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ࡱ> q` bjbjqPqP 2::8       ###8#|6$d3$$$$$%%%2222222$J4h6`39 %%%%%3  $$N3o*o*o*% $ $2o*%2o*o*:.,  K/$$ N]#k(H. 2d303.R7)7K/7 K/o*%%%33G*(%%%3%%%%d##        Tips on Human Resource Selection and Training in Organizations for National Development. By Maicibi Alhas (Phd) Head, Research and Policy Development Department, United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI) Kampala Secretariat, Uganda. Introduction All organizations are made up of human resources and other non human resources. When the right quantity and quality of the human resources is brought together, it can manipulate other resources towards realizing the organizational goals and objectives. It has long been argued that the quality of the human resources has a high correlation with the level and quality of organizational (and national) performance and productivity. If this were the case, then every organization should strive to attract, select and retain the best quality of the human resources. And every nation should strive to train citizens to be competent for positions that exist in organizations. Procurement of human resources in organizations is a continuous process. This is as a result of labour mobility, which is the movement of labour / employees within the organization through promotion and advancements; into the organization through employment; and separating from the organization. Whether organizations like it or not, their employees must separate from them one day or the other. Equally, nations are always faced with situation of filling political posts. Separation can be either willingly through self retirement, resignation, getting another job, or it can be by force through compulsory retirement, termination, dismissal or death. When any of these happens, organizations have to set into motion procurement processes to fill the vacancy, which eventually result into recruitment, selection and placement. These are three areas, which sometimes managers take lightly, yet any mishap registered at these three levels, will have a great impact on the organizations performance; on the psych of a nation and the overall development of a country concerned. In other words, it has been established by scholars that corrupt practices such as use of subjectivity in hiring are rampant in the process of employment in most countries, but worse in the less developed world. Indeed, if an organization does not have funds to hire the right person, it is wiser to delay the exercise than to hire a wrong person. This is because of the preceding reasons advanced. Recruitment is a search for obtaining potential job applicants in sufficient quantity and quality to select the best from the rest. Selection is the process of sifting or filtering of the applications. It involves winnowing the chaff from the grains. The role of selection in organizations effectiveness is crucial because work performance depends on individuals. The best way to improve performance is to hire people who have the competence and the willingness to work. Arguing from the employees view point, poor or inappropriate choice can be demoralizing to the individual concerned. (who finds himself or herself in the wrong job) and de-motivating to the rest of the work force. Effective selection, therefore, assumes greater relevance as a panacea for better productivity of the employees, the organizations and the nation at large. Indeed the first goal of the Millennium Development Goals (hence forth MDGs) eradication of extreme poverty can better be achieved, if and when, organizations are productive. It is rather disheartening to note that at the midway point between their adoption in 2000 and 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals, the sub Saharan Africa is not on tract to achieve any of the Goals. Although there have been major gains in several areas and the Goals remain achievable in most African nations, especially with regards to reducing extreme poverty in its many forms Africa and the MDG, 2007 Up date (htt://unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg/defaults.aspx) retrieved 15/12/07 at 11:00 am. The potential of the African countries can be realized when their right people with the right competence, competency, aptitude, attitude, and the will and zeal of serve the countries are sourced and hired to fill positions in organizations and at national political posts. Competency and Competence specifications in workforce selection and placement There has always been strains and in some cases a mis match in education and training between what a trainee knows and what the trainee can do after training is completed. This underscores the essence and significance of studying competency and competence. At both workforce selection and promotion stages of employment by management, both the competence and competencies of applicants should be considered seriously by the panels in charge of these activities. The Human resource managers may carry out competency analyses and use the concept of competency at the recruitment and selection stages to identify characteristics suitable for the existing vacant jobs. Competencies may be used also in employee development to identify specific training needs and appropriate development programs for employees that can help them take up certain jobs in the organizations. However, positive discrimination in favour of females (who must have the prerequisite competence) can be used towards achieving the MDGs third goal of promoting gender equality and empowering women. Nonetheless, whether male or female, the people to be employed need to have aptitude (ability) for the job; attitude (stakeness, zeal and enthusiasm for the job) and should reveal elements of honesty and trustworthiness. Methods for Selection of Employees in an Organization There are different methods which can be used by human resources or line managers in selecting employee or work force. According to Maicibi (2007), Armstrong (2006), Maicibi (2003), Mathias & Jackson (2003),Williams (2003) and Dibble (1999) the selection methods includes short listing of applicant, graphology, buddy rating, questionnaires, assessment centre, interview, collecting information from referees or certified authorities like college or university or former or current employee. In the process of selection of employee the human resource manager or line manager should apply at least three methods to select an employee in an organization in order to make the right decision. Therefore the choice, combination application of methods should be appropriate to the nature of the organization, the position, task and responsibilities of the vacant job and the number and the nature of candidates. Short listing This is one of the methods of selecting employees that is carried out in three stages, first stage is the comparison of the qualification with the job description where applicants who are not meet requirements are eliminated. (Maicibi, 2003) suggested that in this stage the applicant who do not meet the requirements to be written a letter starting that their application was unsuccessful. The second stage is selecting the final short list applicants; this is for the applicants who fit the essential criteria. The third stage is the arrangement for the interview for those that meet the requirements. In this stage, the human resource manager or line manager writes a letter to the candidates which provides all the details for the interview by use of telephone calls or electronic mails to inform the short listed candidates about the interview. Graphology. This method involves the analysis of handwriting on the application letter in order to reveal certain personality traits. Here it is believed that a person attributes can be assessed through analyzing his or her hand writing. Buddy rating or peer rating. This is another method of selecting employee in an organization that involves the candidates nominating other candidates. It is appropriate if candidates have been together long enough to become sufficiently well acquainted with one another. Selecting