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ࡱ> q` uubjbjqPqP 1::k{%"000D>>>8 ?$D?D2?( @".@.@.@ A A AACCCCCCЇh8C0W A AWWC00.@.@X\\\Wn0.@0.@A\WA\\QD00!.@? gp{>ZZ&An0f_[6L!0! AH\ONlR A A ACC\^ A A AWWWWDDD7>DDD>DDD000000 RESEARCH MANAGEMENT: STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES Paper Delivered at the Karolinska Institute Research Training (KIRT) Conference held October 23 25, 2006 in Stockholm, Sweden By David J. Bakibinga Ph.D (London) Professor of Commercial Law and Deputy Vice Chancellor Makerere University Formerly Director, School of Graduate Studies Makerere University A. Introduction The aim of this paper is to assess the opportunities and challenges peculiar to research management, which the topic envisages. The analysis shall particularly focus on the experience at Makerere University in Uganda, in particular, and Uganda generally. It will cover research conducted in partial or full fulfillment of the requirements for award of postgraduate degrees and that conducted by academics and researchers with a view to publication, innovation and invention. Underlying the treatment is emphasis on the necessity for research policy, guidelines, the recording of findings particularly in the interest of securing intellectual property rights and benefits, research capacity and tools for conducting research. Research in this paper refers to search or inquiry after, for; or endeavour to discover facts by scientific study of a subject; or to make researches. B. The Policy Framework 1. School of Graduate Studies The Vision and Mission of Makerere University envisage research as one of three principal objectives and activities of the University; the other two being teaching and outreach and solution of societal problems. Apart from those broad objectives, in 1994 the University Council resolved to constitute the School of Postgraduate Studies (since 2004 renamed the School of Graduate Studies). The school was mandated to handle admissions, monitoring the teaching and examination of Postgraduate Studies as well as monitoring research and the mobilization of research funds. It should be stressed that the School of Graduate Studies is a monitoring and coordinating unit. The actual research and teaching and supervision of graduate students is conducted in the academic units variously called faculties, schools, institutes and centres. Apart from the School of Graduate Studies, there are other research institutes and centres within the University with specialized research functions. These include the Makerere Institute for Social Research (MISR) the Human Rights and Peace Centre (HURIPEC) located in the Faculty of Law, the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) located in the Faculty of Medicine and Agricultural Research Institute (MUARIK) located in the Faculty of Agriculture. The School of Graduate Studies (SGS) oversees nineteen (19) academic units in the teaching and supervision of graduate students and the conduct of research by academic staff. Inherent in the work of the School of Graduate Studies and the other research institutes are the following challenges: (a) Focused Research Policy; (b) Prioritization of Research; (c) Research Infrastructural Capacity; Research coordination; Research funding; Management of International Development Partners supported Research; and Publication and Dissemination of Research. It is intended to examine how each of the above concerns has been handled at Makerere University. 2. Research Policy and Prioritization of Research (a) Research Priorities Prior to 2003, the University did not have a strategic research agenda. This made the preliminary screening of research proposals for funding difficult. In 2003 the University identified research priorities linked to the national development framework of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP). It is envisaged that the presence of a strategic research agenda would enhance resource allocative efficiency in the domain of research . The following research areas constitute the strategic research agenda of the University: Research into education for development linked to the Government initiative towards Universal Primary and Post Primary Education, in particular, and the policy on Education; Food, nutrition and value addition linked to the Plan for the Modernization of Agriculture, the Fisheries Policy and the nascent policy on the use of genetically modified organisms; Sustainable environmental development linked to the implementation of the National Environment and Water Acts (Laws); Good governance, equity (including gender), service delivery linked to the National objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy contained in the National Constitution, the Local Government Act, the Inspectorate of Government Act, the Leadership Code Act and Uganda Human Rights Commission Act; Health (infectious and life style related diseases); Natural resources utilization and conservation in line with the National Environment Act, the Forests Act and Fisheries Policy; and Information and Communication Technology for Development. The University also identified research priorities of a cross-cutting nature including: Appropriate technology; Economics; Biotechnology; Methodological studies; and Research for staff development. In spite of the Research Priorities, the University felt it necessary to formulate a research policy. This course of action was embarked upon after realizing [after consultation with the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST)] that a National Research Policy was not in the offing. The UNCSTS approach was that Universities and Research Institutes should formulate their research policies, which would then feed into a National Research Policy. In other words, UNCST preferred a bottom-up approach to the formulation of the National Research Policy. (b) Research Policy The University has formulated a research policy, which is currently being considered by the University senate. The cardinal concerns of the Research Policy are: (i) The need to make research effective by disseminating it to end users and introducing interdiscrplinarity to enable outputs to effectively solve societal problems; Inadequate research funding at less than 1% of the University income compared to 3% recommended by the Lagos Plan of Action; The need to equip staff and students with modern research facilities and skills and inclination towards publication and innovation; The need for dissemination of research findings to professional research users in Government Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the Private Sector and other institutions with the capacity to use it to make a difference; Following publication, the research should be used to formulate innovations and solutions that can be patented for commercial users in order to generate income for innovators, the University and the community in general. Principles of the Policy The research policy broadly encourages: (i) The provision of knowledge for scientific