges and that collected on their students academic performance were subjected to regression analysis, using the Ordinary Least Squares model. Subsequently, the  coefficient and constant for the relationship were respectively established at .28 and 32.62, indicating that there is a positive relationship between the resources allocated to the colleges and the academic performance of their students. Specifically, the model Y=32.62+0.28x was established for the relationship, meaning that increasing the level of resources allocated to a college by 100% would improve the academic performance of its students by 28%. This finding rhymes with Adedeji (1998), who, taking the case of vocational secondary schools in Osun State, observed that there is a causal relationship between the availability of teaching resources and academic performance of learners, adding that imbalances in the allocation of tutors and other resources to schools would lead to academic performance gaps in the institutions. In addition, in affirming relationship between the availability of resources and the academic performance of learners, this study concurs with Oloyede (2003) in his contention that inadequate expenditure on teaching resources in vocational education institutions will impinge on students academic performance, which is appreciable, since mastery of the skills offered by the institutions invariably necessitates the availability of enough qualified tutors and quality equipment. At the level of confidence =.05, however, asymptotic sig. was established at .32, leading to the decision to accept the null hypothesis. This means that the relationship established between the availability of teaching resources and academic performance of learners established is not (statistically) significant. A possible explanation for this is that even though one of the colleges was found to be better facilitated, critical analysis of the findings (from observation and the questionnaires administered) indicated that, in general, both the colleges were ill-equipped, which is why the differences in the academic performance of their students were insignificant. In both the colleges, the workshops, which are supposed to help students to practise the skills that they acquire from their instructors, were either rundown, as a consequence of ill maintenance and, ironically, under- (or even non-) utilization or entirely nonexistent. This means that, even though more resources were allocated to one of the colleges in the past as is explained in the foregoing subsection, today, many of these resources are inoperative. Thus, the conclusion, from the study of investment in ICTs in Rwandan higher education, that the allocation of equipment to institutions must be complemented by a focus on their functionality (maintenance and utilization) (Ssempebwa et al., 2007) is relevant to investment in the facilitation of the colleges. Utilization of Resources and Students Academic Performance Through observation, data were collected on the occupancy and frequency of use factors of the physical teaching resources in the colleges while data on the utilization of the instructors were elicited from them (using questionnaire). To test the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the utilization of the resources allocated to the colleges and academic performance of their students, the findings on the occupancy of teaching spaces and frequency of use of the physical resources and the views of the instructors were correlated with the findings on the academic performance of the students of the colleges in a Pearson Product Moment Correlation test. The results were significant at the level of confidence =.05, hence the decision to reject the null hypothesis, meaning that there is a significant relationship between the utilization of the resources allocated to a college and the academic performance of its students. That way, the study affirms that, crucially important though it is, the availability of resources is not a sufficient condition for good academic performance; the resources must also be put to optimal use. Indeed, academic performance was found to be better in departments where resources were put to better use, which is in congruence with Owolabi (1993), who reports that streamlined utilization of teaching resources improved the quality of pedagogy at the University College of Winneba, Ghana; Oloyede (2003), who observes that effective utilization of school resources significantly impacts on the level of students academic attainment; and Farombi (1998), who concludes that effective utilization of educational resources could enhance the academic performance of learners. Conclusions and Recommendations It was, therefore, concluded that, the differences in the facilities allocated to the technical colleges in Oyo State (established by the study) notwithstanding, on the whole, these colleges are inadequately facilitated. This has affected the quality of pedagogy and, subsequently, academic performance in the institutions. To this end, it is recommended that their managers, as well as staff and students, lobby the relevant government departments for greater facilitation and devise alternative means of acquiring the necessitated facilities like the attraction of philanthropic donations and levy of fees, since governmental capacity to facilitate the colleges may be limited by the prevailing economic hardships. However, it was also concluded that acquisition of the facilities necessitated is a necessary but insufficient condition for the enhancement of pedagogy and, subsequently, academic performance in these colleges. Thus, the study recommends that the managers, as well as staff and students, of the colleges endeavour to put their facilities to optimal use. References Adedeji, S. O. (1998). Relationship between resource utilization and academic performance in vocational education in Osun State secondary schools. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Adedeji, S. O., Osasona, O. and Durosaro, D. O. (2003). Students enrollment pattern in Nigerian Universities. In Babalola, J. and Adedeji, S. O. (Eds.) Contemporary issues in educational management: Book of honor (pp. 13-23), Ibadan: University of Ibadan. Akintayo, M. O. (2003). Effective management of access to education through value chain analysis. In Babalola, J. and Adedeji, S. O. (Eds) Contemporary issues in educational management: a book of honor (pp. 81116), Ibadan, University of Ibadan. Babalola, J. B. and Jaiyeoba, A. O. (2008) Curriculum development for effective learning in higher education during knowledge and digital revolutions: the Nigerian experience, Ibadan, Awemark. Ezewu, E. (1998). Sociology of education. Lagos: Longman. Farombi, J. A. (1998). Resource concentration, utilization and management as correlates of student learning outcomes. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Longe, R. S. and Adedeji, S. O. (2003). Increasing girls access to technical and vocational education in Nigeria: Education this millennium; innovation in theory and practice. Ibadan: Macmillan Nigeria. Mamdani, M. (2007) Scholars in the market place: Dilemmas of neo-liberal reform at Makerere University, 1989-2005. Kampala: Fountain Publishers. Mbaekwe, F. E. (1986). Location and resource factors in the development of the Nigerian Army School size. Unpublished Ph.D thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Oloyede, D. O. (2003). Resources availability, utilization and academics achievements of students in selected secondary schools in Ibadan. Ibadan Journal of Education Studies. 3(1&2), 40-47. Owolabi, S. O. (1993). Utilization of teaching spaces and teaching time at the University College of Education Winneba, Report Number 1. Accra: Ministry of Education. Ssegawa D. E. (1995). The impact of staff and student pressure groups on Makerere University management and administration. Unpublished MA (Ed. Mgt.) thesis. Kampala: Makerere University School of Education. Ssempebwa, J., Canene, A. P. & Mugabe, M. (2007) ICT investment in Rwandan higher education: highlighting the cost of downtime and end-users operations. Kampala International University Research Digest, 1, 1930. AUTHORS TIMOTHY OKEMAKINDE is a lecturer at the Department of Educational Management at the University of Ibadan. SEGUN O. 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