test and questionnaires. This method includes the measuring of intelligence, achievement, developed abilities, aptitude for the particular task, measure interests, social attitude and emotional stability. In applying this method great skill is required in administering the test or questionnaire and in the interpretation of the results. However, even when they used they should be part of a comprehensive selection process and applied in appropriate circumstances to supplement the interview never as a substitute for it (Mullins, 1999). Group exercises This is a method which is most effective when it stimulates or resembles a practical real life situation which is reasonably representative of the task or type of situation that a person appointed might handled within the organization. There are a number of group selection procedures available including discussions and debate, business game and problems solving exercises. Assessment centers. Assessment centre is a method which is used in selection of employees. It is argued that, assessment centre uses many techniques to determine the suitability of the candidate for a particular job and may also be used for training, development and promotion purpose. The centre provides an in depth assessment of a group of broadly similar candidates and aims to measure the attributes and competencies required for a particular type of job. However, a combination of these methods produces better results. For instance, group exercise are used in conjunction with business game and case study and other simulation exercise. These exercises may be supported by the tests and questionnaires together with a variety of interviews in order to provide a range of contracting but complimentary activities. At the end of the various selection activities the observers agree on a cumulative rating for candidate. The ratings are intended to match abilities and skills against specific requirements of the specific to be filled. Interview. This is another method of selection by way of conversation. It is carried out by a person or a group of people. There are broadly three types of interview. First is Individual Interview method of selection that involves face to face discussion and provides the best opportunity for the establishment of close contact rapport between the interviewer and the candidate. It is better to have second interview or interview panel to avoid bias. The second type is Interview Panel that is conducted by two or more people gathered together to interview one candidate at a time. This has advantage of enabling information to be shared and reduces bias. The interviewers can discuss their joint impressions of the candidates performance and behaviour at the interview and make judgment. The third type is Selection Board, which are more formal and usually larger interviewing panels convened by an official body because there are a number of parties interested in the selection decision. Its advantage is that it enables a number of different people to have a look at the applicants and compare notes on the spot. Its disadvantage is that questions asked tend to be unplanned and delivered at random. All the types of interview can be conducted by the two methods, first method is structured interview that is the interviewer conducted by the two methods: structured and unstructured. It is important after the conversation or discussion interview and deadline for the final decision making is set if results are not released on the spot. Stages in the Conduct of an Interview Employees selection interviews should be given every objectivity they deserve because hiring wrong people is costly to the organizations and to the nations at large. Successful interviewers are usually well structured. In addition to good preparation, they should include an opening, information gathering, information giving and a close. Opening a The interviewer(s) are expected to welcome the interviewee with a smile and a possible handshake. b Have an introduction of members of the Panel / Board. c. Give a brief description of the agenda and how long the exercise is expected to last. Opening statement could be,  First, I would like to learn more about you, then we will discuss the job/position, and I will tell you more about the organizations; I will ask you some questions, and finally if you have questions you may ask us  that will take us 45 minutes. Information gathering Begin by getting more information about the candidate. Ask him/her questions and compare or refer to the resume (CV). You may find gaps; ask about the gaps. Ask open ended questions and minimize closed questions. Open questions give you an inlet into a lot of the candidates expressive ability, alertness, fluency, perception of situations and reactions to events. Pay attention to what interviewees say equally important, is to watch their paralanguage (non verbal), look for awkward gestures, lose of eye contact or change in voice pitch. Learning toward or nodding might mean enthusiasm. Ask probing questions relating to their application letter or form about gaps in employment, accomplishments, references. Avoid leading questions. For instance, how would you reprimand an employee? Rather than, do you agree that it is wrong to reprimand an employee in the presence of other peer? The first question allows divergence in views as well as encourages expression. Give candidates time to think. Remain neutral. This is because silence can be an effective way to encourage further comment. Describe some of the challenging situations candidates might encounter on the job. Ask how they might have dealt with or how they can deal with such situations. Beware if you observe inappropriate attire, jumpiness, nervousness, anxiety symptoms and avoidance of eye contact, inability to explain gaps in dates listed on the resume or inappropriate comments about past employer. All these will give you a clue about the candidate you are about to employ to work with you. At information gathering stage, questions can be for: a. Factual eliciting to establish or confirm a fact b Sake for probes to elicit further information c. Hypothetical to find out what the candidate might do in such a hypothetical situation. d. Reflective to make the candidate reflect back on what he/she said, supplied, denied earlier. e. Situational to expose the candidate to a situation he/she may likely meet at the job position, and how he would behave in such a situation. Interview questions should: a. Avoid discrimination not asked of all candidates and usually pertaining to the candidates personal life. b. Avoid multiple questions complex questions requiring the candidate to make a series of responses. c. Avoid asking contradictory questions d. Avoid repeating similar questions This is why the interview panel should meet earlier to decide on which questions or questions area each member of the panel will concentrate to ask. The questions could include the following: 1. Why do you want to change jobs at the point in time (for those already in employment)? 2. What do you think you could bring to this job? 3. What do you regard as the main achievement in your life? 4. What do you consider your greatest attributes? 5. What experience do you have that relate to this job? 6. What do you look for first and foremost in this job? 7. What are your weaknesses that relate to this job? This question can divide candidates into honest and dishonest ones. 8. How do you handle the pressure of deadlines? 9. What are your long term goals and how do you think you can achieve them here? 10. Where do you see yourself in five years times? 