and non-scientific communities through ensuring that staff are fully aware of the national research agenda and participate in the process of drawing up research agenda in their disciplines; The promotion of the provision and dissemination of knowledge through a mentoring and apprenticeship approach involving joint work between senior and junior members of staff which is jointly published/disseminated; The guarantee of quality research through the use of conventional channels of publication, which are peer reviewed; The generation of knowledge which is published in internationally recognized publishing houses and outlets to enable outsiders to understand our problems from a local perspective and the Africa Region; The generation of knowledge about national issues published in a form that is usable for policy making and implementation; The generation of knowledge, which is published about regional concerns such as the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), East African Community (EAC) and African Union (AU) that is usable by the relevant communities and regional bodies; The publication of graduate theses jointly by the supervisor and supervisee; The proportional ownership of publications and innovations generated jointly; The allocation of 20% of academic staff time to research output with emphasis on publication and dissemination of knowledge; The creation of research supportive environment including: the facilitation of regional and international collaboration; support services through modern management information systems and access to international literature and data bases; provision of research management support and maintenance of equipment; provision of basic financial management support and training to research coordinators and personnel in key research administrative units and provision of free access to the internet for the purpose of knowledge creation and dissemination at every academic research unit; Placement of outstanding researches on the Vice Chancellors list with appropriate awards; The grading of international and regional published works with a view to award; The accounting by academic staff for their contribution to knowledge every two (2) years; The periodic generation of a research agenda by both the University and academic units; and The commission by the University of occasional papers on current topics of national concern. Management of the Policy The management of the research policy envisages: (i) The generation of sponsorship for research publications by the University; University initiative to increase research funding through: competition for national research financial resources, solicitation of research funds from other sources, provision of general information on possible sources and modes of research funding both within and outside the University regularly, encouragement and facilitation of the establishment of professorial research chairs in faculties and institutes, imposition of appropriate levies on graduate and undergraduate students annually; The creation of a mechanism for the management of funds for research and publications through appropriate procedures; The contribution from research grants to the research administrative infrastructure shared between the School of Graduate Studies, relevant department and College or Faculty as is appropriate; The sharing of research resources through facilities and equipment and availability of relevant information to staff; Staff remuneration for research effort; The adherence to the internal procedures for the approval, control and monitoring of research projects within set time frames and appropriate funding limits; The commitment of researchers through execution of research contracts in approved format; The submission of interim and final research reports in approved format. (c) Intellectual Property Rights Management Policy In addition to the general Research Policy the University has formulated an Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) Management Policy. The rationale for the policy are to:  (i) Implement the Makerere University Vision of providing research and service relevant to sustainable development needs of society; (ii) Commercialize government/University funded research for the public good; (iii) Facilitate the Recruitment, reward and retention of Faculty and staff resulting from the financial proceeds of licensing innovations commercially; (iv) Induce collaborations with the private sector generally and industry in particular for the ultimate public good; (v) Promote economic activity arising from the products of research and innovation. The policy defines intellectual assets and property. The former refer to all intellectual products that are created by the University staff, while the latter refers to intellectual assets that are protected under the relevant laws including Copyrights, Patents and Trade Marks Acts. The guidelines under the Policy deal with the management of intellectual assets and property. In particular they indicate that: (i) Research findings arising from executed research constitute intellectual assets, which, when protected under the relevant laws, are transformed into intellectual property; (ii) That persons engaged in approved research should in the case of scientific research maintain a laboratory Note Book of their findings in a specified format; (iii) Researchers are required to complete the Intellectual Assets identification Form as specified; (iv) A research report approved for the award of a University degree or diploma constitutes an intellectual asset, which upon protection under the relevant law is transformed into intellectual property; (v) That researchers should seek the assistance of the Intellectual Property Manager in applying for the registration of patents/designs under the relevant laws or trying to commercialize their innovations; The IPRs policy also defines and describes: The functions of the Intellectual Property (IP) Manager; The inventory of intellectual assets; The process of evaluation of intellectual assets with a view to the determination of their potential for transfer; The intellectual asset transfer plan involving: the identification of the state of development of the asset as a working solution to the identified problem, identification of what else requires to be developed so that the asset is ready for transfer; The requirement for the IP Manager to draw up an action plan for the relevant steps from the final development of the innovation to distribution, to proceed; The duties and qualifications of the IP Manager; The Intellectual Asset Identification Form; The Material Transfer Agreement; Ownership of Innovation/Inventions The IPRs policy also deals with issues of ownership of innovations and inventions including patenting and licensing and the University interest in the invention based on its having been realized by a University employee or with University funding and/or resources. Such invention shall be proportionately owned between the University and