11. What have your relationships been like with past employers ( for those working) Not all the questions to be asked in one interview. Those applicable must, however, be asked. But, when properly combined, they can shift the chaff from the grains. Information giving Note that: 1. After gathering relevant information from the candidate, you should discuss the job. Describe the tasks and criteria for success to the candidates so that he/she can decide or not whether the job suits them. 2. Describe the organization, its culture, climate and your expectations regarding the position holder. Closing the interview When the discussions have completed, let the candidates know what the next steps are such as the possibility of second interviews and deadlines for final decision making. For candidates who did not meet your requirements you may need to be frank and honest with them but in diplomatic manner to avoid damaging the persons self esteem and ego. You might say, your credentials and work experiences are really good, but this job needs , which you do not have. But we will like to keep you on file in case another more suitable position avails itself. It is wise to keep your pledge, but even if you had not pledged, to reimburse candidates interview expenses such as hotel bills, feeding and transport. Immediately after the interview Immediately after the interviews, the candidates should be evaluated. A standard form will allow you to accumulate consistent information on each candidate. This form should indicate positive and negative factors which should include; Background and education; skills, attributes and presence; appearance; personality experience; voice; job suitability; as well as strengths and weaknesses. Interview Pitfalls There are a number of issues that can affect the objectivity of the exercise and reduces the chances of selecting the right candidate. They should therefore, be minimized or entirely avoided at all cost during selection exercise. These, according to Maicibi (2003), are called the 14 interview pit falls that include the following: The halo and horns effect where the interviewers rate candidates as all good or all bad across the board and thus arrive at imbalanced decisions, and in many instances, wrong decisions. The stereotyping effect where interviewers assume some particular characteristics to be from a particular group and thus treat everyone from such a group similarly. For example, the perception that an average Karamojong or Mukiga in Uganda is aggressive so that every Karamojong or Mukiga in an interview is perceived as aggressive even when he/she is not. The primacy effect is when too much decisional emphasis is placed on impressions gained and information gathered early in the interview. Here, all subsequent responses by the candidate are judged on this basis. The temporary extension effect is when an assumption is made on a candidates behaviour at an interview such as fear, stammering, nervousness or anxiety as typical of their general behaviour. These sometimes, may correlate but some other times, the predictive validity may be zero. The fundamental attribution error effect is when the interviewers incorrectly assume that some action on part of the candidate was caused by their personality, rather than a simple response to events and situation. The expectancy effect is when too much influence is given to positive or negative impressions of a candidate formed from the application letter / form or the Curriculum Vitae. This could be from the examination grade or class. The information under - load effect is where judgments are made based on only a small amount of the information provided. Here decisions are reached from an uninformed basis. The negative information bias effect is when more weight is given to perceived negative points about candidates than to those that are more positive. Indeed, emphasis should be on the positive points. The contrast effect is when experience on interviewing one candidate affects the way other candidates are subsequently interviewed and judged. This is detrimental if the first candidate was extremely good or bad. The personal liking effect is when interviewers base their selection decisions on whether or not they personally like or dislike the candidates behaviour, appearance or background. The prototyping effect is where the interviewers favour a particular personality regardless of job related factors. The self fulfilling prophesy effect is when all questions being asked are to confirm initial impression gained before the interview and closing out any possible new impression that can be created. The similar to me effect is giving preference to candidates the interviewer(s) perceive(s) as having a similar background of personality like they have. This could be tribal, name, religion, racial or academic qualifications. Curve course effect is when interviewers deliberately ask different level of questions difficulty to ensure they eliminate other candidate to cause a way for a favoured candidate. This is most common at unstructured interviews. To eliminate the above problems, some points that can make an interview a successful exercise in a selection process should be noted and used: The law of three and the Assessment centres use. The Law of Three The human resource manager should ensure they or their representative(s) apply the Law of Three before the best candidate is finally selected. The Law of Three states that of all those interviewed; there should be the top best three to select one from. Also that the selection process should be by three methods. These methods could include; interviews, group exercise, in basket exercise, peer rating and questionnaire and tests. This will provide opportunity of balancing of candidates personality and aptitude. The law also has it that the candidates should be interviewed in three different locations and by three different panels but with the Human Resource manager as a constant member at all selection activities. Note that for all activities, good preparation is very important. Human Resource Training Training is a process of transformation of one person by another or experience when the trainees skills, knowledge, attitude, feeling, behaviour and ability one being enhanced to enable one to fit well in the residing society; be of use to oneself and to the society as well as be productive at ones workplace. Therefore, training of the Human resource should include aspects of the cognitive domain (skill, knowledge and critical ability), psychomotor domain (ability to use the hands to produce), and affective domain ( the ability to balance attitude with aptitude, display positive behaviour and be above board in terms of honesty and trustworthiness). Consequently upon the foregoing submission, African schools curricular and organizations training programs need enrichment to produce an educated person cognitively, psychomotory and affectively. At present, it seems too much emphasis is placed on the cognition alone. Bedrock for Effective Training Learning Theory suggests that there are ten main conditions required for training to be effective. 1. Individual must be motivated to learn. The employees should be aware that there present level of knowledge, skill or competences, or their existing attitudes or behaviour, needs to be improved if they are to perform their work to their own and to others satisfaction. They must therefore, have a clear picture of the behaviour they should adopt. 2. Standards of performance should be set for learners/ employees. Learners must clearly defined targets and standards which they find acceptable and can use to judge their own progress. 3. Learners should have guideline. They need a sense of direction and feedback on how they are doing. Self motivated individuals may provide much of this for themselves, but the trainers should still be available to encourage and help when necessary. 4. Learners must gain satisfaction from learning. They are capable of learning under the most difficult circumstances if the learning is satisfying to one or more of their needs. Conversely, the best training schemes can fail if they are not seen as useful by the trainee. 5. Learning is an active not a passive process. Learners need to be actively involved with their trainer, their fellow trainees and the subject matter of the training programme. 6. Appropriate technique should be used. Trainers have a large repertory of training tools and materials. But they must use these with discrimination in accordance with the needs of the jobs, the individual and the group. 