the inventor(s). Disclosure To enable the University to protect University Inventions, University employees and students (including postdoctoral appointees, graduate and undergraduate students) are required to disclose any University inventions to the University before disclosing such discoveries or inventions through publications, presentations or communications with third parties (including research sponsors) in a manner, which may inhibit or preclude the University from obtaining patent protection. Other Matters The Policy finally describes: the responsibility of the University in managing University Inventions in such a manner as to produce the greatest benefit to the University and the public, although not under a duty to protect the inventions by patent or otherwise; the formula for sharing of the proceeds of the innovation as between the inventor(s), major administrative/academic unit and the University on a gradation depending on the amount realized; and the overall responsibility for the administration of the policy which lies with the Vice Chancellor through the Deputy Vice Chancellor in charge of Academic Affairs. C. Research Infrastructural Capacity and Co-ordination 1. Infrastructure A major consideration in research management is infrastructural capacity. We have mentioned that apart from the School of Graduate Studies (SGS) which has oversight and monitoring functions over research within the University there are: Makerere Institute of Social Research; Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute, Kabanyolo, Infectious Diseases Institute, Faculty of Medicine; and Human Rights & Peace Centre, Faculty of Law. Since 2003, the University Senate and Council have strengthened the functions of research and graduate studies by constituting two Senate Committees, namely: Board of Graduate Studies; and Board of Research and Publications The two Committees provide mechanisms for regulating and streamlining research activities with a view to assuring research quality. 2. Library Access With the support of Sida/SAREC of Sweden, the University in 2003 set up the Makerere Library Information System (MAKLIBIS) which is operated by the University Library and the Directorate for Information Communication Technology Support (DICTS). Its aim is to provide updated library services and ICT to research. The support also involved: provision of infrastructure, including hardware, software and networks; capacity building through the training of staff at graduate level and on-job-training; subscription to electronic journals and licenses for universities; tertiary and research institutions in Uganda; the acquisition of additional computers with NORAD/Norwegian Support. The challenge to the University is to sustain these initiatives. 3. Co-ordination In order to avoid the duplication of research findings and to avail existing research findings at Makerere University to researchers, with support from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and NORAD/Norwegian Government, the University continues to document the research activities in the University. For this purpose it set up an electronic data base for research findings from all the units of the University. The database is codenamed  HYPERLINK "mailto:Rmacs@mak" Rmacs@mak (Research Management and Co-ordination System at Makerere University). It is intended, in future, to link  HYPERLINK "mailto:Rmacs@mak" Rmacs@mak to the Database of African Theses and (DATAD) which is operated by the Association of African Universities based in Accra, Ghana. The challenge to the School of Graduate Studies is to publicise this facility and also continue regular collection of research findings with a view to input into the database.. D. Research Funding As with most activities, funding is critical to any initiative. Prior to the decision by the University Council to admit privately sponsored students in order to augment University funding, the University relied solely on Government funding which was inadequate. In some cases the subvention covered fifty percent (50%) or less of the Universitys budgetary requirements. This inevitably affected research funding. For some fiscal years the Government committed itself to avail Ug.Shs.100,000,000 (US$154,000) each financial year to the University for research. This worked out at about US$45 per annum for each academic member of staff. With the availability of internally generated funds from the fees paid by privately sponsored students, the University adopted the following strategies to increase research funding: 1. Levy one percent (1%) on internally generated funds amounting to about shs.400,000,000= (US$217,391) per annum; 2. Levy of shs.20,000= (US$11) per undergraduate student per annum amounting to about shs.500,000,000= (US$271,139) per annum; 3. Canergie corporation, New York funding to support Ph.D research amounting to US$396,000 over a three-year period; 4. NORAD/Norwegian support of US$202,000 for research and research management; 5. Sida SAREC grant of US$9.6 million over a three-year period to support Ph.d research and training and library and ICT development covering the faculties of Agriculture, Medicine, Social Sciences, Technology, the School of Graduate Studies, the University Library and Directorate for ICT support (DICTS); 6. Rockfeller Foundation and Work Bank support of US$2 million over a three-year period for capacity building and research related to decentralization of governance; 7. Lobby for a share of Ug.Shs.8 billion budgeted by the Central Government for research; and 8. Linkage with the Private Sector through the Makerere University/Private Sector Forum, to identify the needs of the Private Sector and proffer solutions, through Memoranda of Understanding signed by the University with the Uganda Industrial Research Institute (UIRI), the Uganda Manufacturers Association (UMA), the Uganda Investment Authority (UIA) and the Private Sector Foundation (PSF). E. International Development Partners Supported Research 1. Structure and Operation As already mentioned, the University collaborates with a member of development partners. The most significant partners since 2000 are: (a) Sida SAREC of Sweden; (b) Canergie Corporation of New York; (c) NORAD/Norwegian Government; (d) Ford Foundation; (e) Rockfeller Foundation/World Bank; (f) Pfizer Incorporated; (g) Bill & Belinda Gates Foundation. The main challenges in dealing with the development partners have been: (i) Adherence to deadlines by researchers in terms of reporting; (ii) Multiple reporting requirements following format set by each partner; (iii) Procurement bottlenecks in relation to material and equipment required for research. Attempts to deal with those challenges include: (i) Sensitization of researchers through the Deputy Deans charged with research in the academic units and rigorous enforcement through withholding of additional release conditional on reporting, by the School of Graduate Studies; (ii) Holding stakeholders conference/meeting with a view to harmonizing reporting requirements including agreement to uniform reporting particularly by the Swedish and Norwegian Partners; (iii) Strengthening the Procurement and Disposal Unit (PDU) of the University and requiring grants agreements to be deposited with the PDU as basis for procurement instead of requiring Faculty approval for each research based procurement. 2. Areas of Research Brief mention is made here of the type of research handled under some of the development partner support (a) Sida/SAREC Support for Capacity Building for Research (i) Faculty of Agriculture The focus of support on research and PH.D degree supervision in the area of the utilization of the Urban Crop Waste on Crop/Livestock production system in the Lake Region crescent, specifically the following projects have been supported: Livestock nutrition and husbandry; Urban crop waste soil inputs in urban and peri-urban Agricultural Systems; Integrated pest management following use of crop waste; Social-economic implications of market waste utilization in urban and peri-urban Agriculture. (ii) Faculty of Medicine The emphasis has been on research and Ph.D degree supervision in the following areas: Molecular biology of malaria 3 Ph.D students; Clinical Pharmacology of malaria 4 Ph.D students; Degenerative Diseases especially Cancer 4 Ph.D students; Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDs - 5 Ph.D students; and Mental Health - 4 Ph.D students; (ii) Faculty of Social Sciences The objective has been to conduct research and Ph.D. supervision under the theme Consolidating Peace and Development in the Lake Victoria Regions and its Environments: The National and Local Responses to the Transformation from Turmoil to a more sustainable development process. The specific areas of research have been: Ugandas Foreign Policy in the Security Complexes in the Great Lakes Region since 1986; Agricultural Liberalization, Gender Relations and Livelihood patterns in Central Uganda; Gender vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and changes in risk behaviour; Conflict and post conflict reconciliation in Uganda; Public policy, Changing Gender Relations, Ideologies and Identities in Uganda; The political Economy of Disease in the context of conflict. (iv) Faculty of Technology The support focused on Ph.D degree research and supervision in the following areas: Performance of highway pavements in the Lake Region; Development of Environment Friendly Architecture in the Lake Region; Water quality management and pollution control in Uganda; Characterization of high temperature ceramic raw materials in Uganda and for manufacture of firebricks; Sustainable energy for rural development; Integration of small renewable energy sources; Geographical information system database for Uganda. (b) Support for Research under NORAD/Norwegian Government Institutional Development Programme. The support has focused on the following research projects: A multidisciplinary approach to encompass a range of species of plants, animals and socio-economic studies of local communities in Budongo Forest, by the Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation; Ankole Cow and Mubende Goat Genetic Research by the Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture in collaboration with the local and international research institutions. (c) Applied Research (i) Participation by the Faculty of Medicine in developing health workers training manuals on prevention of mother to child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV; (ii) Faculty of Medicine research and proof that the administration of the drug Nevirapine to pregnant mothers reduces mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV from 30% to 15% resulting into the establishment of PMTCT in several countries worldwide; (iii) Faculty of Agricultures development of media for micro propagation of bananas and Integrated Pest Management for groundnuts; (iv) Development by Dr. Musaazi of the Faculty of Technology of cheap sanitary pads made from papyrus and banana fibre to be used in schools; (v) Development by Dr. Musaazi of the Faculty of Technology of bricks, which can be used to construct simple houses without the need for cement. F. Publication and Dissemination of Research Apart from other international, regional and national outlets, the University has the following outlets for the dissemination of research findings by its academic staff: African Journal of Animal & Biomedical Sciences; African Journal of Crop Science; African Journal of Health Sciences; East African Journal of Peace & Human Rights; East African Journal of Rural Development; Makerere University Medical Journal; Makerere University Research Journal; Makerere Journal of Political Science; Uganda Journal of Health Sciences; Uganda Health Information Digest. The University also disseminates research output through the Database of African Theses and Dissertations (DATAD) hosted by the Association of African Universities in Accra, Ghana. Conclusion The paper has sought to appraise the challenges and opportunities inherent in research management relative to the experience at Makerere University. It has considered these relative to policy framework including research policy and the prioritization of research, intellectual property rights management policy geared towards the translation of research findings into innovations, inventions and commercialization thereof. The paper has also treated research infrastructural capacity and coordination, funding, the management and implications of research funded by development partners and output thereof and finally the publication and dissemination of research. SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Luboobi L. (Vice Chancellor), Speech Delivered at the 52nd & 53rd Graduation Ceremonies of Makerere University held on October 5 & 6, 2006; Maicibi & Kahwa (Ed) Graduate Studies Supervision at Makerere University (2004); Makerere University Annual Reports (Planning & Development Department), 2003 4; Makerere University Research Policy (Academic Registrars Department) 2004; Makerere University Intellectual Property Rights Management Policy (Academic Registrars Department) 2004; Mamdani. M. Scholars in the Market Place: The Dilemmas of Neo-Liberal Reform at Makerere University, 1989 2005 (Fountain Publishers, Kampala 2006 forthcoming); Nsibambi A. R. (Chancellor) Speech Delivered at the 52nd & 53rd Graduation Ceremonies of Makerere University held on October 5 & 6, 2006.  Oxford Illustrated Dictionary (1975) P.717  Makerere University Annual Report (2003) P.11  Makerere University, Policy on Intellectual Property Rights Management (2004).  Mamdani, M. Scholars in the Market Place: The Dilemmas of Neo-Liberal Reform at Makerere University, 1989-2005 (MS) pp.5-12 (2006).  See generally, Makerere University, Annual Report (2003) pp 13-14     PAGE  PAGE 2 /0c x Q n o   # :Mb"{"K,d,111(2222&5G578^8n899*=L=W=>>>L@M@}}}h!5OJQJ\^Jh!6OJQJ]^J%jh!0J5OJQJU\^Jh!H*OJQJ^Jh!OJQJ^Jjh!0J5U\jh!0J56U\]h!56\] h!5\h!h!5CJ\ h!CJ1/0 ! 