7. Learning methods should be varied. The use of a variety of techniques as long as they are equally appropriate, help learning by maintaining the interest of trainers. 8. Time must be allowed to absorb the learning. Learning requires time to assimilate, test and accept. This time should be provided in the training programme. 9. The learner must receive reinforcement of correct behaviour. Learners usually need to know quickly that they are doing well. For example in a prolonged training programme, intermediate steps are required in which training can be reinforced. The Learning Theory implies that we are constantly shaping others behaviour i.e bosses, peers, subordinates. By being very conscious of the learning theory and how we use it, we can improve our skills in organization. Some ways that learning theory can be used directly in organizations are in training people thus, people learn more quickly when they participate actively in the learning process. This brings the modern on the job training techniques to be handy and valuable. Modern on the job Training Techniques: Counseling, Coaching and Mentoring. There is a shift from the traditional formal employees training by management to that of a soft humane approach of enabling supervisees improve their performance. The traditional training methods uphold the relationship between the two parties involved in the sense of a trainer Vs a trainee; a teacher Vs a student, a superior Vs an inferior, and a superordinate Vs a subordinate. Such situations involved so much of talking and criticism instead of effort put at modeling of the employees young mind. The modern techniques of modeling the young mind of the employee. The modern techniques of modeling the young minds include coaching, counseling and mentoring. It has been adjudged that these produce better desired results than the traditional methods or ways, mainly because the modern techniques are done in a continual basis. People are clearly an organizations most valued asset, but just hiring the best is not enough. Managers must find effective ways to support their staff, to remove obstacles which may be holding them back and to help them to develop their answer and find their feet. These three on the job training techniques (counseling, coaching, mentoring) impart and enhance skills which impact on employee performance which subsequently increase the organizations competitive advantage. Saleemi (1997) remarks that the best place to train a new employee is on the job itself, because it is only on the job itself that the learner can experience the conditions and requirements of the actual work situation. Cushway (1994) too agrees that the most effective learning is when the trainee has to find out for him/himself (learning by doing or do it yourself training). Coaching, mentoring and counseling are terms that are often used interchangeably in the management of human resources. The three concepts present types of training techniques in which learning takes place on the job (on the job training), other than formal training in a special location like a classroom or training center. Although these three terms are used interchangeably by some scholars, there are some technical differences in the way they are or should be used. First of all, what do these three terms each mean? Conceptual Clarification There is need to conceptualize these modern training techniques for managers to conceptualize them for possible use. Coaching the employees Coaching is a one on one relationship between two people or groups which offers the less experienced group continued guidance and feedback on how well or not they are handling their tasks. Coaching is a person to person training technique designed to develop individual skills, knowledge and attitudes. It is indeed, to improving individual performance. Bolt (2002:3) defines coaching as a participative partnership designed to develop an individual to their full potential. It is a one to one process which typically focuses on personal development and problem solving, whereby the coach and the individual agree on the issues involved and jointly consider solutions. Most definitions emphasize one important aspect about employee coaching, that is, it is a form of employee development in which an experience and skilled individual helps another person or a colleague to acquire, learn and apply knowledge, skills and techniques in a work place. Mentoring the employees A mentor in an organization is a more senior or experienced member of staff who provides one to one career related guidance and encouragement to a less experienced colleague with a focus on long term learning and development. Lewis (2000) definition of mentoring is that, it is a relationship and a set of processes where one person offers help, guidance, advice and support to facilitate the learning or development of another person. Therefore, mentoring is a particular form of coaching used by seniors to groom junior employees. Mentoring is thus the process of using specially selected and trained individuals to provide guidance and advice, which will help to develop the careers of protgs (subsequently referred to as mentorees) allocated to them. Counseling the employees There are many definitions of counseling, most of which reflect the backgrounds, interests or priorities of the person defining. For instance, according to Cole (2002:107), counseling is a skilled activity in which the counselor helps the client to understand their problems, take responsibility for them and develops ways of overcoming them using their inner resources. Kreitner (2001) defines this concept (specifically employee counseling) as a process whereby employees are guided in overcoming performance problems. Counseling, therefore, is a process through which one person helps another overcome difficulties by purposeful conversation in an understanding atmosphere. It seeks to establish a helping relationship in which the one counseled can progress their own situation, see their difficulty more objectively and face their problem with less anxiety and tension. Its basic purpose is to assist the individuals to make their own decisions from among the choices available to them. Conclusion and way forward Poor or wrong selection of employees to fill vacancies both in the organizations and at political posts is costly to nations that are in quest for development. Indeed, they are as dangerous, if not more than national calamities such as wars, famine, geographic mishaps and epidemics. Selection of people to fill existing vacancies and posts should therefore be done carefully and with the objectivity it deserves. Further, training of citizens on new economic ventures such as Petroleum sector should be given the due attention. REFERENCES Armstrong, M. (2006) A handbook of Human resource management practices (10th ed), London Kogan page. African and the MDGs (2007) Update htt://unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg/default.aspx retrieved, 15/12/07 at 11am. Bolt, P. (2002) Coaching for growth. Dublin. Oak Trees Press. Cole, G.A. (2000) Personnel and Human resource management (8th ed). London. Education Low priced sponsored texts. Cushway, B. (1994) Human resource management ( Revised ed) London. Kogan page. Kreitner, R. (2001) Management (8th ed). New York. Miffline co. Boston. Lewis, T. (2000) Advanced business management (2nd ed) Prentice Hall. Maicibi, N.A. (2007) Human resource management success: Tips for HRM theorists and practitioners. Kampala, Makerere University printary and publishers. Maicibi, N.A. (2003) Pertinent Issues in employees management. Kampala. MPK Graphics Ltd. Mathias, L.R. & Jackson, H.J. (1997) Human resource management (8th ed) New York. West publishing company. Mullins, L.J. (1990) Management and organizational behaviour (5th ed). Financial Times. Prentice Hall. 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(1997) Business Communication and report writing simplified. Nairobi. Saleemi Publishers ltd. William, T. (2003) Management (2nd ed) New York. Thomson South Western Publishers Ltd.     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ࡱ> q` bjbjqPqP 2::8       ###8#|6$d3$$$$$%%%2222222$J4h6`39 %%%%%3  $$N3o*o*o*% $ $2o*%2o*o*:.,  K/$$ N]#k(H. 2d303.R7)7K/7 K/o*%%%33G*(%%%3%%%%d##        Tips on Human Resource Selection and Training in Organizations for National Development. By Maicibi Alhas (Phd) Head, Research and Policy Development Department, United Nations African Institute for the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders (UNAFRI) Kampala Secretariat, Uganda. Introduction All organizations are made up of human resources and other non human resources. When the right quantity and quality of the human resources is brought together, it can manipulate other resources towards realizing the organizational goals and objectives. It has long been argued that the quality of the human resources has a high correlation with the level and quality of organizational (and national) performance and productivity. If this were the case, then every organization should strive to attract, select and retain the best quality of the human resources. And every nation should strive to train citizens to be competent for positions that exist in organizations. Procurement of human resources in organizations is a continuous process. This is as a result of labour mobility, which is the movement of labour / employees within the organization through promotion and advancements; into the organization through employment; and separating from the organization. Whether organizations like it or not, their employees must separate from them one day or the other. Equally, nations are always faced with situation of filling political posts. Separation can be either willingly through self retirement, resignation, getting another job, or it can be by force through compulsory retirement, termination, dismissal or death. When any of these happens, organizations have to set into motion procurement processes to fill the vacancy, which eventually result into recruitment, selection and placement. These are three areas, which sometimes managers take lightly, yet any mishap registered at these three levels, will have a great impact on the organizations performance; on the psych of a nation and the overall development of a country concerned. In other words, it has been established by scholars that corrupt practices such as use of subjectivity in hiring are rampant in the process of employment in most countries, but worse in the less developed world. Indeed, if an organization does not have funds to hire the right person, it is wiser to delay the exercise than to hire a wrong person. This is because of the preceding reasons advanced. Recruitment is a search for obtaining potential job applicants in sufficient quantity and quality to select the best from the rest. Selection is the process of sifting or filtering of the applications. It involves winnowing the chaff from the grains. The role of selection in organizations effectiveness is crucial because work performance depends on individuals. The best way to improve performance is to hire people who have the competence and the willingness to work. Arguing from the employees view point, poor or inappropriate choice can be demoralizing to the individual concerned. (who finds himself or herself in the wrong job) and de-motivating to the rest of the work force. Effective selection, therefore, assumes greater relevance as a panacea for better productivity of the employees, the organizations and the nation at large. Indeed the first goal of the Millennium Development Goals (hence forth MDGs) eradication of extreme poverty can better be achieved, if and when, organizations are productive. It is rather disheartening to note that at the midway point between their adoption in 2000 and 2015 target date for achieving the Millennium Development Goals, the sub Saharan Africa is not on tract to achieve any of the Goals. Although there have been major gains in several areas and the Goals remain achievable in most African nations, especially with regards to reducing extreme poverty in its many forms Africa and the MDG, 2007 Up date (htt://unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg/defaults.aspx) retrieved 15/12/07 at 11:00 am. The potential of the African countries can be realized when their right people with the right competence, competency, aptitude, attitude, and the will and zeal of serve the countries are sourced and hired to fill positions in organizations and at national political posts. Competency and Competence specifications in workforce selection and placement There has always been strains and in some cases a mis match in education and training between what a trainee knows and what the trainee can do after training is completed. This underscores the essence and significance of studying competency and competence. At both workforce selection and promotion stages of employment by management, both the competence and competencies of applicants should be considered seriously by the panels in charge of these activities. The Human resource managers may carry out competency analyses and use the concept of competency at the recruitment and selection stages to identify characteristics suitable for the existing vacant jobs. Competencies may be used also in employee development to identify specific training needs and appropriate development programs for employees that can help them take up certain jobs in the organizations. However, positive discrimination in favour of females (who must have the prerequisite competence) can be used towards achieving the MDGs third goal of promoting gender equality and empowering women. Nonetheless, whether male or female, the people to be employed need to have aptitude (ability) for the job; attitude (stakeness, zeal and enthusiasm for the job) and should reveal elements of honesty and trustworthiness. Methods for Selection of Employees in an Organization There are different methods which can be used by human resources or line managers in selecting employee or work force. According to Maicibi (2007), Armstrong (2006), Maicibi (2003), Mathias & Jackson (2003),Williams (2003) and Dibble (1999) the selection methods includes short listing of applicant, graphology, buddy rating, questionnaires, assessment centre, interview, collecting information from referees or certified authorities like college or university or former or current employee. In the process of selection of employee the human resource manager or line manager should apply at least three methods to select an employee in an organization in order to make the right decision. Therefore the choice, combination application of methods should be appropriate to the nature of the organization, the position, task and responsibilities of the vacant job and the number and the nature of candidates. Short listing This is one of the methods of selecting employees that is carried out in three stages, first stage is the comparison of the qualification with the job description where applicants who are not meet requirements are eliminated. (Maicibi, 2003) suggested that in this stage the applicant who do not meet the requirements to be written a letter starting that their application was unsuccessful. The second stage is selecting the final short list applicants; this is for the applicants who fit the essential criteria. The third stage is the arrangement for the interview for those that meet the requirements. In this stage, the human resource manager or line manager writes a letter to the candidates which provides all the details for the interview by use of telephone calls or electronic mails to inform the short listed candidates about the interview. Graphology. This method involves the analysis of handwriting on the application letter in order to reveal certain personality traits. Here it is believed that a person attributes can be assessed through analyzing his or her hand writing. Buddy rating or peer rating. This is another method of selecting employee in an organization that involves the candidates nominating other candidates. It is appropriate if candidates have been together long enough to become sufficiently well acquainted with