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ࡱ> q` uubjbjqPqP 1::k{%"000D>>>8 ?$D?D2?( @".@.@.@ A A AACCCCCCЇh8C0W A AWWC00.@.@X\\\Wn0.@0.@A\WA\\QD00!.@? gp{>ZZ&An0f_[6L!0! AH\ONlR A A ACC\^ A A AWWWWDDD7>DDD>DDD000000 RESEARCH MANAGEMENT: STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES Paper Delivered at the Karolinska Institute Research Training (KIRT) Conference held October 23 25, 2006 in Stockholm, Sweden By David J. Bakibinga Ph.D (London) Professor of Commercial Law and Deputy Vice Chancellor Makerere University Formerly Director, School of Graduate Studies Makerere University A. Introduction The aim of this paper is to assess the opportunities and challenges peculiar to research management, which the topic envisages. The analysis shall particularly focus on the experience at Makerere University in Uganda, in particular, and Uganda generally. It will cover research conducted in partial or full fulfillment of the requirements for award of postgraduate degrees and that conducted by academics and researchers with a view to publication, innovation and invention. Underlying the treatment is emphasis on the necessity for research policy, guidelines, the recording of findings particularly in the interest of securing intellectual property rights and benefits, research capacity and tools for conducting research. Research in this paper refers to search or inquiry after, for; or endeavour to discover facts by scientific study of a subject; or to make researches. B. The Policy Framework 1. School of Graduate Studies The Vision and Mission of Makerere University envisage research as one of three principal objectives and activities of the University; the other two being teaching and outreach and solution of societal problems. Apart from those broad objectives, in 1994 the University Council resolved to constitute the School of Postgraduate Studies (since 2004 renamed the School of Graduate Studies). The school was mandated to handle admissions, monitoring the teaching and examination of Postgraduate Studies as well as monitoring research and the mobilization of research funds. It should be stressed that the School of Graduate Studies is a monitoring and coordinating unit. The actual research and teaching and supervision of graduate students is conducted in the academic units variously called faculties, schools, institutes and centres. Apart from the School of Graduate Studies, there are other research institutes and centres within the University with specialized research functions. These include the Makerere Institute for Social Research (MISR) the Human Rights and Peace Centre (HURIPEC) located in the Faculty of Law, the Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI) located in the Faculty of Medicine and Agricultural Research Institute (MUARIK) located in the Faculty of Agriculture. The School of Graduate Studies (SGS) oversees nineteen (19) academic units in the teaching and supervision of graduate students and the conduct of research by academic staff. Inherent in the work of the School of Graduate Studies and the other research institutes are the following challenges: (a) Focused Research Policy; (b) Prioritization of Research; (c) Research Infrastructural Capacity; Research coordination; Research funding; Management of International Development Partners supported Research; and Publication and Dissemination of Research. It is intended to examine how each of the above concerns has been handled at Makerere University. 2. Research Policy and Prioritization of Research (a) Research Priorities Prior to 2003, the University did not have a strategic research agenda. This made the preliminary screening of research proposals for funding difficult. In 2003 the University identified research priorities linked to the national development framework of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP). It is envisaged that the presence of a strategic research agenda would enhance resource allocative efficiency in the domain of research . The following research areas constitute the strategic research agenda of the University: Research into education for development linked to the Government initiative towards Universal Primary and Post Primary Education, in particular, and the policy on Education; Food, nutrition and value addition linked to the Plan for the Modernization of Agriculture, the Fisheries Policy and the nascent policy on the use of genetically modified organisms; Sustainable environmental development linked to the implementation of the National Environment and Water Acts (Laws); Good governance, equity (including gender), service delivery linked to the National objectives and Directive Principles of State Policy contained in the National Constitution, the Local Government Act, the Inspectorate of Government Act, the Leadership Code Act and Uganda Human Rights Commission Act; Health (infectious and life style related diseases); Natural resources utilization and conservation in line with the National Environment Act, the Forests Act and Fisheries Policy; and Information and Communication Technology for Development. The University also identified research priorities of a cross-cutting nature including: Appropriate technology; Economics; Biotechnology; Methodological studies; and Research for staff development. In spite of the Research Priorities, the University felt it necessary to formulate a research policy. This course of action was embarked upon after realizing [after consultation with the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology (UNCST)] that a National Research Policy was not in the offing. The UNCSTS approach was that Universities and Research Institutes should formulate their research policies, which would then feed into a National Research Policy. In other words, UNCST preferred a bottom-up approach to the formulation of the National Research Policy. (b) Research Policy The University has formulated a research policy, which is currently being considered by the University senate. The cardinal concerns of the Research Policy are: (i) The need to make research effective by disseminating it to end users and introducing interdiscrplinarity to enable outputs to effectively solve societal problems; Inadequate research funding at less than 1% of the University income compared to 3% recommended by the Lagos Plan of Action; The need to equip staff and students with modern research facilities and skills and inclination towards publication and innovation; The need for dissemination of research findings to professional research users in Government Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), the Private Sector and other institutions with the capacity to use it to make a difference; Following publication, the research should be used to formulate innovations and solutions that can be patented for commercial users in order to generate income for innovators, the University and the community in general. Principles of the Policy The research policy broadly encourages: (i) The provision of knowledge for scientific and non-scientific communities through ensuring that staff are fully aware of the national research agenda and participate in the process of drawing up research agenda in their disciplines; The promotion of the provision and dissemination of knowledge through a mentoring and apprenticeship approach involving joint work between senior and junior members of staff which is jointly published/disseminated; The guarantee of quality research through the use of conventional channels of publication, which are peer reviewed; The generation of knowledge which is published in internationally recognized publishing houses and outlets to enable outsiders to understand our problems from a local perspective and the Africa Region; The generation of knowledge about national issues published in a form that is usable for policy making and implementation; The generation of knowledge, which is published about regional concerns such as the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA), East African Community (EAC) and African Union (AU) that is usable by the relevant communities and regional bodies; The publication of graduate theses jointly by the supervisor and supervisee; The proportional ownership of publications and innovations generated jointly; The allocation of 20% of academic staff time to research output with emphasis on publication and dissemination of knowledge; The creation of research supportive environment including: the facilitation of regional and international collaboration; support services through modern management information systems and access to international literature and data bases; provision of research management support and maintenance of equipment; provision of basic financial management support and training to research coordinators and personnel in key research administrative units and provision of free access to the internet for the purpose of knowledge creation and dissemination at every academic research unit; Placement of outstanding researches on the Vice Chancellors list with appropriate awards; The grading of international and regional published works with a view to award; The accounting by academic staff for their contribution to knowledge every two (2) years; The periodic generation of a research agenda by both the University and academic units; and The commission by the University of occasional papers on current topics of national concern. Management of the Policy The management of the research policy envisages: (i) The generation of sponsorship for research publications by the University; University initiative to increase research funding through: competition for national research financial resources, solicitation of research funds from other sources, provision of general information on possible sources and modes of research funding both within and outside the University regularly, encouragement and facilitation of the establishment of professorial research chairs in faculties and institutes, imposition of appropriate levies on graduate and undergraduate students annually; The creation of a mechanism for the management of funds for research and publications through appropriate procedures; The contribution from research grants to the research administrative infrastructure shared between the School of Graduate Studies, relevant department and College or Faculty as is appropriate; The sharing of research resources through facilities and equipment and availability of relevant information to staff; Staff remuneration for research effort; The adherence to the internal procedures for the approval, control and monitoring of research projects within set time frames and appropriate funding limits; The commitment of researchers through execution of research contracts in approved format; The submission of interim and final research reports in approved format. (c) Intellectual Property Rights Management Policy In addition to the general Research Policy the University has formulated an Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) Management Policy. The rationale for the policy are to:  (i) Implement the Makerere University Vision of providing research and service relevant to sustainable development needs of society; (ii) Commercialize government/University funded research for the public good; (iii) Facilitate the Recruitment, reward and retention of Faculty and staff resulting from the financial proceeds of licensing innovations commercially; (iv) Induce collaborations with the private sector generally and industry in particular for the ultimate public good; (v) Promote economic activity arising from the products of research and innovation. The policy defines intellectual assets and property. The former refer to all intellectual products that are created by the University staff, while the latter refers to intellectual assets that are protected under the relevant laws including Copyrights, Patents and Trade Marks Acts. The guidelines under the Policy deal with the management of intellectual assets and property. In particular they indicate that: (i) Research findings arising from executed research constitute intellectual assets, which, when protected under the relevant laws, are transformed into intellectual property; (ii) That persons engaged in approved research should in the case of scientific research maintain a laboratory Note Book of their findings in a specified format; (iii) Researchers are required to complete the Intellectual Assets identification Form as specified; (iv) A research report approved for the award of a University degree or diploma constitutes an intellectual asset, which upon protection under the relevant law is transformed into intellectual property; (v) That researchers should seek the assistance of the Intellectual Property Manager in applying for the registration of patents/designs under the relevant laws or trying to commercialize their innovations; The IPRs policy also defines and describes: The functions of the Intellectual Property (IP) Manager; The inventory of intellectual assets; The process of evaluation of intellectual assets with a view to the determination of their potential for transfer; The intellectual asset transfer plan involving: the identification of the state of development of the asset as a working solution to the identified problem, identification of what else requires to be developed so that the asset is ready for transfer; The requirement for the IP Manager to draw up an action plan for the relevant steps from the final development of the innovation to distribution, to proceed; The duties and qualifications of the IP Manager; The Intellectual Asset Identification Form; The Material Transfer Agreement; Ownership of Innovation/Inventions The IPRs policy also deals with issues of ownership of innovations and inventions including patenting and licensing and the University interest in the invention based on its having been realized by a University employee or with University funding and/or resources. Such invention shall be proportionately owned between the University and