one another. Selecting test and questionnaires. This method includes the measuring of intelligence, achievement, developed abilities, aptitude for the particular task, measure interests, social attitude and emotional stability. In applying this method great skill is required in administering the test or questionnaire and in the interpretation of the results. However, even when they used they should be part of a comprehensive selection process and applied in appropriate circumstances to supplement the interview never as a substitute for it (Mullins, 1999). Group exercises This is a method which is most effective when it stimulates or resembles a practical real life situation which is reasonably representative of the task or type of situation that a person appointed might handled within the organization. There are a number of group selection procedures available including discussions and debate, business game and problems solving exercises. Assessment centers. Assessment centre is a method which is used in selection of employees. It is argued that, assessment centre uses many techniques to determine the suitability of the candidate for a particular job and may also be used for training, development and promotion purpose. The centre provides an in depth assessment of a group of broadly similar candidates and aims to measure the attributes and competencies required for a particular type of job. However, a combination of these methods produces better results. For instance, group exercise are used in conjunction with business game and case study and other simulation exercise. These exercises may be supported by the tests and questionnaires together with a variety of interviews in order to provide a range of contracting but complimentary activities. At the end of the various selection activities the observers agree on a cumulative rating for candidate. The ratings are intended to match abilities and skills against specific requirements of the specific to be filled. Interview. This is another method of selection by way of conversation. It is carried out by a person or a group of people. There are broadly three types of interview. First is Individual Interview method of selection that involves face to face discussion and provides the best opportunity for the establishment of close contact rapport between the interviewer and the candidate. It is better to have second interview or interview panel to avoid bias. The second type is Interview Panel that is conducted by two or more people gathered together to interview one candidate at a time. This has advantage of enabling information to be shared and reduces bias. The interviewers can discuss their joint impressions of the candidates performance and behaviour at the interview and make judgment. The third type is Selection Board, which are more formal and usually larger interviewing panels convened by an official body because there are a number of parties interested in the selection decision. Its advantage is that it enables a number of different people to have a look at the applicants and compare notes on the spot. Its disadvantage is that questions asked tend to be unplanned and delivered at random. All the types of interview can be conducted by the two methods, first method is structured interview that is the interviewer conducted by the two methods: structured and unstructured. It is important after the conversation or discussion interview and deadline for the final decision making is set if results are not released on the spot. Stages in the Conduct of an Interview Employees selection interviews should be given every objectivity they deserve because hiring wrong people is costly to the organizations and to the nations at large. Successful interviewers are usually well structured. In addition to good preparation, they should include an opening, information gathering, information giving and a close. Opening a The interviewer(s) are expected to welcome the interviewee with a smile and a possible handshake. b Have an introduction of members of the Panel / Board. c. Give a brief description of the agenda and how long the exercise is expected to last. Opening statement could be,  First, I would like to learn more about you, then we will discuss the job/position, and I will tell you more about the organizations; I will ask you some questions, and finally if you have questions you may ask us  that will take us 45 minutes. Information gathering Begin by getting more information about the candidate. Ask him/her questions and compare or refer to the resume (CV). You may find gaps; ask about the gaps. Ask open ended questions and minimize closed questions. Open questions give you an inlet into a lot of the candidates expressive ability, alertness, fluency, perception of situations and reactions to events. Pay attention to what interviewees say equally important, is to watch their paralanguage (non verbal), look for awkward gestures, lose of eye contact or change in voice pitch. Learning toward or nodding might mean enthusiasm. Ask probing questions relating to their application letter or form about gaps in employment, accomplishments, references. Avoid leading questions. For instance, how would you reprimand an employee? Rather than, do you agree that it is wrong to reprimand an employee in the presence of other peer? The first question allows divergence in views as well as encourages expression. Give candidates time to think. Remain neutral. This is because silence can be an effective way to encourage further comment. Describe some of the challenging situations candidates might encounter on the job. Ask how they might have dealt with or how they can deal with such situations. Beware if you observe inappropriate attire, jumpiness, nervousness, anxiety symptoms and avoidance of eye contact, inability to explain gaps in dates listed on the resume or inappropriate comments about past employer. All these will give you a clue about the candidate you are about to employ to work with you. At information gathering stage, questions can be for: a. Factual eliciting to establish or confirm a fact b Sake for probes to elicit further information c. Hypothetical to find out what the candidate might do in such a hypothetical situation. d. Reflective to make the candidate reflect back on what he/she said, supplied, denied earlier. e. Situational to expose the candidate to a situation he/she may likely meet at the job position, and how he would behave in such a situation. Interview questions should: a. Avoid discrimination not asked of all candidates and usually pertaining to the candidates personal life. b. Avoid multiple questions complex questions requiring the candidate to make a series of responses. c. Avoid asking contradictory questions d. Avoid repeating similar questions This is why the interview panel should meet earlier to decide on which questions or questions area each member of the panel will concentrate to ask. The questions could include the following: 1. Why do you want to change jobs at the point in time (for those already in employment)? 2. What do you think you could bring to this job? 3. What do you regard as the main achievement in your life? 4. What do you consider your greatest attributes? 5. What experience do you have that relate to this job? 6. What do you look for first and foremost in this job? 7. What are your weaknesses that relate to this job? This question can divide candidates into honest and dishonest ones. 8. How do you handle the pressure of deadlines? 9. What are your long term goals and how do you think you can achieve them here? 10. Where do you see yourself in five years times? 