the inventor(s). Disclosure To enable the University to protect University Inventions, University employees and students (including postdoctoral appointees, graduate and undergraduate students) are required to disclose any University inventions to the University before disclosing such discoveries or inventions through publications, presentations or communications with third parties (including research sponsors) in a manner, which may inhibit or preclude the University from obtaining patent protection. Other Matters The Policy finally describes: the responsibility of the University in managing University Inventions in such a manner as to produce the greatest benefit to the University and the public, although not under a duty to protect the inventions by patent or otherwise; the formula for sharing of the proceeds of the innovation as between the inventor(s), major administrative/academic unit and the University on a gradation depending on the amount realized; and the overall responsibility for the administration of the policy which lies with the Vice Chancellor through the Deputy Vice Chancellor in charge of Academic Affairs. C. Research Infrastructural Capacity and Co-ordination 1. Infrastructure A major consideration in research management is infrastructural capacity. We have mentioned that apart from the School of Graduate Studies (SGS) which has oversight and monitoring functions over research within the University there are: Makerere Institute of Social Research; Makerere University Agricultural Research Institute, Kabanyolo, Infectious Diseases Institute, Faculty of Medicine; and Human Rights & Peace Centre, Faculty of Law. Since 2003, the University Senate and Council have strengthened the functions of research and graduate studies by constituting two Senate Committees, namely: Board of Graduate Studies; and Board of Research and Publications The two Committees provide mechanisms for regulating and streamlining research activities with a view to assuring research quality. 2. Library Access With the support of Sida/SAREC of Sweden, the University in 2003 set up the Makerere Library Information System (MAKLIBIS) which is operated by the University Library and the Directorate for Information Communication Technology Support (DICTS). Its aim is to provide updated library services and ICT to research. The support also involved: provision of infrastructure, including hardware, software and networks; capacity building through the training of staff at graduate level and on-job-training; subscription to electronic journals and licenses for universities; tertiary and research institutions in Uganda; the acquisition of additional computers with NORAD/Norwegian Support. The challenge to the University is to sustain these initiatives. 3. Co-ordination In order to avoid the duplication of research findings and to avail existing research findings at Makerere University to researchers, with support from the Carnegie Corporation of New York and NORAD/Norwegian Government, the University continues to document the research activities in the University. For this purpose it set up an electronic data base for research findings from all the units of the University. The database is codenamed  HYPERLINK "mailto:Rmacs@mak" Rmacs@mak (Research Management and Co-ordination System at Makerere University). It is intended, in future, to link  HYPERLINK "mailto:Rmacs@mak" Rmacs@mak to the Database of African Theses and (DATAD) which is operated by the Association of African Universities based in Accra, Ghana. The challenge to the School of Graduate Studies is to publicise this facility and also continue regular collection of research findings with a view to input into the database.. D. Research Funding As with most activities, funding is critical to any initiative. Prior to the decision by the University Council to admit privately sponsored students in order to augment University funding, the University relied solely on Government funding which was inadequate. In some cases the subvention covered fifty percent (50%) or less of the Universitys budgetary requirements. This inevitably affected research funding. For some fiscal years the Government committed itself to avail Ug.Shs.100,000,000 (US$154,000) each financial year to the University for research. This worked out at about US$45 per annum for each academic member of staff. With the availability of internally generated funds from the fees paid by privately sponsored students, the University adopted the following strategies to increase research funding: 1. Levy one percent (1%) on internally generated funds amounting to about shs.400,000,000= (US$217,391) per annum; 2. Levy of shs.20,000= (US$11) per undergraduate student per annum amounting to about shs.500,000,000= (US$271,139) per annum; 3. Canergie corporation, New York funding to support Ph.D research amounting to US$396,000 over a three-year period; 4. NORAD/Norwegian support of US$202,000 for research and research management; 5. Sida SAREC grant of US$9.6 million over a three-year period to support Ph.d research and training and library and ICT development covering the faculties of Agriculture, Medicine, Social Sciences, Technology, the School of Graduate Studies, the University Library and Directorate for ICT support (DICTS); 6. Rockfeller Foundation and Work Bank support of US$2 million over a three-year period for capacity building and research related to decentralization of governance; 7. Lobby for a share of Ug.Shs.8 billion budgeted by the Central Government for research; and 8. Linkage with the Private Sector through the Makerere University/Private Sector Forum, to identify the needs of the Private Sector and proffer solutions, through Memoranda of Understanding signed by the University with the Uganda Industrial Research Institute (UIRI), the Uganda Manufacturers Association (UMA), the Uganda Investment Authority (UIA) and the Private Sector Foundation (PSF). E. International Development Partners Supported Research 1. Structure and Operation As already mentioned, the University collaborates with a member of development partners. The most significant partners since 2000 are: (a) Sida SAREC of Sweden; (b) Canergie Corporation of New York; (c) NORAD/Norwegian Government; (d) Ford Foundation; (e) Rockfeller Foundation/World Bank; (f) Pfizer Incorporated; (g) Bill & Belinda Gates Foundation. The main challenges in dealing with the development partners have been: (i) Adherence to deadlines by researchers in terms of reporting; (ii) Multiple reporting requirements following format set by each partner; (iii) Procurement bottlenecks in relation to material and equipment required for research. Attempts to deal with those challenges include: (i) Sensitization of researchers through the Deputy Deans charged with research in the academic units and rigorous enforcement through withholding of additional release conditional on reporting, by the School of Graduate Studies; (ii) Holding stakeholders conference/meeting with a view to harmonizing reporting requirements including agreement to uniform reporting particularly by the Swedish and Norwegian Partners; (iii) Strengthening the Procurement and Disposal Unit (PDU) of the University and requiring grants agreements to be deposited with the PDU as basis for procurement instead of requiring Faculty approval for each research based procurement. 