11. What have your relationships been like with past employers ( for those working) Not all the questions to be asked in one interview. Those applicable must, however, be asked. But, when properly combined, they can shift the chaff from the grains. Information giving Note that: 1. After gathering relevant information from the candidate, you should discuss the job. Describe the tasks and criteria for success to the candidates so that he/she can decide or not whether the job suits them. 2. Describe the organization, its culture, climate and your expectations regarding the position holder. Closing the interview When the discussions have completed, let the candidates know what the next steps are such as the possibility of second interviews and deadlines for final decision making. For candidates who did not meet your requirements you may need to be frank and honest with them but in diplomatic manner to avoid damaging the persons self esteem and ego. You might say, your credentials and work experiences are really good, but this job needs , which you do not have. But we will like to keep you on file in case another more suitable position avails itself. It is wise to keep your pledge, but even if you had not pledged, to reimburse candidates interview expenses such as hotel bills, feeding and transport. Immediately after the interview Immediately after the interviews, the candidates should be evaluated. A standard form will allow you to accumulate consistent information on each candidate. This form should indicate positive and negative factors which should include; Background and education; skills, attributes and presence; appearance; personality experience; voice; job suitability; as well as strengths and weaknesses. Interview Pitfalls There are a number of issues that can affect the objectivity of the exercise and reduces the chances of selecting the right candidate. They should therefore, be minimized or entirely avoided at all cost during selection exercise. These, according to Maicibi (2003), are called the 14 interview pit falls that include the following: The halo and horns effect where the interviewers rate candidates as all good or all bad across the board and thus arrive at imbalanced decisions, and in many instances, wrong decisions. The stereotyping effect where interviewers assume some particular characteristics to be from a particular group and thus treat everyone from such a group similarly. For example, the perception that an average Karamojong or Mukiga in Uganda is aggressive so that every Karamojong or Mukiga in an interview is perceived as aggressive even when he/she is not. The primacy effect is when too much decisional emphasis is placed on impressions gained and information gathered early in the interview. Here, all subsequent responses by the candidate are judged on this basis. The temporary extension effect is when an assumption is made on a candidates behaviour at an interview such as fear, stammering, nervousness or anxiety as typical of their general behaviour. These sometimes, may correlate but some other times, the predictive validity may be zero. The fundamental attribution error effect is when the interviewers incorrectly assume that some action on part of the candidate was caused by their personality, rather than a simple response to events and situation. The expectancy effect is when too much influence is given to positive or negative impressions of a candidate formed from the application letter / form or the Curriculum Vitae. This could be from the examination grade or class. The information under - load effect is where judgments are made based on only a small amount of the information provided. Here decisions are reached from an uninformed basis. The negative information bias effect is when more weight is given to perceived negative points about candidates than to those that are more positive. Indeed, emphasis should be on the positive points. The contrast effect is when experience on interviewing one candidate affects the way other candidates are subsequently interviewed and judged. This is detrimental if the first candidate was extremely good or bad. The personal liking effect is when interviewers base their selection decisions on whether or not they personally like or dislike the candidates behaviour, appearance or background. The prototyping effect is where the interviewers favour a particular personality regardless of job related factors. The self fulfilling prophesy effect is when all questions being asked are to confirm initial impression gained before the interview and closing out any possible new impression that can be created. The similar to me effect is giving preference to candidates the interviewer(s) perceive(s) as having a similar background of personality like they have. This could be tribal, name, religion, racial or academic qualifications. Curve course effect is when interviewers deliberately ask different level of questions difficulty to ensure they eliminate other candidate to cause a way for a favoured candidate. This is most common at unstructured interviews. To eliminate the above problems, some points that can make an interview a successful exercise in a selection process should be noted and used: The law of three and the Assessment centres use. The Law of Three The human resource manager should ensure they or their representative(s) apply the Law of Three before the best candidate is finally selected. The Law of Three states that of all those interviewed; there should be the top best three to select one from. Also that the selection process should be by three methods. These methods could include; interviews, group exercise, in basket exercise, peer rating and questionnaire and tests. This will provide opportunity of balancing of candidates personality and aptitude. The law also has it that the candidates should be interviewed in three different locations and by three different panels but with the Human Resource manager as a constant member at all selection activities. Note that for all activities, good preparation is very important. Human Resource Training Training is a process of transformation of one person by another or experience when the trainees skills, knowledge, attitude, feeling, behaviour and ability one being enhanced to enable one to fit well in the residing society; be of use to oneself and to the society as well as be productive at ones workplace. Therefore, training of the Human resource should include aspects of the cognitive domain (skill, knowledge and critical ability), psychomotor domain (ability to use the hands to produce), and affective domain ( the ability to balance attitude with aptitude, display positive behaviour and be above board in terms of honesty and trustworthiness). Consequently upon the foregoing submission, African schools curricular and organizations training programs need enrichment to produce an educated person cognitively, psychomotory and affectively. At present, it seems too much emphasis is placed on the cognition alone. Bedrock for Effective Training Learning Theory suggests that there are ten main conditions required for training to be effective. 1. Individual must be motivated to learn. The employees should be aware that there present level of knowledge, skill or competences, or their existing attitudes or behaviour, needs to be improved if they are to perform their work to their own and to others satisfaction. They must therefore, have a clear picture of the behaviour they should adopt. 2. Standards of performance should be set for learners/ employees. Learners must clearly defined targets and standards which they find acceptable and can use to judge their own progress. 3. Learners should have guideline. They need a sense of direction and feedback on how they are doing. Self motivated individuals may provide much of this for themselves, but the trainers should still be available to encourage and help when necessary. 4. Learners must gain satisfaction from learning. They are capable of learning under the most difficult circumstances if the learning is satisfying to one or more of their needs. Conversely, the best training schemes can fail if they are not seen as useful by the trainee. 5. Learning is an active not a passive process. Learners need to be actively involved with their trainer, their fellow trainees and the subject matter of the training programme. 6. Appropriate technique should be used. Trainers have a large repertory of training tools and materials. But they must use these with discrimination in accordance with the needs of the jobs, the individual and the group. 7. Learning methods should be varied. The use of a variety of techniques as long as they are equally appropriate, help learning by maintaining the interest of trainers. 8. Time must be allowed to absorb the learning. Learning requires time to assimilate, test and accept. This time should be provided in the training programme. 9. The learner must receive reinforcement of correct behaviour. Learners usually need to know quickly that they are doing well. For example in a prolonged training programme, intermediate steps are required in which training can be reinforced. The Learning Theory implies that we are constantly shaping others behaviour i.e bosses, peers, subordinates. By being very conscious of the learning theory and how we use it, we can improve our skills in organization. Some ways that learning theory can be used directly in organizations are in training people thus, people learn more quickly when they participate actively in the learning process. This brings the modern on the job training techniques to be handy and valuable. Modern on the job Training Techniques: Counseling, Coaching and Mentoring. There is a shift from the traditional formal employees training by management to that of a soft humane approach of enabling supervisees improve their performance. The traditional training methods uphold the relationship between the two parties involved in the sense of a trainer Vs a trainee; a teacher Vs a student, a superior Vs an inferior, and a superordinate Vs a subordinate. Such situations involved so much of talking and criticism instead of effort put at modeling of the employees young mind. The modern techniques of modeling the young mind of the employee. The modern techniques of modeling the young minds include coaching, counseling and mentoring. It has been adjudged that these produce better desired results than the traditional methods or ways, mainly because the modern techniques are done in a continual basis. People are clearly an organizations most valued asset, but just hiring the best is not enough. Managers must find effective ways to support their staff, to remove obstacles which may be holding them back and to help them to develop their answer and find their feet. These three on the job training techniques (counseling, coaching, mentoring) impart and enhance skills which impact on employee performance which subsequently increase the organizations competitive advantage. Saleemi (1997) remarks that the best place to train a new employee is on the job itself, because it is only on the job itself that the learner can experience the conditions and requirements of the actual work situation. Cushway (1994) too agrees that the most effective learning is when the trainee has to find out for him/himself (learning by doing or do it yourself training). Coaching, mentoring and counseling are terms that are often used interchangeably in the management of human resources. The three concepts present types of training techniques in which learning takes place on the job (on the job training), other than formal training in a special location like a classroom or training center. Although these three terms are used interchangeably by some scholars, there are some technical differences in the way they are or should be used. First of all, what do these three terms each mean? Conceptual Clarification There is need to conceptualize these modern training techniques for managers to conceptualize them for possible use. Coaching the employees Coaching is a one on one relationship between two people or groups which offers the less experienced group continued guidance and feedback on how well or not they are handling their tasks. Coaching is a person to person training technique designed to develop individual skills, knowledge and attitudes. It is indeed, to improving individual performance. Bolt (2002:3) defines coaching as a participative partnership designed to develop an individual to their full potential. It is a one to one process which typically focuses on personal development and problem solving, whereby the coach and the individual agree on the issues involved and jointly consider solutions. Most definitions emphasize one important aspect about employee coaching, that is, it is a form of employee development in which an experience and skilled individual helps another person or a colleague to acquire, learn and apply knowledge, skills and techniques in a work place. Mentoring the employees A mentor in an organization is a more senior or experienced member of staff who provides one to one career related guidance and encouragement to a less experienced colleague with a focus on long term learning and development. Lewis (2000) definition of mentoring is that, it is a relationship and a set of processes where one person offers help, guidance, advice and support to facilitate the learning or development of another person. Therefore, mentoring is a particular form of coaching used by seniors to groom junior employees. Mentoring is thus the process of using specially selected and trained individuals to provide guidance and advice, which will help to develop the careers of protgs (subsequently referred to as mentorees) allocated to them. Counseling the employees There are many definitions of counseling, most of which reflect the backgrounds, interests or priorities of the person defining. For instance, according to Cole (2002:107), counseling is a skilled activity in which the counselor helps the client to understand their problems, take responsibility for them and develops ways of overcoming them using their inner resources. Kreitner (2001) defines this concept (specifically employee counseling) as a process whereby employees are guided in overcoming performance problems. Counseling, therefore, is a process through which one person helps another overcome difficulties by purposeful conversation in an understanding atmosphere. It seeks to establish a helping relationship in which the one counseled can progress their own situation, see their difficulty more objectively and face their problem with less anxiety and tension. Its basic purpose is to assist the individuals to make their own decisions from among the choices available to them. Conclusion and way forward Poor or wrong selection of employees to fill vacancies both in the organizations and at political posts is costly to nations that are in quest for development. Indeed, they are as dangerous, if not more than national calamities such as wars, famine, geographic mishaps and epidemics. Selection of people to fill existing vacancies and posts should therefore be done carefully and with the objectivity it deserves. Further, training of citizens on new economic ventures such as Petroleum sector should be given the due attention. REFERENCES Armstrong, M. (2006) A handbook of Human resource management practices (10th ed), London Kogan page. African and the MDGs (2007) Update htt://unstats.un.org/unsd/mdg/default.aspx retrieved, 15/12/07 at 11am. Bolt, P. (2002) Coaching for growth. Dublin. Oak Trees Press. Cole, G.A. (2000) Personnel and Human resource management (8th ed). London. Education Low priced sponsored texts. Cushway, B. (1994) Human resource management ( Revised ed) London. Kogan page. Kreitner, R. (2001) Management (8th ed). New York. Miffline co. Boston. Lewis, T. (2000) Advanced business management (2nd ed) Prentice Hall. Maicibi, N.A. (2007) Human resource management success: Tips for HRM theorists and practitioners. Kampala, Makerere University printary and publishers. Maicibi, N.A. (2003) Pertinent Issues in employees management. Kampala. MPK Graphics Ltd. Mathias, L.R. & Jackson, H.J. (1997) Human resource management (8th ed) New York. West publishing company. Mullins, L.J. (1990) Management and organizational behaviour (5th ed). Financial Times. Prentice Hall. 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(1997) Business Communication and report writing simplified. Nairobi. Saleemi Publishers ltd. William, T. (2003) Management (2nd ed) New York. Thomson South Western Publishers Ltd.     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