2. Areas of Research Brief mention is made here of the type of research handled under some of the development partner support (a) Sida/SAREC Support for Capacity Building for Research (i) Faculty of Agriculture The focus of support on research and PH.D degree supervision in the area of the utilization of the Urban Crop Waste on Crop/Livestock production system in the Lake Region crescent, specifically the following projects have been supported: Livestock nutrition and husbandry; Urban crop waste soil inputs in urban and peri-urban Agricultural Systems; Integrated pest management following use of crop waste; Social-economic implications of market waste utilization in urban and peri-urban Agriculture. (ii) Faculty of Medicine The emphasis has been on research and Ph.D degree supervision in the following areas: Molecular biology of malaria 3 Ph.D students; Clinical Pharmacology of malaria 4 Ph.D students; Degenerative Diseases especially Cancer 4 Ph.D students; Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDs - 5 Ph.D students; and Mental Health - 4 Ph.D students; (ii) Faculty of Social Sciences The objective has been to conduct research and Ph.D. supervision under the theme Consolidating Peace and Development in the Lake Victoria Regions and its Environments: The National and Local Responses to the Transformation from Turmoil to a more sustainable development process. The specific areas of research have been: Ugandas Foreign Policy in the Security Complexes in the Great Lakes Region since 1986; Agricultural Liberalization, Gender Relations and Livelihood patterns in Central Uganda; Gender vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and changes in risk behaviour; Conflict and post conflict reconciliation in Uganda; Public policy, Changing Gender Relations, Ideologies and Identities in Uganda; The political Economy of Disease in the context of conflict. (iv) Faculty of Technology The support focused on Ph.D degree research and supervision in the following areas: Performance of highway pavements in the Lake Region; Development of Environment Friendly Architecture in the Lake Region; Water quality management and pollution control in Uganda; Characterization of high temperature ceramic raw materials in Uganda and for manufacture of firebricks; Sustainable energy for rural development; Integration of small renewable energy sources; Geographical information system database for Uganda. (b) Support for Research under NORAD/Norwegian Government Institutional Development Programme. The support has focused on the following research projects: A multidisciplinary approach to encompass a range of species of plants, animals and socio-economic studies of local communities in Budongo Forest, by the Faculty of Forestry and Nature Conservation; Ankole Cow and Mubende Goat Genetic Research by the Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture in collaboration with the local and international research institutions. (c) Applied Research (i) Participation by the Faculty of Medicine in developing health workers training manuals on prevention of mother to child Transmission (PMTCT) of HIV; (ii) Faculty of Medicine research and proof that the administration of the drug Nevirapine to pregnant mothers reduces mother to child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV from 30% to 15% resulting into the establishment of PMTCT in several countries worldwide; (iii) Faculty of Agricultures development of media for micro propagation of bananas and Integrated Pest Management for groundnuts; (iv) Development by Dr. Musaazi of the Faculty of Technology of cheap sanitary pads made from papyrus and banana fibre to be used in schools; (v) Development by Dr. Musaazi of the Faculty of Technology of bricks, which can be used to construct simple houses without the need for cement. F. Publication and Dissemination of Research Apart from other international, regional and national outlets, the University has the following outlets for the dissemination of research findings by its academic staff: African Journal of Animal & Biomedical Sciences; African Journal of Crop Science; African Journal of Health Sciences; East African Journal of Peace & Human Rights; East African Journal of Rural Development; Makerere University Medical Journal; Makerere University Research Journal; Makerere Journal of Political Science; Uganda Journal of Health Sciences; Uganda Health Information Digest. The University also disseminates research output through the Database of African Theses and Dissertations (DATAD) hosted by the Association of African Universities in Accra, Ghana. Conclusion The paper has sought to appraise the challenges and opportunities inherent in research management relative to the experience at Makerere University. It has considered these relative to policy framework including research policy and the prioritization of research, intellectual property rights management policy geared towards the translation of research findings into innovations, inventions and commercialization thereof. The paper has also treated research infrastructural capacity and coordination, funding, the management and implications of research funded by development partners and output thereof and finally the publication and dissemination of research. SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY Luboobi L. (Vice Chancellor), Speech Delivered at the 52nd & 53rd Graduation Ceremonies of Makerere University held on October 5 & 6, 2006; Maicibi & Kahwa (Ed) Graduate Studies Supervision at Makerere University (2004); Makerere University Annual Reports (Planning & Development Department), 2003 4; Makerere University Research Policy (Academic Registrars Department) 2004; Makerere University Intellectual Property Rights Management Policy (Academic Registrars Department) 2004; Mamdani. M. Scholars in the Market Place: The Dilemmas of Neo-Liberal Reform at Makerere University, 1989 2005 (Fountain Publishers, Kampala 2006 forthcoming); Nsibambi A. R. (Chancellor) Speech Delivered at the 52nd & 53rd Graduation Ceremonies of Makerere University held on October 5 & 6, 2006.  Oxford Illustrated Dictionary (1975) P.717  Makerere University Annual Report (2003) P.11  Makerere University, Policy on Intellectual Property Rights Management (2004).  Mamdani, M. Scholars in the Market Place: The Dilemmas of Neo-Liberal Reform at Makerere University, 1989-2005 (MS) pp.5-12 (2006).  See generally, Makerere University, Annual Report (2003) pp 13-14     PAGE  PAGE 2 /0c x Q n o   # :Mb"{"K,d,111(2222&5G578^8n899*=L=W=>>>L@M@}}}h!5OJQJ\^Jh!6OJQJ]^J%jh!0J5OJQJU\^Jh!H*OJQJ^Jh!OJQJ^Jjh!0J5U\jh!0J56U\]h!56\] h!5\h!h!5CJ\ h!CJ1/0 ! 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